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Rare Metals ; 41(1): 1-13, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427425


The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents one of the biggest global health threats in the last two decades, so researchers around the world are searching for solutions and treatments for COVID-19. At the time of writing, there are no specific drugs that have demonstrated suitable effectiveness in treating COVID-19. The current challenge involves designing tools for the prevention, rapid and accurate diagnosis, drug delivery, and effective treatment of this novel coronavirus. In this short review, we discuss how nanotechnology offers new ways to combat COVID-19, and how nanomaterials can be applied to control the COVID-19 outbreak. We also summarize relevant studies regarding the use of nanomaterials for preventing viral spread, preparing vaccines, and diagnosing coronavirus, as well as studies that show how nanoparticles can be used as drug delivery systems for the treatment of viral infections. Research on nanotechnology-based diagnosis, drug delivery, and antiviral therapy is currently in the early stages. However, the unique chemical properties of some nanomaterials highlight the broad prospect of nanomaterials in the future, and we propose that they will play an important role in the fight against COVID-19.

Health Inf Sci Syst ; 9(1): 6, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060107


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics, epidemiological characteristics, and transmissibility of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a family cluster outbreak transmitted by a 3-month-old confirmed positive infant. METHODS: Field-based epidemiological methods were used to investigate cases and their close contacts. Real-time fluorescent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for all collected specimens. Serum SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by Chemiluminescence and Gold immnnochromatography (GICA). RESULTS: The outbreak was a family cluster with an attack rate of 80% (4/5). The first case in this family was a 3-month-old infant. The transmission chain was confirmed from infant to adults (her father, mother and grandmother). Fecal tests for SARS-CoV-2 RNA remained positive for 37 days after the infant was discharged. The infant's grandmother was confirmed to be positive 2 days after the infant was discharged from hospital. Patients A (3-month-old female), B (patient A's father), C (patient A's grandmother), and D (patient A's mother) had positive serum IgG and negative IgM, but patients A's grandfather serum IgG and IgM were negative. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 has strong transmissibility within family settings and presence of viral RNA in stool raises concern for possible fecal-oral transmission. Hospital follow-up and close contact tracing are necessary for those diagnosed with COVID-19.