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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(654): eabn1413, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949951

ABSTRACT

To combat the HIV epidemic and emerging threats such as SARS-CoV-2, immunization strategies are needed that elicit protection at mucosal portals of pathogen entry. Immunization directly through airway surfaces is effective in driving mucosal immunity, but poor vaccine uptake across the mucus and epithelial lining is a limitation. The major blood protein albumin is constitutively transcytosed bidirectionally across the airway epithelium through interactions with neonatal Fc receptors (FcRn). Exploiting this biology, here, we demonstrate a strategy of "albumin hitchhiking" to promote mucosal immunity using an intranasal vaccine consisting of protein immunogens modified with an amphiphilic albumin-binding polymer-lipid tail, forming amph-proteins. Amph-proteins persisted in the nasal mucosa of mice and nonhuman primates and exhibited increased uptake into the tissue in an FcRn-dependent manner, leading to enhanced germinal center responses in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. Intranasal immunization with amph-conjugated HIV Env gp120 or SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) proteins elicited 100- to 1000-fold higher antigen-specific IgG and IgA titers in the serum, upper and lower respiratory mucosa, and distal genitourinary mucosae of mice compared to unmodified protein. Amph-RBD immunization induced high titers of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in serum, nasal washes, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Furthermore, intranasal amph-protein immunization in rhesus macaques elicited 10-fold higher antigen-specific IgG and IgA responses in the serum and nasal mucosa compared to unmodified protein, supporting the translational potential of this approach. These results suggest that using amph-protein vaccines to deliver antigen across mucosal epithelia is a promising strategy to promote mucosal immunity against HIV, SARS-CoV-2, and other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Administration, Intranasal , Albumins , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Lipids , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918933

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak that resurged in Yangzhou and to simulate the impact of different control measures at different regional scales. Methods We collected personal information from 570 laboratory-confirmed cases in Yangzhou from 28 July to 26 August 2021, and built a modified susceptible-exposed-infected-removed (SEIR) model and an agent-based model. Results The SEIR model showed that for passengers from medium-high risk areas, pre-travel nucleic acid testing within 3 days could limit the total number of infected people in Yangzhou to 50;among elderly persons, a 60% increase in vaccination rates could reduce the estimated infections by 253. The agent-based model showed that when the population density of the chess and card room dropped by 40%, the number of infected people would decrease by 54 within 7 days. A ventilation increase in the chess and card room from 25 to 50% could reduce the total number of infections by 33 within 7 days;increasing the ventilation from 25 to 75% could reduce the total number of infections by 63 within 7 days. Conclusions The SEIR model and agent-based model were used to simulate the impact of different control measures at different regional scales successfully. It is possible to provide references for epidemic prevention and control work.

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3654, 2022 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908175

ABSTRACT

NVSI-06-08 is a potential broad-spectrum recombinant COVID-19 vaccine that integrates the antigens from multiple SARS-CoV-2 strains into a single immunogen. Here, we evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of NVSI-06-08 as a heterologous booster dose in BBIBP-CorV recipients in a randomized, double-blind, controlled, phase 2 trial conducted in the United Arab Emirates (NCT05069129). Three groups of healthy adults over 18 years of age (600 participants per group) who have administered two doses of BBIBP-CorV 4-6-month, 7-9-month and >9-month earlier, respectively, are randomized 1:1 to receive either a homologous booster of BBIBP-CorV or a heterologous booster of NVSI-06-08. The incidence of adverse reactions is low, and the overall safety profile is quite similar between two booster regimens. Both Neutralizing and IgG antibodies elicited by NVSI-06-08 booster are significantly higher than those by BBIBP-CorV booster against not only SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also multiple variants of concerns (VOCs). Especially, the neutralizing antibody GMT against Omicron variant induced by heterologous NVSI-06-08 booster reaches 367.67, which is substantially greater than that boosted by BBIBP-CorV (GMT: 45.03). In summary, NVSI-06-08 is safe and immunogenic as a booster dose following two doses of BBIBP-CorV, which is immunogenically superior to the homologous boost with another dose of BBIBP-CorV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 888820, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903111

ABSTRACT

The traditional Chinese medicine formula Lianhua Qingwen (LQ) combined with western medicine therapy is beneficial to coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), but there is still a lack of strong evidence-based. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of LQ combined with western medicine for patients with COVID-19. Seven databases (Chinese and English) were searched by two independent reviewers. Search for relevant keywords such as "Chinese medicine," "Chinese herbal medicine," and "Lianhua Qingwen" in the titles and abstracts of articles retrieved in the databases. Randomized controlled trials or case-control studies that reported sufficient data of participants before and after the intervention were included. Two researchers independently reviewed the studies and extracted the data. Fixed-or random-effect model was used to calculate the overall pooled risk estimates. Forest plots were generated to show pooled results. Seven studies involving 916 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with the control group, the total efficacy (OR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.56, 3.18), adverse events (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.18, 0.97), chest computed tomography manifestations (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.12, 2.72), and aggravation rate of conversion to severe cases (OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.30, 0.75) of the intervention group were better. Moreover, the intervention group has an advantage over the control group in improving clinical symptoms (fever, cough, fatigue, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and expectoration) and shortening the fever duration (p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that LQ combined with western medicine may be more effective in treating COVID-19. However, due to the urgency of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks leading to low methodological quality and not rigorous designs. This meta-analysis cannot draw clear conclusions. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020190757.

5.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 35(5): 412-418, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893037

ABSTRACT

Taking the Chinese city of Xiamen as an example, simulation and quantitative analysis were performed on the transmissions of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the influence of intervention combinations to assist policymakers in the preparation of targeted response measures. A machine learning model was built to estimate the effectiveness of interventions and simulate transmission in different scenarios. The comparison was conducted between simulated and real cases in Xiamen. A web interface with adjustable parameters, including choice of intervention measures, intervention weights, vaccination, and viral variants, was designed for users to run the simulation. The total case number was set as the outcome. The cumulative number was 4,614,641 without restrictions and 78 under the strictest intervention set. Simulation with the parameters closest to the real situation of the Xiamen outbreak was performed to verify the accuracy and reliability of the model. The simulation model generated a duration of 52 days before the daily cases dropped to zero and the final cumulative case number of 200, which were 25 more days and 36 fewer cases than the real situation, respectively. Targeted interventions could benefit the prevention and control of COVID-19 outbreak while safeguarding public health and mitigating impacts on people's livelihood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 172, 2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878517

ABSTRACT

The increased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) breakthrough cases pose the need of booster vaccination. We conducted a randomised, double-blinded, controlled, phase 2 trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the heterologous prime-boost vaccination with an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) followed by a recombinant protein-based vaccine (NVSI-06-07), using homologous boost with BBIBP-CorV as control. Three groups of healthy adults (600 individuals per group) who had completed two-dose BBIBP-CorV vaccinations 1-3 months, 4-6 months and ≥6 months earlier, respectively, were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either NVSI-06-07 or BBIBP-CorV boost. Immunogenicity assays showed that in NVSI-06-07 groups, neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) against the prototype SARS-CoV-2 increased by 21.01-63.85 folds on day 28 after vaccination, whereas only 4.20-16.78 folds of increases were observed in control groups. For Omicron variant, the neutralizing antibody GMT elicited by homologous boost was 37.91 on day 14, however, a significantly higher neutralizing GMT of 292.53 was induced by heterologous booster. Similar results were obtained for other SARS-CoV-2 variants of concerns (VOCs), including Alpha, Beta and Delta. Both heterologous and homologous boosters have a good safety profile. Local and systemic adverse reactions were absent, mild or moderate in most participants, and the overall safety was quite similar between two booster schemes. Our findings indicated that NVSI-06-07 is safe and immunogenic as a heterologous booster in BBIBP-CorV recipients and was immunogenically superior to the homologous booster against not only SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also VOCs, including Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 490, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815582

ABSTRACT

Based on the findings from the Phase III clinical trials of inactivated SARS COV-2 Vaccine, (BBIBP-CORV) emergency use authorization (EUA) was granted for the vaccine to frontline workers in the UAE. A prospective cohort study was conducted among frontline workers to estimate the incidence rate and risk of symptomatic COVID-19 infection 14 days after the second dose of inoculation with BBIBP-CORV inactivated vaccine. Those who received two doses of the BBIBP-CORV vaccine in the period from 14th of September 2020 (first dose) to 21st of December 2020 (second dose) were followed up for COVID-19 infections. 11,322 individuals who received the two-dose BBIBP-CORV vaccine were included and were followed up post the second dose plus fourteen days. The incidence rate of symptomatic infection was 0.08 per 1000-person days (95% CI 0.07, 0.10). The estimated absolute risk of developing symptomatic infection was 0.97% (95% CI 0.77%, 1.17%). The confirmed seroconversion rate was 92.8%. There were no serious adverse events reported and no individuals suffered from severe disease. Our findings show that vaccinated individuals are likely to remain protected against symptomatic infection or becoming PCR positive for SARS COV 2 following the second dose of the vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache/etiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329783

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with immune escape ability raises the urgent need for developing cross-neutralizing vaccines against the virus. NVSI-06-08 is a potential broad-spectrum recombinant COVID-19 vaccine that integrates the antigens from multiple SARS-CoV-2 strains into a single immunogen. Here, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of NVSI-06-08 as a heterologous booster dose in adults previously vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV in a randomized, double-blind, controlled, phase 2 trial conducted in the United Arab Emirates ( NCT05069129 ). Three groups of healthy adults over 18 years of age (600 participants per group) who had administered two doses of BBIBP-CorV 4-6-month, 7-9-month and >9-month earlier, respectively, were vaccinated with either a homologous booster of BBIBP-CorV or a heterologous booster of NVSI-06-08. The primary outcome was immunogenicity and safety of booster vaccinations. The exploratory outcome was cross-reactive immunogenicity against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concerns (VOCs). The incidence of adverse reactions was low in both booster vaccinations, and the overall safety profile of heterologous boost was quite similar to that of homologous boost. Heterologous NVSI-06-08 booster was immunogenically superior to homologous booster of BBIBP-CorV. Both Neutralizing and IgG antibodies elicited by NVSI-06-08 booster were significantly higher than by the booster of BBIBP-CorV against not only SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also multiple VOCs. Especially, the neutralizing activity induced by NVSI-06-08 booster against the immune-evasive Beta variant was no less than that against the prototype strain, and a considerable level of neutralizing antibodies against Omicron (GMT: 367.67;95%CI, 295.50-457.47) was induced by heterologous booster, which was substantially higher than that boosted by BBIBP-CorV (GMT: 45.03;95%CI, 36.37-55.74). Our findings showed that NVSI-06-08 was safe and immunogenic as a booster dose following two doses of BBIBP-CorV, which was immunogenically superior to homologous boost with another dose of BBIBP-CorV. Our study also indicated that the design of hybrid antigen may provide an effective strategy for broad-spectrum vaccine developments.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325151

ABSTRACT

Background: A great number of studies have explored the association between frailty and mortality among COVID-19 patients, suggesting inconsistent results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the evidence on this issue. MethodsThree databases, including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to 20th October, 2020 were conducted to search for relevant literature. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess quality bias, and STATA was employed to pool the effect size. Additionally, potential publication bias and sensitivity analysis was performed.ResultsThere are 11 studies that were included, with a total of 22105 COVID-19 patients for quantitative analysis. Overall, the pooled prevalence of frailty was 51% (95%CI:42%-60%). Patients infected with COVID-19 with frailty had an increased risk of mortality, compared to those without frailty, and the pooled HR was 2.27 (95%CI:1.79-2.89). In addition, subgroup analysis based on population showed that the pooled HR for hospitalized patients and nursing home residents was 2.24 (95%CI:1.74-2.89) and 2.95 (95%CI:1.19-7.32), respectively. Subgroup analysis using the frailty assessment tool indicated that this association still existed when using the clinical frailty scale (CFS)(HR=2.41;95%CI:1.60-3.62), frailty index(HR=2.95;95%CI:1.19-7.32), hospital frailty risk score (HR=1.96;95%CI:1.79-2.15) and palliative performance scale (HR= 2.89;95%CI:1.42-5.87). ConclusionOur study indicates that frailty was an independent predictor for mortality among patients with COVID-19. Thus, frailty could be a prognostic factor for clinicians to stratify high-risk groups, and remind doctors and nurses to perform early screening and corresponding interventions urgently needed to reduce mortality rates in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2.

11.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295327

ABSTRACT

To unravel the source of SARS-CoV-2 introduction and the pattern of its spreading and evolution in the United Arab Emirates, we conducted meta-transcriptome sequencing of 1,067 nasopharyngeal swab samples collected between May 9th and Jun 29th, 2020 during the first peak of the local COVID-19 epidemic. We identified global clade distribution and eleven novel genetic variants that were almost absent in the rest of the world defined five subclades specific to the UAE viral population. Cross-settlement human-to-human transmission was related to the local business activity. Perhaps surprisingly, at least 5% of the population were co-infected by SARS-CoV-2 of multiple clades within the same host. We also discovered an enrichment of cytosine-to-uracil mutation among the viral population collected from the nasopharynx, that is different from the adenosine-to-inosine change previously reported in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples and a previously unidentified upregulation of APOBEC4 expression in nasopharynx among infected patients, indicating the innate immune host response mediated by ADAR and APOBEC gene families could be tissue-specific. The genomic epidemiological and molecular biological knowledge reported here provides new insights for the SARS-CoV-2 evolution and transmission and points out future direction on host-pathogen interaction investigation.

14.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(5): 1250, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403908

ABSTRACT

The clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with re-positive or false-negative test results have so far remained to be determined. The present study provides a cross-sectional observational study on 134 hospitalized patients selected from Huoshenshan Hospital (Wuhan, China) using cluster sampling. A total of 68 patients had reduced red blood cell (RBC) counts, 55 a decrease in the hemoglobin concentration (HBC) and 73 a decline in hematocrit (HCT). The false-negative rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA detection in pharyngeal swab specimens was 18.7%. The absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), RBC, HBC and HCT levels in false-negative patients were significantly higher than those in patients who tested positive for viral nucleic acids. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that RBC [odds ratio (OR)=0.43, 95% CI: 0.18-0.99], HBC (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99) and ALC (OR=0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.91) were the factors influencing the negative testing results for viral nucleic acid. The rate of re-positive patients was 16.4%. The white blood cell, RBC, HBC and HCT values in re-positive patients were lower than those in non-re-positive patients. The median (interquartile range) values for RBC, HBC and HCT of male re-positive patients were 3.95 (3.37, 4.2) x1012/l, 123 (103, 133) g/l and 36.6 (31.1, 39.2)%, respectively, while the RBC, HBC and HCT of female re-positive patients were 3.54 (3.13, 3.74) x1012/l, 115 (102, 118) g/l and 34.2 (28.5, 34.9)%, respectively. It was determined that RBC, HBC and HCT values had moderate accuracy in predicting SARS-CoV-2 recurrence in patients with COVID-19 using receiver operating curve analysis. The present study suggested that RBC may have an important role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19.

15.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(5): 343-360, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352746

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. By Feb. 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially named the disease resulting from infection with SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 represents a spectrum of clinical manifestations that typically include fever, dry cough, and fatigue, often with pulmonary involvement. SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and most individuals within the population at large are susceptible to infection. Wild animal hosts and infected patients are currently the main sources of disease which is transmitted via respiratory droplets and direct contact. Since the outbreak, the Chinese government and scientific community have acted rapidly to identify the causative agent and promptly shared the viral gene sequence, and have carried out measures to contain the epidemic. Meanwhile, recent research has revealed critical aspects of SARS-CoV-2 biology and disease pathogenesis; other studies have focused on epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, management, as well as drug and vaccine development. This review aims to summarize the latest research findings and to provide expert consensus. We will also share ongoing efforts and experience in China, which may provide insight on how to contain the epidemic and improve our understanding of this emerging infectious disease, together with updated guidance for prevention, control, and critical management of this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Amino Acid Motifs , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Vaccines
16.
JAMA ; 326(1): 35-45, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318655

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although effective vaccines against COVID-19 have been developed, additional vaccines are still needed. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of 2 inactivated COVID-19 vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prespecified interim analysis of an ongoing randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial in the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain among adults 18 years and older without known history of COVID-19. Study enrollment began on July 16, 2020. Data sets used for the interim analysis of efficacy and adverse events were locked on December 20, 2020, and December 31, 2020, respectively. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 1 of 2 inactivated vaccines developed from SARS-CoV-2 WIV04 (5 µg/dose; n = 13 459) and HB02 (4 µg/dose; n = 13 465) strains or an aluminum hydroxide (alum)-only control (n = 13 458); they received 2 intramuscular injections 21 days apart. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was efficacy against laboratory-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 14 days following a second vaccine dose among participants who had no virologic evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at randomization. The secondary outcome was efficacy against severe COVID-19. Incidence of adverse events and reactions was collected among participants who received at least 1 dose. Results: Among 40 382 participants randomized to receive at least 1 dose of the 2 vaccines or alum-only control (mean age, 36.1 years; 32 261 [84.4%] men), 38 206 (94.6%) who received 2 doses, contributed at least 1 follow-up measure after day 14 following the second dose, and had negative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test results at enrollment were included in the primary efficacy analysis. During a median (range) follow-up duration of 77 (1-121) days, symptomatic COVID-19 was identified in 26 participants in the WIV04 group (12.1 [95% CI, 8.3-17.8] per 1000 person-years), 21 in the HB02 group (9.8 [95% CI, 6.4-15.0] per 1000 person-years), and 95 in the alum-only group (44.7 [95% CI, 36.6-54.6] per 1000 person-years), resulting in a vaccine efficacy, compared with alum-only, of 72.8% (95% CI, 58.1%-82.4%) for WIV04 and 78.1% (95% CI, 64.8%-86.3%) for HB02 (P < .001 for both). Two severe cases of COVID-19 occurred in the alum-only group and none occurred in the vaccine groups. Adverse reactions 7 days after each injection occurred in 41.7% to 46.5% of participants in the 3 groups; serious adverse events were rare and similar in the 3 groups (WIV04: 64 [0.5%]; HB02: 59 [0.4%]; alum-only: 78 [0.6%]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prespecified interim analysis of a randomized clinical trial, treatment of adults with either of 2 inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines significantly reduced the risk of symptomatic COVID-19, and serious adverse events were rare. Data collection for final analysis is pending. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04510207; Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000034780.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Datasets as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13971, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301179

ABSTRACT

To unravel the source of SARS-CoV-2 introduction and the pattern of its spreading and evolution in the United Arab Emirates, we conducted meta-transcriptome sequencing of 1067 nasopharyngeal swab samples collected between May 9th and Jun 29th, 2020 during the first peak of the local COVID-19 epidemic. We identified global clade distribution and eleven novel genetic variants that were almost absent in the rest of the world and that defined five subclades specific to the UAE viral population. Cross-settlement human-to-human transmission was related to the local business activity. Perhaps surprisingly, at least 5% of the population were co-infected by SARS-CoV-2 of multiple clades within the same host. We also discovered an enrichment of cytosine-to-uracil mutation among the viral population collected from the nasopharynx, that is different from the adenosine-to-inosine change previously reported in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples and a previously unidentified upregulation of APOBEC4 expression in nasopharynx among infected patients, indicating the innate immune host response mediated by ADAR and APOBEC gene families could be tissue-specific. The genomic epidemiological and molecular biological knowledge reported here provides new insights for the SARS-CoV-2 evolution and transmission and points out future direction on host-pathogen interaction investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Genomics , Immunity, Innate , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cytidine Deaminase/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Organ Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
JAMA ; 326(1): 35-45, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242692

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although effective vaccines against COVID-19 have been developed, additional vaccines are still needed. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of 2 inactivated COVID-19 vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prespecified interim analysis of an ongoing randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial in the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain among adults 18 years and older without known history of COVID-19. Study enrollment began on July 16, 2020. Data sets used for the interim analysis of efficacy and adverse events were locked on December 20, 2020, and December 31, 2020, respectively. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 1 of 2 inactivated vaccines developed from SARS-CoV-2 WIV04 (5 µg/dose; n = 13 459) and HB02 (4 µg/dose; n = 13 465) strains or an aluminum hydroxide (alum)-only control (n = 13 458); they received 2 intramuscular injections 21 days apart. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was efficacy against laboratory-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 14 days following a second vaccine dose among participants who had no virologic evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at randomization. The secondary outcome was efficacy against severe COVID-19. Incidence of adverse events and reactions was collected among participants who received at least 1 dose. Results: Among 40 382 participants randomized to receive at least 1 dose of the 2 vaccines or alum-only control (mean age, 36.1 years; 32 261 [84.4%] men), 38 206 (94.6%) who received 2 doses, contributed at least 1 follow-up measure after day 14 following the second dose, and had negative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test results at enrollment were included in the primary efficacy analysis. During a median (range) follow-up duration of 77 (1-121) days, symptomatic COVID-19 was identified in 26 participants in the WIV04 group (12.1 [95% CI, 8.3-17.8] per 1000 person-years), 21 in the HB02 group (9.8 [95% CI, 6.4-15.0] per 1000 person-years), and 95 in the alum-only group (44.7 [95% CI, 36.6-54.6] per 1000 person-years), resulting in a vaccine efficacy, compared with alum-only, of 72.8% (95% CI, 58.1%-82.4%) for WIV04 and 78.1% (95% CI, 64.8%-86.3%) for HB02 (P < .001 for both). Two severe cases of COVID-19 occurred in the alum-only group and none occurred in the vaccine groups. Adverse reactions 7 days after each injection occurred in 41.7% to 46.5% of participants in the 3 groups; serious adverse events were rare and similar in the 3 groups (WIV04: 64 [0.5%]; HB02: 59 [0.4%]; alum-only: 78 [0.6%]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prespecified interim analysis of a randomized clinical trial, treatment of adults with either of 2 inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines significantly reduced the risk of symptomatic COVID-19, and serious adverse events were rare. Data collection for final analysis is pending. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04510207; Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000034780.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Datasets as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
19.
EMBO Rep ; 22(5): e52141, 2021 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151026

ABSTRACT

Tyrosine phosphorylation of secretion machinery proteins is a crucial regulatory mechanism for exocytosis. However, the participation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in different exocytosis stages has not been defined. Here we demonstrate that PTP-MEG2 controls multiple steps of catecholamine secretion. Biochemical and crystallographic analyses reveal key residues that govern the interaction between PTP-MEG2 and its substrate, a peptide containing the phosphorylated NSF-pY83 site, specify PTP-MEG2 substrate selectivity, and modulate the fusion of catecholamine-containing vesicles. Unexpectedly, delineation of PTP-MEG2 mutants along with the NSF binding interface reveals that PTP-MEG2 controls the fusion pore opening through NSF independent mechanisms. Utilizing bioinformatics search and biochemical and electrochemical screening approaches, we uncover that PTP-MEG2 regulates the opening and extension of the fusion pore by dephosphorylating the DYNAMIN2-pY125 and MUNC18-1-pY145 sites. Further structural and biochemical analyses confirmed the interaction of PTP-MEG2 with MUNC18-1-pY145 or DYNAMIN2-pY125 through a distinct structural basis compared with that of the NSF-pY83 site. Our studies thus provide mechanistic insights in complex exocytosis processes.


Subject(s)
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases , Peptides , Phosphorylation , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/metabolism , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor/metabolism
20.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 186, 2021 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A large number of studies have explored the association between frailty and mortality among COVID-19 patients, with inconsistent results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the evidence on this issue. METHODS: Three databases, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, from inception to 20th January 2021 were searched for relevant literature. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess quality bias, and STATA was employed to pool the effect size by a random effects model. Additionally, potential publication bias and sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included, with a total of 23,944 COVID-19 patients, for quantitative analysis. Overall, the pooled prevalence of frailty was 51% (95% CI: 44-59%). Patients with frailty who were infected with COVID-19 had an increased risk of mortality compared to those without frailty, and the pooled hazard ratio (HR) and odds ratio (OR) were 1.99 (95% CI: 1.66-2.38) and 2.48 (95% CI: 1.78-3.46), respectively. In addition, subgroup analysis based on population showed that the pooled ORs for hospitalized patients in eight studies and nursing home residents in two studies were 2.62 (95% CI: 1.68-4.07) and 2.09 (95% CI: 1.40-3.11), respectively. Subgroup analysis using the frailty assessment tool indicated that this association still existed when using the clinical frailty scale (CFS) (assessed in 6 studies, pooled OR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.52-5.45; assessed in 5 studies, pooled HR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.66-2.38) and other frailty tools (assessed in 4 studies, pooled OR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.81-2.16). In addition, these significant positive associations still existed in the subgroup analysis based on study design and geographic region. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that frailty is an independent predictor of mortality among patients with COVID-19. Thus, frailty could be a prognostic factor for clinicians to stratify high-risk groups and remind doctors and nurses to perform early screening and corresponding interventions urgently needed to reduce mortality rates in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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