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1.
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy ; 153:113414, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1936094

ABSTRACT

Targeting macrophage M1 polarization is a promising strategy with fewer detrimental effects in COVID-19 curation. Phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) of Cistanche tubulosa are a botanical drug to possess various anti-inflammation-related functions, such as immunomodulating, hepatoprotective or neuroprotective functions, whereas their anti-inflammatory activity is rarely understood. A search into their anti-inflammatory characteristics led to the isolation of 49 PhGs along with 15 new PhGs. Their inhibitory effects against M1 polarization induced by LPS plus IFN-γ were explored in RAW264.7 macrophages. Of these PhGs, tubuloside B (Tub B) exerted substantial NO scavenging effect both in chemical- and cell-based assays, and it inhibited massive production of cytokines and chemokines. Tub B decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation via direct binding and inhibited the MAPK signaling pathway. Tub B also directly binded to Mob1 protein, thereby increased the stability and level of Mob1 protein by inhibiting ubiquitinated degradation. Mob1 was pivotal for the anti-inflammatory activity of Tub B, and it acted independently of the canonical Hippo-YAP pathway. Moreover, ERK1/2 and Mob1 also had a synergic effect on modulating the inflammatory response. Finally, these effects of Tub B were verified in mice with LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Taken together, these results indicated that Tub B acted as a promising agent against M1 macrophage activation by synergistically targeting ERK1/2 and Mob1, and that it may potentially be a drug candidate to prevent/treat inflammatory diseases, especially in COVID-19.

2.
Phytomedicine ; 96: 153889, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lonicera Linn. belonging to the family Caprifoliaceae, the largest genus in the plant family, includes about more than 200 species, which are mainly distributed in northern Africa, North America, Europe and Asia. Some species of this genus have been usually used in traditional Chinese medicine as well as functional foods, cosmetics and other applications, such as L. japonica Thunb. Bioactive components and pharmacological activities of the genus Lonicera plants have received an increasing interest from the scientific community. Thus, a comprehensive and systematic review on their traditional usage in China, chemical components, and their pharmacological properties of their whole plants, bioactive extracts, and bioactive isolates including partial structure-activity relationships from the genus is indispensable. METHODS: Information on genus Lonicera of this systematic electronic literature search was gathered via the published articles, patents, clinical trials website (https://clinicaltrials.gov/) and several online bibliographic databases (PubMed, Sci Finder, Research Gate, Science Direct, CNKI, Web of Science and Google Scholar). The following keywords were used for the online search: Lonicera, phytochemical composition, Lonicerae japonica, Lonicera review articles, bioactivities of Lonicera, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-diabetic, and clinical trials. This review paper consists of a total of 225 papers covering the Lonicera genus from 1800 to 2021, including research articles, reviews, patents, and book chapters. RESULTS: In this review (1800s-2021), about 420 components from the genus of Lonicera Linn. including 87 flavonoids, 222 terpenoids, 51 organic acids, and other compounds, together with their pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, anti-allergic, immunomodulatory effects, and toxicity were summarized. CONCLUSION: The relationship is discussed among their traditional usage, their pharmacological properties, and their chemical components, which indicate the genus Lonicera have a large prospect in terms of new drug exploitation, especially in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lonicera , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Ethnopharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Curr Biol ; 31(4): R168-R172, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095924

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is an alarm call to all on the risks of zoonotic diseases and the delicate relationship between nature and human health. In response, China has taken a proactive step by issuing a legal decision to ban consumption of terrestrial wildlife. However, concerns have been raised and opponents of bans argue that well-regulated trade should be promoted instead. By analyzing China's legal framework and management system regulating wildlife trade, together with state and provincial-level wildlife-trade licenses and wildlife criminal cases, we argue that current wildlife trade regulations do not function as expected. This is due to outdated protected species lists, insufficient cross-sector collaboration, and weak restrictions and law enforcement on farming and trading of species. The lack of quarantine standards for wildlife and increased wildlife farming in recent years pose great risks for food safety and public health. In addition, wildlife consumption is neither required for subsistence nor an essential part of Chinese diets. All these facts make the ban necessary to provoke improvement in wildlife management, such as updating protected species lists, revising laws and changing consumption behaviors. Nonetheless, the ban is not sufficient to address all the problems. To sustain the efficacy of the change, we propose that a long-term mechanism to reduce the demand and improve effective management is needed.


Subject(s)
Legislation, Food , Meat , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19 , China , Conservation of Natural Resources/legislation & jurisprudence , Endangered Species , Humans , International Cooperation , Quarantine , Zoonoses
4.
Biodiversity Science ; 28(5):630-643, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-831393

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has drawn great attention to the potential public health risks associated with the consumption and trade of wildlife. To inform legislative revision and policy changes, we conducted a web-based survey of the general public, attracting 74,040 responses. The survey examined public support for revising legislation and policy related to wildlife consumption and trade management. The results and analysis revealed: (1) The overwhelming majority ( 90%) of constituents supported more stringent policy and legislation on wildlife consumption, trade, and commercial exhibitions. (2) The consumption of wildlife is likely to fall due to COVID-19. (3) People that engaged either directly or indirectly in wildlife-related industries showed less support for more stringent policy and legislation on wildlife consumption and trade. Based on these results and concerns for public health security, a ban on wildlife consumption and revised legislation by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress was widely supported, particularly among educated, urban respondents.

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