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2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(17): e2105904, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782563

ABSTRACT

Infectious virus outbreaks pose a significant challenge to public healthcare systems. Early and accurate virus diagnosis is critical to prevent the spread of the virus, especially when no specific vaccine or effective medicine is available. In clinics, the most commonly used viral detection methods are molecular techniques that involve the measurement of nucleic acids or proteins biomarkers. However, most clinic-based methods require complex infrastructure and expensive equipment, which are not suitable for low-resource settings. Over the past years, smartphone-based point-of-care testing (POCT) has rapidly emerged as a potential alternative to laboratory-based clinical diagnosis. This review summarizes the latest development of virus detection. First, laboratory-based and POCT-based viral diagnostic techniques are compared, both of which rely on immunosensing and nucleic acid detection. Then, various smartphone-based POCT diagnostic techniques, including optical biosensors, electrochemical biosensors, and other types of biosensors are discussed. Moreover, this review covers the development of smartphone-based POCT diagnostics for various viruses including COVID-19, Ebola, influenza, Zika, HIV, et al. Finally, the prospects and challenges of smartphone-based POCT diagnostics are discussed. It is believed that this review will aid researchers better understand the current challenges and prospects for achieving the ultimate goal of containing disease-causing viruses worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Laboratories , Point-of-Care Testing , Smartphone , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e055365, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769912

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to provide an insight into the life of survivors of critical COVID-19 in China. METHODS: We conducted an online survey and qualitative interviews among intensive care unit survivors of critical COVID-19 between November and December 2020 in Wuhan, China. Eligible participants were asked to complete the EQ-5D-5L and the Short Form 36-Item Survey, and invited to participate in a semistructured face-to-face interview. Descriptive analyses and phenomenological approach were adopted to analyse quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. RESULTS: Of 10 survivors who completed the questionnaire, 8 participated in the interview. The mean scores±SD of EuroQol-5 Dimensions-5 Level utility and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale were 0.88±0.15 and 80.9±14.2, respectively. The qualitative interview identified four themes, namely poor physical health, post-traumatic stress, social stigma and family support. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 survivors continue fighting physical and psychological impacts. Despite strong family support, these patients are struggling with social stigma. It is a long, challenging journey to recovery for patients and society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Qualitative Research , Survivors/psychology
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308309

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a viral respiratory disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients with this disease may be more prone to venous or arterial thrombosis because of the activation of many factors involved in it, including inflammation, platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. Interferon gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP1α) are cytokines related to thrombosis. Therefore, this study focused on these three indicators in COVID-19, with the hope to find biomarkers that are associated with patients’ outcome. Methods: This is a retrospective single-center study involving 74 severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients recruited from the ICU department of the Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. The patients were divided into two groups: severe patients and critically ill patients. The serum IP-10, MCP-1 and MIP1α level in both groups was detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The clinical symptoms, laboratory test results, and the outcome of COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The serum IP-10 and MCP-1 level in critically ill patients was significantly higher than that in severe patients ( P <0.001). However, no statistical difference in MIP1α between the two groups was found. The analysis of dynamic changes showed that these indicators remarkably increased in patients with poor prognosis. Since the selected patients were severe or critically ill, no significant difference was observed between survival and death. Conclusions: IP-10 and MCP-1 are biomarkers associated with the severity of COVID-19 disease and can be related to the risk of death in COVID-19 patients.

6.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 151, 2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the feasibility of two biomarkers of endothelial damage (Syndecan-1 and thrombomodulin) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and their association with inflammation, coagulopathy, and mortality. METHODS: The records of 49 COVID-19 patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in Wuhan, China between February and April 2020 were examined. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, and outcomes were compared between survivors and non-survivors COVID-19 patients, and between patients with high and low serum Syndecan-1 levels. The dynamics of serum Syndecan-1 levels were also analyzed. RESULTS: The levels of Syndecan-1 were significantly higher in non-survivor group compared with survivor group (median 1031.4 versus 504.0 ng/mL, P = 0.002), and the levels of thrombomodulin were not significantly different between these two groups (median 4534.0 versus 3780.0 ng/mL, P = 0.070). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the group with high Syndecan-1 levels had worse overall survival (log-rank test: P = 0.023). Patients with high Syndecan-1 levels also had significantly higher levels of thrombomodulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Data on the dynamics of Syndecan-1 levels indicated much greater variations in non-survivors than survivors. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with high levels of Syndecan-1 develop more serious endothelial damage and inflammatory reactions, and have increased mortality. Syndecan-1 has potential for use as a marker for progression or severity of COVID-19. Protecting the glycocalyx from destruction is a potential treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Endothelium/metabolism , Glycocalyx/metabolism , Syndecan-1/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombomodulin/blood , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26677, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the first case of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 viral infection was described in Wuhan. Similar to SARS in 2003, COVID-19 also had a lasting impact. Approximately 76% of patients discharged after hospitalization for COVID-19 had neurological manifestations which could persist for 6 months, and some long-term consequences such as the gradual loss of lung function due to pulmonary interstitial fibrosis could have comprehensive effects on daily quality of life for people who were initially believed to have recovered from COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Our comprehensive search strategy developed in consultation with a research librarian. We will search these following electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, Embase, ProQuest, China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG DATA, WHO covid-19 website, and Centers for Disease Control and the Prevention COVID-19 websites of the United States and China. The bias of publication will be confirmed via the P value of Egger test. The quality of studies will be evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: There are no ethical considerations associated with this study protocol for this systematic review which mainly focuses on the examination of secondary data. On completion of this analysis, we will prepare a manuscript for publication in a peer-reviewed medical journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021258711.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Treatment Outcome
8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 304, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361622

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive analysis of the humoral immune response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential in understanding COVID-19 pathogenesis and developing antibody-based diagnostics and therapy. In this work, we performed a longitudinal analysis of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins in 104 serum samples from 49 critical COVID-19 patients using a peptide-based SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray. Our data show that the binding epitopes of IgM and IgG antibodies differ across SARS-CoV-2 proteins and even within the same protein. Moreover, most IgM and IgG epitopes are located within nonstructural proteins (nsps), which are critical in inactivating the host's innate immune response and enabling SARS-CoV-2 replication, transcription, and polyprotein processing. IgM antibodies are associated with a good prognosis and target nsp3 and nsp5 proteases, whereas IgG antibodies are associated with high mortality and target structural proteins (Nucleocapsid, Spike, ORF3a). The epitopes targeted by antibodies in patients with a high mortality rate were further validated using an independent serum cohort (n = 56) and using global correlation mapping analysis with the clinical variables that are associated with COVID-19 severity. Our data provide fundamental insight into humoral immunity during SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 immunogenic epitopes identified in this work could also help direct antibody-based COVID-19 treatment and triage patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Disease-Free Survival , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Protein Array Analysis , Survival Rate
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 778-785, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major healthcare threat. The current method of detection involves a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based technique, which identifies the viral nucleic acids when present in sufficient quantity. False-negative results can be achieved and failure to quarantine the infected patient would be a major setback in containing the viral transmission. We aim to describe the time kinetics of various antibodies produced against the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and evaluate the potential of antibody testing to diagnose COVID-19. METHODS: The host humoral response against SARS-CoV-2, including IgA, IgM, and IgG response, was examined by using an ELISA-based assay on the recombinant viral nucleocapsid protein. 208 plasma samples were collected from 82 confirmed and 58 probable cases (qPCR negative but with typical manifestation). The diagnostic value of IgM was evaluated in this cohort. RESULTS: The median duration of IgM and IgA antibody detection was 5 (IQR, 3-6) days, while IgG was detected 14 (IQR, 10-18) days after symptom onset, with a positive rate of 85.4%, 92.7%, and 77.9%, respectively. In confirmed and probable cases, the positive rates of IgM antibodies were 75.6% and 93.1%, respectively. The detection efficiency by IgM ELISA is higher than that of qPCR after 5.5 days of symptom onset. The positive detection rate is significantly increased (98.6%) when combining IgM ELISA assay with PCR for each patient compared with a single qPCR test (51.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 can aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19, including subclinical cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 183: 113206, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171767

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 RNA is identified as a pivotal player to bolster energizing zones of COVID-19 detection. Herein, we develop a rapid and unamplified nanosensing platform for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in human throat swab specimens. A gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-decorated graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET) sensor was fabricated, after which complementary phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligos (PMO) probe was immobilized on the AuNP surface. This sensor allowed for highly sensitive testing of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp as PMO does not have charges, leading to low background signal. Not only did the method present a low limit of detection in PBS (0.37 fM), throat swab (2.29 fM), and serum (3.99 fM), but also it achieved a rapid response to COVID-19 patients' samples within 2 min. The developed nanosensor was capable of analyzing RNA extracts from 30 real clinical samples. The results show that the sensor could differentiate the healthy people from infected people, which are in high agreement with RT-PCR results (Kappa index = 0.92). Furthermore, a well-defined distinction between SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and SARS-CoV RdRp was also made. Therefore, we believe that this work provides a satisfactory, attractive option for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19 Testing , Gold , Humans , Limit of Detection , Morpholinos , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2158-2166, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) broke out in Wuhan. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported, but the relationships between laboratory features and viral load has not been comprehensively described. METHODS: Adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with COVID-19 who underwent multiple (≥5 times) nucleic acid tests with nasal and pharyngeal swabs were recruited from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, including general patients (n = 70), severe patients (n = 195), and critical patients (n = 43). Laboratory data, demographic data, and clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records. The fitted polynomial curve was used to explore the association between serial viral loads and illness severity. RESULTS: Viral load of SARS-CoV-2 peaked within the first few days (2-4 days) after admission, then decreased rapidly along with virus rebound under treatment. Critical patients had the highest viral loads, in contrast to the general patients showing the lowest viral loads. The viral loads were higher in sputum compared with nasal and pharyngeal swab (P = .026). The positive rate of respiratory tract samples was significantly higher than that of gastrointestinal tract samples (P < .001). The SARS-CoV-2 viral load was negatively correlated with portion parameters of blood routine and lymphocyte subsets and was positively associated with laboratory features of cardiovascular system. CONCLUSIONS: The serial viral loads of patients revealed whole viral shedding during hospitalization and the resurgence of virus during the treatment, which could be used for early warning of illness severity, thus improve antiviral interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Serologic Tests , Viral Load
12.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(4): 276, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies have revealed several risk factors associated with the prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the risk factors associated with death in critically ill COVID-19 patients still needs to be fully elucidated. Therefore, we analyzed clinical characteristics and laboratory data of ICU patients to identify risk factors associated with COVID-19 death. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 from the ICU in the Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital Wuhan, China, between February 4 and February 29, 2020, were enrolled in this study. The final date of follow-up was April 4, 2020. Clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatment, and outcome of participants before and during the ICU stay were retrospectively collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients were admitted or transferred to the ICU from February 4 to February 29, 2020. Compared to survivors, the majority of non-survivors (73.8%) presented with dyspnea. A random forest classifier and ROC curve were used to develop a predictive model. IL-6, D-dimer, lymphocytes, and albumin achieved good performance with AUCs of 0.9476, 0.9165, 0.8994, and 0.9251, respectively, which were consistent with clinical observations, such as inflammation, lymphopenia, and coagulation dysfunction. Combining IL-6 and D-dimer improved the performance of this model with an excellent AUC (0.997). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in COVID-19 was not rare in critically ill patients. The model that combined IL-6 and D-dimer was valuable for predicting the mortality of patients with COVID-19 with excellent performance. This model needs to be further optimized by adding more indicators and then evaluated with a multicenter study.

13.
Journal of Modern Laboratory Medicine ; 35(5):99-102, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1125271

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid detection is the gold standard, and antigen-antibody detection is an important auxiliary method for nucleic acid detection. Nucleic acid and antigen detection is direct evidence of early infection in patients, but it cannot indicate whether the patient has been infected before. Antibody testing is indirect evidence of patient infection. Positive IgM indicates acute infection, and positive IgG indicates mid-to-late disease or previous infection. At the same time, antibody testing can be used as an important indicator for evaluating the clinical effects of vaccines and antibody therapeutics. Although antigen detection can be used as direct evidence for early diagnosis, it is not highly sensitive and has not yet been recognized. Therefore, the combined detection of nucleic acid, antigen and antibody can improve the sensitivity and specificity of clinical detection, and provide an important basis for resumption of work and production.

14.
J Psychiatr Res ; 135: 289-293, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039457

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mental health professionals are often exposed to workplace violence (WPV) in China. This study examined the prevalence of WPV and the associated factors and quality of life (QOL) among frontline mental health professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This national survey was carried out between March 15 and March 20, 2020. WPV and QOL were assessed with standardized measures. RESULTS: A total of 10,516 participants were included. The prevalence of overall WPV was 18.5% (95% CI: 17.9%-19.3%), while verbal abuse/threats was 15.8% and physical violence was 8.4%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender (OR = 1.42, p < 0.01), higher educational level (OR = 1.40, p < 0.01), working in tertiary hospitals (OR = 1.33, p < 0.01), caring for COVID-19 patients (OR = 3.10, p < 0.01) and having more severe anxiety symptom (OR = 1.21, p < 0.01) were positively associated with WPV. In contrast, working in inpatient departments (OR = 0.74, p < 0.01), having longer work experience (OR = 0.99, p = 0.03), and being a junior nurse (OR = 0.73, p < 0.01) were negatively associated with WPV. After controlling for the covariates, mental health professionals who experienced WPV had a lower overall QOL compared to those without WPV (F(1, 10515) = 68.28, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study found that WPV was common among mental health professionals in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the negative impact of WPV on QOL and quality of patient care, appropriate measures to prevent WPV should be developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Workplace Violence/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence
16.
Anal Chem ; 93(4): 2191-2199, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019731

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to substantial infections and mortality around the world. Fast screening and diagnosis are thus crucial for quick isolation and clinical intervention. In this work, we showed that attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) can be a primary diagnostic tool for COVID-19 as a supplement to in-use techniques. It requires only a small volume (∼3 µL) of the serum sample and a shorter detection time (several minutes). The distinct spectral differences and the separability between normal control and COVID-19 were investigated using multivariate and statistical analysis. Results showed that ATR-FT-IR coupled with partial least squares discriminant analysis was effective to differentiate COVID-19 from normal controls and some common respiratory viral infections or inflammation, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.9561 (95% CI: 0.9071-0.9774). Several serum constituents including, but not just, antibodies and serum phospholipids could be reflected on the infrared spectra, serving as "chemical fingerprints" and accounting for good model performances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Case-Control Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Discriminant Analysis , Feasibility Studies , Humans
17.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 20(2): 372-380, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of COVID-19 has become a global health emergency. The transmissibility of the disease is of great interest to healthcare workers and scientists alike. The primary route of transmission is via respiratory droplets, but viral RNA has also been found in feces and body fluids such as urine, serum, and semen. So far, there has been no report on whether SARS-CoV-2 is present in the exudates of cutaneous lesions. This study was designed to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 can be found in the pressure injury exudates in patients with severe COVID-19 infections. METHODS: 46 critically ill COVID-19 patients who were admitted to the ICU of the Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan between February 4 and April 12 developed pressure injuries. 22 patients with pressure injuries had wound exudates. Wound and pharyngeal swabs of the 22 patients were collected and RT-PCRs were conducted to detect SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA. RESULTS: At the time of pressure injury, 5 patients still tested positive by pharyngeal swabs, the rest of the 17 patients tested negative. However, none of the wound exudate swabs from the participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that it is rather unlikely that COVID-19 can be transmitted via pressure injury exudates, but we still recommend standardized personal protective equipment, face shield and an additional pair of gloves when treating pressure injuries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Exudates and Transudates/virology , Pressure Ulcer/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(supl.1):19-25, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-742273

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Although urological diseases are not directly related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), urologists need to make comprehensive plans for this disease. Urological conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and tumors are very common in elderly patients. This group of patients is often accompanied by underlying comorbidities or immune dysfunction. They are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection and they tend to have severe manifestations. Although fever can occur along with urological infections, it is actually one of the commonest symptoms of COVID-19;urologists must always maintain a high index of suspicion in their clinical practices. As a urological surgeon, how we can protect medical staff during surgery is a major concern. Our hospital had early adoption of a series of strict protective and control measures, and was able to avoid cross-infection and outbreak of COVID-19. This paper discusses the effective measures that can be useful when dealing with urological patients with COVID-19.

19.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(7): 877-888, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970721

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To date, the transmission of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is still uncontrollable with the fact that the numbers of confirmed and death cases are still increasing. Up to 1st October 2020, 33,842,281 confirmed cases and 1,010,634 confirmed deaths have been reported to the World Health Organization from 216 different countries, areas and territories. Despite the urgent demand for effective treatment strategies, there is still no specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19 and the treatment guidelines for COVID-19 vary between countries. AREA COVERED: In this article, we summarized the current knowledge on COVID-19 and the pandemic worldwide. Moreover, the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention and different treatment options will be discussed so that we shall prepare ourselves better to fight with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). EXPERT OPINION: The situation of the COVID-19 pandemic is still unpredictable. There is no effective vaccine or specific anti-viral drug to treat serve COVID-19 patients. Combination therapies have shown promising clinical improvement. Repurposing FDA-approved drugs might be one of possible treatment options. Without specific treatment and vaccines for COVID-19, the most effective way to prevent from being infected is to generate an ecosystem with effective protection, precautions and preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Drug Repositioning , Humans
20.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 97, 2020 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a viral respiratory disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients with this disease may be more prone to venous or arterial thrombosis because of the activation of many factors involved in it, including inflammation, platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. Interferon gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP1α) are cytokines related to thrombosis. Therefore, this study focused on these three indicators in COVID-19, with the hope to find biomarkers that are associated with patients' outcome. METHODS: This is a retrospective single-center study involving 74 severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients recruited from the ICU department of the Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. The patients were divided into two groups: severe patients and critically ill patients. The serum IP-10, MCP-1 and MIP1α level in both groups was detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The clinical symptoms, laboratory test results, and the outcome of COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The serum IP-10 and MCP-1 level in critically ill patients was significantly higher than that in severe patients (P < 0.001). However, no statistical difference in MIP1α between the two groups was found. The analysis of dynamic changes showed that these indicators remarkably increased in patients with poor prognosis. Since the selected patients were severe or critically ill, no significant difference was observed between survival and death. CONCLUSIONS: IP-10 and MCP-1 are biomarkers associated with the severity of COVID-19 disease and can be related to the risk of death in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CCL2/blood , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/blood , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
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