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1.
J Med Chem ; 65(3): 2558-2570, 2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895561

ABSTRACT

Safe and effective vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants are the best approach to successfully combat the COVID-19 pandemic. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein is a major target to develop candidate vaccines. α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), a potent invariant natural killer T cell (iNKT) agonist, was site-specifically conjugated to the N-terminus of the RBD to form an adjuvant-protein conjugate, which was anchored on the liposome surface. This is the first time that an iNKT cell agonist was conjugated to the protein antigen. Compared to the unconjugated RBD/αGalCer mixture, the αGalCer-RBD conjugate induced significantly stronger humoral and cellular responses. The conjugate vaccine also showed effective cross-neutralization to all variants of concern (B.1.1.7/alpha, B.1.351/beta, P.1/gamma, B.1.617.2/delta, and B.1.1.529/omicron). These results suggest that the self-adjuvanting αGalCer-RBD has great potential to be an effective COVID-19 vaccine candidate, and this strategy might be useful for designing various subunit vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Galactosylceramides/therapeutic use , Peptide Fragments/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Conjugate/therapeutic use , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Galactosylceramides/chemistry , Galactosylceramides/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Liposomes/chemistry , Liposomes/immunology , Liposomes/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Conjugate/chemistry , Vaccines, Conjugate/immunology
3.
Psychol Health Med ; 27(4): 925-930, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360258

ABSTRACT

To investigate post-traumatic growth induced by COVID-19 pandemic in certain Yunnan residents and to analyze its influencing factors. A total of 581 permanent residents of Yunnan province completed the electronic questionnaire from 18 April 2020 to 26 April 2020. Logistic regression analysis showed that the educational levels, self-perceived health status, family history of infectious diseases, family history of infectious diseases, personality and frequency of going through COVID-19 related news were influencing factors of PTG (P < 0.05). As a traumatic event, the threat of COVID-19 may enable some people to gain positive psychological development in adversity. This will provide reference for public psychological crisis intervention following the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Epidemics ; 36: 100483, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306958

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Most countries are dependent on nonpharmaceutical public health interventions such as social distancing, contact tracing, and case isolation to mitigate COVID-19 spread until medicines or vaccines widely available. Minimal research has been performed on the independent and combined impact of each of these interventions based on empirical case data. METHODS: We obtained data from all confirmed COVID-19 cases from January 7th to February 22nd 2020 in Zhejiang Province, China, to fit an age-stratified compartmental model using human contact information before and during the outbreak. The effectiveness of social distancing, contact tracing, and case isolation was studied and compared in simulation. We also simulated a two-phase reopening scenario to assess whether various strategies combining nonpharmaceutical interventions are likely to achieve population-level control of a second-wave epidemic. RESULTS: Our study sample included 1,218 symptomatic cases with COVID-19, of which 664 had no inter-province travel history. Results suggest that 36.5 % (95 % CI, 12.8-57.1) of contacts were quarantined, and approximately five days (95 % CI, 2.2-11.0) were needed to detect and isolate a case. As contact networks would increase after societal and economic reopening, avoiding a second wave without strengthening nonpharmaceutical interventions compared to the first wave it would be exceedingly difficult. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous attention and further improvement of nonpharmaceutical interventions are needed in second-wave prevention. Specifically, contact tracing merits further attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Contact Tracing , Humans , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Weishengwuxue Tongbao = Microbiology ; - (11):3733, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1006469

ABSTRACT

In order to ensure the teaching quality under the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic, the teaching team actively reformed the teaching of Industrial Microbiology course by restructuring the teaching system and teaching process design. On the basis of Superstar Fanya network teaching platform, an intelligent teaching system integrating network classrooms and digital resources was established, and the design and implementation of the teaching process of Industrial Microbiology was restructured. The online teaching assessment model was preliminarily explored, and the effectiveness of teaching reform was also evaluated. The practice indicated that the reformed curriculum teaching was helpful to stimulate students' learning interest, improve self-learning ability, promote teacher-student interaction, and finally achieve good effects.

6.
World J Diabetes ; 11(11): 481-488, 2020 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955247

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak that occurred in late 2019 has posed a huge threat to the health of all humans, especially for individuals who already have diabetes mellitus (DM). DM is one of the most serious diseases that affect human health, with high morbidity and rates of complications. Medical scientists worldwide have been working to control blood sugar levels and the complications associated with sugar level alterations, with an aim to reduce the adverse consequences of acute and chronic complications caused by DM. Patients with DM face great challenges during the pandemic owing to not only changes in the allocation of medical resources but also their abnormal autoimmune status, which reduces their resistance to infections. This increases the difficulty in treatment and the risk of mortality. This review presents, from an epidemiological viewpoint, information on the susceptibility of patients with DM to COVID-19 and the related treatment plans and strategies used in this population.

7.
Chin. Trad. Herbal Drugs ; 9(51): 2326-2333, 20200512.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-683750

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the mechanism of Jinzhen Oral Liquid (JOL) for prevention COVID-19 through network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. Methods: The protein targets related to COVID-19 were searched by literature mining and retrieving in DisGeNET, OMIM, KEGG and UniProt databases. With the aid of Traditional Chinese Medicine Network Pharmacology Intelligent Information Platform (TCMN) searching JOL chemical components and targets, the "herb-compound-target network" was constructed using Cytoscape-3.2.1 software to predict the main active ingredients and action targets of JOL in the treatment of COVID-19. The crystal structure of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) 3CL hydrolase (3CLpro) and angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) was retrieved from the RCSB PDB database, and the active compounds were docked with the two proteins by using AutoDock Vina software. Results: The herb-compound-target network contained 75 compounds including isoglabrolide, peimisine, and sennoside B, etc., which are from the three medicinal materials of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Rheum officinale, and Fritillaria ussuriensis, and 28 targets including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MEK1). Furthermore, nine key compounds (isoglabrolide, glabrolide, ebeiedinone, desoxo- glabrolid-acetate, peimisine, verticinone, imperialine, ussuriedinone and euchrenone A5) and 10 potential targets (mTOR, JAK3, ACE2, TNFA, AKT2, PIK3CA, MEK1, BRD2, ACE and ANPEP) of JOL were predicted for treating COVID-19 by network characteristic analysis. The molecular docking results showed that some core compounds of JOL had a certain degree of affinity for 3CLpro and ACE2. Conclusion: JOL may inhibit the occurrence and development of cytokine storm in COVID-19 by regulating the expression of Brd2, CD13, and ACE2 and interfering with the PI3K/Akt, Jak-STAT, TNF and MAPK signaling pathways, and inhibit virus replication by binding with 3CLpro, thus exerting a preventive or therapeutic effect on COVID-19.

8.
Psychiatry Res ; 291: 113202, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574681

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is now spreading worldwide, and poses some public mental health problems which requires close attention. This study aims to develop a scale of COVID-19 related psychological distress in healthy public (CORPD) to assess the severity of psychological distress in uninfected healthy populations. We compiled a 14-item scale which contains two dimensions- Anxiety & fear and Suspicion -using the classical measurement theory. 652 Chinese citizens consented and completed a survey through an online questionnaire APP. The reliability test showed that the scale had good internal consistency reliability and Split-Half reliability, and the validity test showed that it had good structure validity, content validity and criterion correlation validity. This scale can be used to assess the psychological distress of people in China and in other COVID-19-hit regions and countries. It also provides a reference for future studies on COVID-19 or other respiratory infectious diseases related public mental health.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19 , China , Fear/psychology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
9.
International Journal of Social Science and Education Research ; 3(6):150-153, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-381036

ABSTRACT

In year 2020, in response to unexpected Coronavirus, the Chinese Ministry of Education put forward the requirements of "classes suspended but teaching won't stop, classes suspended but learning won't stop". The "Learning Revolution" in education has been furtherpromoted. With the strong support and cooperation of the government, radio and television stations, network companies and parents, 200 million students in China achieved home-based classes.

10.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2027-2035, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175873

ABSTRACT

Cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emigrating from Wuhan escalated the risk of spreading the disease in other cities. This report focused on outside-Wuhan patients to assess the transmission and clinical characteristics of this illness. Contact investigation was conducted on each patient who was admitted to the assigned hospitals in Hunan Province (geographically adjacent to Wuhan) from 22 January to 23 February 2020. Cases were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction test. Demographic, clinical, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Of the 104 patients, 48 (46.15%) were cases who immigrated from Wuhan; 93 (89.42%) had a definite contact history with infection. Family clusters were the major body of patients. Transmission along the chain of three "generations" was observed. Five asymptomatic infected cases were found and two of them infected their relatives. Mean age was 43 (range, 8-84) years, and 49 (47.12%) were male. The median incubation period was 6 (range, 1-32) days, which of 8 patients ranged from 18 to 32 days, 96 (92.31%) were discharged, and 1 (0.96%) died. The average hospital stay was 10 (range, 8-14) days. Family but not community transmission became the main body of infections in the two centers, suggesting the timely control measures after the Wuhan shutdown worked well. Asymptomatic transmission demonstrated here warned us that it may lead to the widespread of COVID-19. A 14-day quarantine may need to be prolonged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , China/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Family Health , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1219-1224, 2020 Mar.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-54612

ABSTRACT

With the rapid outbreak of COVID-19, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has been playing an active role against the epidemic. However, the screening of TCM is limited by the development cycle and laboratory conditions, which greatly limits the screening speed. This study established optimization docking models and virtual screening to discovery potential active herbs for the prevention and treatment of the novel coronavirus based on molecular docking technology. The crystal structures of 3 CL protease(Mpro) and papain-like protease(PLP) were obtained from PDB database and homologous modeling respectively, and were used to conduct virtual screening of TCMD 2009 database by CDOCKER program. The ingredients scored in the top 100 were selected respectively, and the candidate herbs were ranked by the numbers of hit molecules. Based on Mpro inhibitors screening, 12 322 potential active components were obtained, and the representative active components included aster pentapeptide A, ligustrazine, salvianolic acid B, etc., and Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Asteris Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Dianthi Herba, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Cistanches Herba were obtained. While 11 294 potential active ingredients were obtained by PLP inhibitor screening, representative active ingredients included gingerketophenol, ginkgol alcohol, ferulic acid, etc., and Codonopsis Radix, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Ginkgo Semen, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Trichosanthis Fructus, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Psoraleae Fructus, Sophorae Flavescentis Radix, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix were chosen. By combining the diagnosis and treatment scheme of Hunan province's and angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2) inhibitors screening from literature, present study also discussed the rational application of candidate herbs to this epidemic situation. Trichosanthis Fructus obtained by PLP inhibitors screening and Fritillaria verticillata obtained by ACE2 inhibitors screening were parts of the Sangbei Zhisou Powder and Xiaoxianxiong Decoction, which might be applicable to the syndromes of cough and dyspnea. Rhei Radix et Rhizoma screened by Mpro and Trichosanthis Fructus screened by PLP were contained in Maxing Shigan Decoction and Xuanbai Chengqi Decoction, and could be applied to the syndromes of epidemic virus blocking lung. Mori Folium, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Forsythiae Fructus obtained by ACE2 inhibitors screening were included in the Sangju Decoction and Yinqiaosan, which might be applicable to the syndromes of warm pathogen attacking lung and cough and dyspnea. The results of this study are intended to provide a reference for the further development of traditional Chinese medicine to deal with the new epidemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1225-1231, 2020 Mar.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-53839

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of 2019-nCoV, the epidemic has developed rapidly and the situation is grim. LANCET figured out that the 2019-nCoV is closely related to "cytokine storm". "Cytokine storm" is an excessive immune response of the body to external stimuli such as viruses and bacteria. As the virus attacking the body, it stimulates the secretion of a large number of inflammatory factors: interleukin(IL), interferon(IFN), C-X-C motif chemokine(CXCL) and so on, which lead to cytokine cascade reaction. With the exudation of inflammatory factors, cytokines increase abnormally in tissues and organs, interfering with the immune system, causing excessive immune response of the body, resulting in diffuse damage of lung cells, pulmonary fibrosis, and multiple organ damage, even death. Arachidonic acid(AA) metabolic pathway is principally used to synthesize inflammatory cytokines, such as monocyte chemotactic protein 1(MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor(TNF), IL, IFN, etc., which is closely related to the occurrence, development and regression of inflammation. Therefore, the inhibition of AA metabolism pathway is benefit for inhibiting the release of inflammatory factors in the body and alleviating the "cytokine storm". Based on the pharmacophore models of the targets on AA metabolic pathway, the traditional Chinese medicine database 2009(TCMD 2009) was screened. The potential herbs were ranked by the number of hit molecules, which were scored by pharmacophore fit value. In the end, we obtained the potential active prescriptions on "cytokine storm" according to the potential herbs in the "National novel coronavirus pneumonia diagnosis and treatment plan(trial version sixth)". The results showed that the hit components with the inhibitory effect on AA were magnolignan Ⅰ, lonicerin and physcion-8-O-ß-D-glucopy-ranoside, which mostly extracted from Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Gardeniae Fructus, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Arctii Fructus, Dryopteridis Crassirhizomatis Rhizoma, Paeoniaeradix Rubra, Dioscoreae Rhizoma. Finally the anti-2019-nCoV prescriptions were analyzed to obtain the potential active prescriptions on AA metabolic pathway, Huoxiang Zhengqi Capsules, Jinhua Qinggan Granules, Lianhua Qingwen Capsules, Qingfei Paidu Decoction, Xuebijing Injection, Reduning Injection and Tanreqing Injection were found that may prevent 2019-nCoV via regulate cytokines. This study intends to provide reference for clinical use of traditional Chinese medicine to resist new coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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