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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(8), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020034

ABSTRACT

IntroductionIncreasing numbers of patients with non-haematological diseases are infected with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), with a high mortality reported which is mainly due to delayed diagnosis. The diagnostic capability of mycological tests for IPA including galactomannan test, (1,3)-β-D-glucan test, lateral flow assay, lateral flow device and PCR for the non-haematological patients remains unknown. This protocol aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of mycological tests to facilitate the early diagnosis and treatments of IPA in non-haematological diseases.Methods and analysisDatabase including PubMed, CENTRAL and EMBASE will be searched from 2002 until the publication of results. Cohort or cross-sectional studies that assessing the diagnostic capability of mycological tests for IPA in patients with non-haematological diseases will be included. The true-positive, false-positive, true-negative and false-negative of each test will be extracted and pooled in bivariate random-effects model, by which the sensitivity and specificity will be calculated with 95% CI. The second outcomes will include positive (negative) likelihood ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and diagnostic OR will also be computed in the bivariate model. When applicable, subgroup analysis will be performed with several prespecified covariates to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Factors that may impact the diagnostic effects of mycological tests will be examined by sensitivity analysis. The risk of bias will be appraised by the Quality Assessment tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2).Ethics and disseminationThis protocol is not involved with ethics approval, and the results will be peer-reviewed and disseminated on a recognised journal.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42021241820.

2.
Analytica Chimica Acta ; 1225:340203, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1982437

ABSTRACT

Early rapid screening diagnostic assay is essential for the identification, prevention, and evaluation of many contagious or refractory diseases. The optical density transducer created by platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) (OD-CRISPR) is reported in the present research as a cheap and easy-to-execute CRISPR/Cas12a-based diagnostic platform. The OD-CRISPR uses PtNPs, with ultra-high peroxidase-mimicking activity, to increase the detection sensitivity, thereby enabling the reduction of detection time and cost. The OD-CRISPR can be utilized to identify nucleic acid or protein biomarkers within an incubation time of 30–40min in clinical specimens. In the case of taking severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) N gene as an instance, when compared to a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the OD-CRISPR test attains a sensitivity of 79.17% and a specificity of 100%. In terms of detecting prostate-specific antigen (PSA), aptamer-based OD-CRISPR assay achieves the least discoverable concentration of 0.01 ng mL−1. In general, the OD-CRISPR can detect nucleic acid and protein biomarkers, and is a potential strategy for early rapid screening diagnostic tools.

3.
Environ Pollut ; 309: 119767, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936393

ABSTRACT

China is the largest CO2 emitting country on Earth. During the COVID-19 pandemic, China implemented strict government control measures on both outdoor activity and industrial production. These control measures, therefore, were expected to significantly reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, large discrepancies still exist in the estimated anthropogenic CO2 emission reduction rate caused by COVID-19 restrictions, with values ranging from 10% to 40% among different approaches. Here, we selected Nanchang city, located in eastern China, to examine the impact of COVID-19 on CO2 emissions. Continuous atmospheric CO2 and ground-level CO observations from January 1st to April 30th, 2019 to 2021 were used with the WRF-STILT atmospheric transport model and a priori emissions. And a multiplicative scaling factor and Bayesian inversion method were applied to constrain anthropogenic CO2 emissions before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. We found a 37.1-40.2% emission reduction when compared to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 with the same period in 2019. Carbon dioxide emissions from the power industry and manufacturing industry decreased by 54.5% and 18.9% during the pandemic period. The power industry accounted for 73.9% of total CO2 reductions during COVID-19. Further, emissions in 2021 were 14.3-14.9% larger than in 2019, indicating that economic activity quickly recovered to pre-pandemic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bayes Theorem , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
4.
J Thorac Dis ; 14(6): 2079-2088, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928992

ABSTRACT

Background: Cough is one of the most common symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the prevalence of persistent cough in recovered patients with COVID-19 during a longer follow-up remained unknown. This study aims to investigate the prevalence, and risk factors for postinfectious cough in COVID-19 patients after discharge. Methods: We conducted a follow-up study for 129 discharged patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in two large hospitals located in Hubei Province, China from January 2020 to December 2020. Baseline demographics, comorbidities and smoking history were extracted from the medical record. Current symptoms and severity were recorded by a uniform questionnaire. Spirometry, diffuse function and chest computed tomography (CT) were performed on part of patients who were able to return to the outpatient department at follow-up. Results: The median (interquartile range) follow-up time was 8.1 (7.9-8.5) months after discharge. The mean (standard deviation) age was 51.5 (14.9) years and 57 (44.2%) were male. A total of 27 (20.9%) patients had postinfectious cough (>3 weeks), 6 patients (4.7%) had persistent cough by the end of follow-up, including 3 patients with previous chronic respiratory diseases or current smoking. Other symptoms included dyspnea (6, 4.7%), sputum (4, 3.1%), fatigue (4, 3.1%), and anorexia (4, 3.1%) by the end of follow-up. Thirty-six of 41 (87.8%) patients showed impaired lung function or diffuse function, and 39 of 50 (78.0%) patients showed abnormal CT imaging. Patients with postinfectious cough demonstrated more severe and more frequent cough during hospitalization (P<0.001), and more chronic respiratory diseases (P=0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, digestive symptoms during hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) 2.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-7.92] and current smoking (OR 6.95, 95% CI: 1.46-33.14) were significantly associated with postinfectious cough of COVID-19. Conclusions: A small part of patients developed postinfectious cough after recovery from COVID-19, few patients developed chronic cough in spite of a higher proportion of impaired lung function and abnormal lung CT image. Current smoking and digestive symptoms during hospitalization were risk factors for postinfectious cough in COVID-19.

5.
Sustainability ; 14(13):8087, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1917733

ABSTRACT

The L2 motivation self system (L2MSS) has been extensively researched in a variety of contexts, but few studies have delved into its relationship with international posture and the sustainable development of L2 proficiency in the COVID-19 era. To address this issue, we surveyed 156 English majors in China and analyzed their response data with structural equation modelling. The results show that the ideal L2 self positively predicts the L2 learning experience, while the ought-to L2 self has a negative predictive power. The international posture exerts a positive influence on the ideal L2 self and L2 experience, and a negative insignificant influence on the ought-to L2 self. The L2 experience and ideal L2 self have a positive influence on L2 proficiency, while the ought-to L2 self has a negative influence. Our results not only contribute to the generalizability of L2MSS but also deepen the understanding of possible contextual variations of L2 motivation, as well as the uniqueness in the sustainable development of English majors in China during the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911317

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has identified nervous system diseases as one of the biggest public health problems, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Considering the extensive benefits of physical activity (PA), the literature on the PA research of ASD has increased each year, but there is a lack of bibliometric analyses in this field. To investigate the research achievements worldwide, this paper adopts bibliometrics to analyze the trend in the academic literature on the PA research of ASD published from 1980 to 2021. The documents were retrieved from the Web of Science database, and the search strategy was to combine the keywords related to "physical activity" and "autism spectrum disorder" by using the Boolean operator tools "OR" and "AND" in the title. A total of 359 English documents were retrieved. Microsoft Excel, Data Wrapper, VOSviewer, and Biblioshiny were used for the visual analysis. We found that the number of published documents increased the fastest from 2017 to 2021, which may be due to the promulgation of the Global Action Plan for Physical Activity 2018-2030 and the influence of COVID-19 on the world. The United States and the University of California systems are in the leading position in this field. Cooperation among countries with different levels of development will help to jointly promote the PA research progress on ASD. The focus themes include "individual effect", "social support" and "activity dose". The analysis of the frontier topic points out that researchers are paying increasing attention to how to improve the health and physical fitness of this group through PA. This research clearly puts forward a comprehensive overview, theme focus, and future trends in this field, which may be helpful to guide future research.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , COVID-19 , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Bibliometrics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Humans , United States
7.
International journal of environmental research and public health ; 19(12), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1904676

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has identified nervous system diseases as one of the biggest public health problems, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Considering the extensive benefits of physical activity (PA), the literature on the PA research of ASD has increased each year, but there is a lack of bibliometric analyses in this field. To investigate the research achievements worldwide, this paper adopts bibliometrics to analyze the trend in the academic literature on the PA research of ASD published from 1980 to 2021. The documents were retrieved from the Web of Science database, and the search strategy was to combine the keywords related to “physical activity” and “autism spectrum disorder” by using the Boolean operator tools “OR” and “AND” in the title. A total of 359 English documents were retrieved. Microsoft Excel, Data Wrapper, VOSviewer, and Biblioshiny were used for the visual analysis. We found that the number of published documents increased the fastest from 2017 to 2021, which may be due to the promulgation of the Global Action Plan for Physical Activity 2018–2030 and the influence of COVID-19 on the world. The United States and the University of California systems are in the leading position in this field. Cooperation among countries with different levels of development will help to jointly promote the PA research progress on ASD. The focus themes include “individual effect”, “social support” and “activity dose”. The analysis of the frontier topic points out that researchers are paying increasing attention to how to improve the health and physical fitness of this group through PA. This research clearly puts forward a comprehensive overview, theme focus, and future trends in this field, which may be helpful to guide future research.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896869

ABSTRACT

Militaries worldwide have been affected by COVID-19 pandemic. However, the impact and epidemiological characteristics of transmission during the early phase of the pandemic is not well-studied. This study aims to systematically estimate the baseline incidence of COVID-19 in the military worldwide and identify the potential risk factors of transmission and clinical characteristics of the cases. English and Chinese literature reporting COVID-19 cases in military worldwide published on four electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and CKNI) through 28 May 2021 were systematically screened and synthesized qualitatively. Forty-six studies involving at least 711,408 military personnel in 17 countries were synthesized. Low incidence of cases was observed in the military with pooled COVID-19 incidence of 0.19% (95%CI: 0.00-9.18%). We observed a higher incidence among those (1) with overseas exposure (39.85%; 95%CI: 0.00-95.87%) rather than local exposure (3.03%; 95%CI: 0.00-12.53%), (2) who were on either local/overseas military deployment (26.78%; 95%CI: 0.00-71.51%) as compared to those not deployed (4.37%; 95%CI: 0.00-17.93%), and (3) on overseas military deployment (39.84%; 95%CI: 0.00-95.87%) as compared to local military deployment (3.03%; 95%CI: 2.37-3.74%). The majority of the cases were symptomatic (77.90% (95%CI: 43.91-100.00%)); hospitalization and mortality rates were low at 4.43% (95%CI: 0.00-25.34%) and 0.25% (95%CI: 0.00-0.85%), respectively; and headache, anosmia, ageusia, myalgia, nasal congestion, and cough were the most commonly observed symptoms. Overseas and local deployment were observed to have higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Sustainable, active SARS-CoV-2 surveillance strategies are crucial to detect and contain transmission early during military deployments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(12):7418, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1893988

ABSTRACT

Militaries worldwide have been affected by COVID-19 pandemic. However, the impact and epidemiological characteristics of transmission during the early phase of the pandemic is not well-studied. This study aims to systematically estimate the baseline incidence of COVID-19 in the military worldwide and identify the potential risk factors of transmission and clinical characteristics of the cases. English and Chinese literature reporting COVID-19 cases in military worldwide published on four electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and CKNI) through 28 May 2021 were systematically screened and synthesized qualitatively. Forty-six studies involving at least 711,408 military personnel in 17 countries were synthesized. Low incidence of cases was observed in the military with pooled COVID-19 incidence of 0.19% (95%CI: 0.00–9.18%). We observed a higher incidence among those (1) with overseas exposure (39.85%;95%CI: 0.00–95.87%) rather than local exposure (3.03%;95%CI: 0.00–12.53%), (2) who were on either local/overseas military deployment (26.78%;95%CI: 0.00–71.51%) as compared to those not deployed (4.37%;95%CI: 0.00–17.93%), and (3) on overseas military deployment (39.84%;95%CI: 0.00–95.87%) as compared to local military deployment (3.03%;95%CI: 2.37–3.74%). The majority of the cases were symptomatic (77.90% (95%CI: 43.91–100.00%));hospitalization and mortality rates were low at 4.43% (95%CI: 0.00–25.34%) and 0.25% (95%CI: 0.00–0.85%), respectively;and headache, anosmia, ageusia, myalgia, nasal congestion, and cough were the most commonly observed symptoms. Overseas and local deployment were observed to have higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Sustainable, active SARS-CoV-2 surveillance strategies are crucial to detect and contain transmission early during military deployments.

10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2076523, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852829

ABSTRACT

Vaccine uptake rate is crucial for herd immunity. Medical care workers (MCWs) can serve as ambassadors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. This study aimed to assess MCWs' willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, and to explore the factors affecting COVID-19 vaccination acceptance. A multicenter study among medical care workers was conducted in seven selected hospitals from seven geographical territories of China, and data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, vaccine hesitancy, and health beliefs on COVID-19 vaccination among participants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to explore the correlations between individual factors and the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. Among the 2681 subjects, 82.5% of the participants were willing to accept the COVID-19 vaccination. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that individuals with more cues to action about the vaccination, higher level of confidence about the vaccine, and higher level of trust in the recommendations of COVID-19 vaccine from the government and the healthcare system were more likely to get the COVID-19 vaccine. In contrast, subjects with higher level of perceived barriers and complacency were less likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. Overall, MCWs in China showed a high willingness to get the COVID-19 vaccine. The governmental recommendation is an important driver and lead of vaccination. Relevant institutions could increase MCWs' willingness to COVID-19 vaccines by increasing MCWs' perception of confidence about COVID-19 vaccines and cues to action through various strategies and channels. Meanwhile, it can also provide evidence in similar circumstances in the future to develop vaccine promotion strategies.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847345

ABSTRACT

Fibrosis of extraocular muscles (EOMs) is a marker of end-stage in Graves' orbitopathy (GO). To determine the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of disulfiram (DSF) on perimysial orbital fibroblasts (pOFs) in a GO model in vitro, primary cultures of pOFs from eight patients with GO and six subjects without GO (NG) were established. CCK-8 and EdU assays, IF, qPCR, WB, three-dimensional collagen gel contraction assays, cell scratch experiments, and ELISAs were performed. After TGF-ß1 stimulation of pOFs, the proliferation rate of the GO group but not the NG group increased significantly. DSF dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation, contraction, and migration of pOFs in the GO group. Additionally, DSF dose-dependently inhibited fibrosis and extracellular matrix production markers (FN1, COL1A1, α-SMA, CTGF) at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, DSF mediates antifibrotic effects on GO pOFs partially through the ERK-Snail signaling pathway. In addition, DSF attenuated HA production and suppressed inflammatory chemokine molecule expression induced by TGF-ß1 in GO pOFs. In this in vitro study, we demonstrate the inhibitory effect of DSF on pOFs fibrosis in GO, HA production, and inflammation. DSF may be a potential drug candidate for preventing and treating tissue fibrosis in GO.


Subject(s)
Graves Ophthalmopathy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Disulfiram/metabolism , Disulfiram/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibrosis , Graves Ophthalmopathy/drug therapy , Graves Ophthalmopathy/metabolism , Humans , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
12.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 194, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 affects healthcare resource allocation, which could lead to treatment delay and poor outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on AMI outcomes. METHODS: We compared outcomes of patients admitted for acute ST-elevation MI (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) during a non-COVID-19 pandemic period (January-February 2019; Group 1, n = 254) and a COVID-19 pandemic period (January-February 2020; Group 2, n = 124). RESULTS: For STEMI patients, the median of first medical contact (FMC) time, door-to-balloon time, and total myocardial ischemia time were significantly longer in Group 2 patients (all p < 0.05). Primary percutaneous intervention was performed significantly more often in Group 1 patients than in Group 2 patients, whereas thrombolytic therapy was used significantly more often in Group 2 patients than in Group 1 patients (all p < 0.05). However, the rates of and all-cause 30-day mortality and major adverse cardiac event (MACE) were not significantly different in the two periods (all p > 0.05). For NSTEMI patients, Group 2 patients had a higher rate of conservative therapy, a lower rate of reperfusion therapy, and longer FMC times (all p < 0.05). All-cause 30-day mortality and MACE were only higher in NSTEMI patients during the COVID-19 pandemic period (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic causes treatment delay in AMI patients and potentially leads to poor clinical outcome in NSTEMI patients. Thrombolytic therapy should be initiated without delay for STEMI when coronary intervention is not readily available; for NSTEMI patients, outcomes of invasive reperfusion were better than medical treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
13.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 137, 2022 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805598

ABSTRACT

Whether and how innate antiviral response is regulated by humoral metabolism remains enigmatic. We show that viral infection induces progesterone via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in mice. Progesterone induces downstream antiviral genes and promotes innate antiviral response in cells and mice, whereas knockout of the progesterone receptor PGR has opposite effects. Mechanistically, stimulation of PGR by progesterone activates the tyrosine kinase SRC, which phosphorylates the transcriptional factor IRF3 at Y107, leading to its activation and induction of antiviral genes. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients have increased progesterone levels, and which are co-related with decreased severity of COVID-19. Our findings reveal how progesterone modulates host innate antiviral response, and point to progesterone as a potential immunomodulatory reagent for infectious and inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Mice , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Progesterone/pharmacology
14.
J Nat Prod ; 85(4): 878-887, 2022 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805542

ABSTRACT

Eight new aspulvinone analogues, aspulvins A-H (1-8) and aspulvinones D, M, O, and R (9-12), were isolated from cultures of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium sp. 7951. Detailed spectroscopic analyses were conducted to determine the structures of the new compounds. All isolates displayed different degrees of inhibitory activity against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 main protease (SARS-CoV-2 Mpro) at 10 µM. Notably, compounds 9, 10, and 12 showed potential SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibition with IC50 values of 10.3 ± 0.6, 9.4 ± 0.6, and 7.7 ± 0.6 µM, respectively. For all compounds except 3 and 4, the anti-inflammatory activity occurred by inhibiting the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with IC50 values ranging from 0.7 to 7.4 µM. Compound 10 showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting Casp-1 cleavage, IL-1ß maturation, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and pyroptosis. The findings reveal that the aspulvinone analogues 9, 10, and 12 could be promising candidates for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment as they inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection and reduce inflammatory reactions caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cladosporium , Humans
15.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 44(1): 30-39, 2022 Feb.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753709

ABSTRACT

Objective To measure the prevalence of mental health symptoms and identify the associated factors among college students at the beginning of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)outbreak in China. Methods We carried out a multi-center cross-sectional study via snowball sampling and convenience sampling of the college students in different areas of China.The rates of self-reported depression,anxiety,and stress and post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD)were assessed via the 21-item Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale(DASS-21)and the 6-item Impact of Event Scale-Revised(IES-6),respectively.Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics,health-related data,and information of the social environment.Data pertaining to mental health service seeking were also collected.Multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the risk factors. Results A total of 3641 valid questionnaires were collected from college students.At the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak,535(14.69%)students had negative emotions,among which 402(11.04%),381(10.49%),and 171(4.90%)students had the symptoms of depression,anxiety,and stress,respectively.Meanwhile,1245(34.19%)college students had PTSD.Among the risk factors identified,male gender was associated with a lower likelihood of reporting depression symptoms(AOR=0.755,P=0.037],and medical students were at higher risk of depression and stress symptoms than liberal arts students(AOR=1.497,P=0.003;AOR=1.494,P=0.045).Family support was associated with lower risks of negative emotions and PTSD in college students(AOR=0.918,P<0.001;AOR=0.913,P<0.001;AOR=0.899,P<0.001;AOR=0.971,P=0.021). Conclusions College students were more sensitive to public health emergencies,and the incidence of negative emotions and PTSD was significantly higher than that before the outbreak of COVID-19.More attention should be paid to female college students who were more likely to develop negative emotions.We should strengthen positive and proper propaganda via mass media and help college students understand the situation and impact of COVID-19.Furthermore,we should enhance family support for college students.The government and relevant agencies need to provide appropriate mental health services to the students under similar circumstances to avoid the deterioration of their mental well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Students/psychology , Universities
16.
Infection and drug resistance ; 15:1093-1101, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749160

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics of hospitalized children infected with HCoV-NL63, OC43, 229E, HKU1 and provide the basis for disease diagnosis and treatment. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical manifestations, imaging data, and treatment measures of hospitalized children with positive HCoV-NL63, OC43, 229E, HKU1 from 2015 to 2020. Results A total of 1062 children aged 33 days to 12 years were analyzed, including 879 (82.77%) between 33 days to three years. Lower respiratory tract infections were the most common in 698 children positive for HCoVs (65.72%). The incidences of runny nose, cough, pharyngeal hyperemia, and fine crackles in the mild case group (n = 894, 84.18%) were significantly higher than in the severe case group, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The incidences of gasp, stridor, and convulsions, the proportion of underlying diseases, such as congenital heart disease, laryngomalacia, and general developmental disorders, anemia, and abnormal liver function, and mixed infections in the severe group (n = 168, 15.82%) were significantly higher than in the mild group, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Imaging manifestations differed. Pleural effusion and atelectasis occurred in the severe cases. After treatment, patients fully recovered or improved and were discharged from the hospital. There were no deaths. Conclusion HCoV-NL63, OC43, 229E, HKU1 infection is most common in children under three years old, and the infection site is mainly the lower respiratory tract. The main clinical manifestations include fever, cough, and runny nose. Inspiratory three concave signs, respiratory failure, and heart failure occurred in the severe cases, with pleural effusion and atelectasis possibly occurring at the same time. Severe cases should be identified early so that they may be given comprehensive treatment in time to improve the prognosis.

17.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1710509

ABSTRACT

Diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during border screening among returning residents and prioritized travelers during the early phase of a pandemic can reduce the risk of importation and transmission in the community. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of various SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics and assess their potential utility as border screening for infection and immunity. Systematic literature searches were conducted in six electronic databases for studies reporting SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics (up to April 30, 2020). Meta-analysis and methodological assessment were conducted for all included studies. The performance of the diagnostic tests was evaluated with pooled sensitivity, specificity, and their respective 95% confidence intervals. A total of 5,416 unique studies were identified and 95 studies (at least 29,785 patients/samples) were included. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) consistently outperformed all other diagnostic methods regardless of the selected viral genes with a pooled sensitivity of 98% and a pooled specificity of 99%. Point-of-care (POC) serology tests had moderately high pooled sensitivity (69%), albeit lower than laboratory-based serology tests (89%), but both had high pooled specificity (96–98%). Serology tests were more sensitive for sampling collected at ≥ 7 days than ≤ 7 days from the disease symptoms onset. POC NAAT and POC serology tests are suitable for detecting infection and immunity against the virus, respectively as border screening. Independent validation in each country is highly encouraged with the preferred choice of diagnostic tool/s.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325164

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is a highly contagious and highly pathogenic disease caused by a novel coronavirus(SARS-CoV-2)and has become pandemic within a short period of time. The epidemic has brought not only the risk of death from infection but also unbearable psychological pressure. College students as a special group, their mental health status need to be studied during the outbreak of COVID-19.MethodsWe used the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the compulsive behavior part of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), combined with demographic information, using online questionnaires to research, and the study was conducted between February 21 and 24, 2020. A total of 2270 valid questionnaires were collected, the respondents of these questionnaires included 563 medical students and 1707 non-medical students. We separately analyzed the mental health status of medical and non-medical students during the outbreak of COVID-19.ResultsOf the 563 medical students, 20 (3.55%) students had anxiety symptoms, and 57 (10.12%) students had depressive symptoms. Gender, PMH, compulsive behavior, and regularity of daily life during the epidemic outbreak were correlated with their anxiety symptoms and age, PMH, compulsive behavior, and regularity of daily life during the epidemic outbreak were associated with their depressive symptoms. Of the 1707 non-medical students, 66 (3.87%) students had anxiety symptoms, and 180 (10.54%) students had depressive symptoms. Gender, contact history of similar infectious disease, PMH, compulsive behavior, regularity of daily life and exercise during the epidemic outbreak and concern on COVID-19 were correlated with their anxiety symptoms and contact history of similar infectious disease, PMH, compulsive behavior, regularity of daily life and exercise during the epidemic outbreak and concern on COVID-19 were associated with their depressive symptoms.ConclusionsResults indicated that gender, age, contact history of similar infectious disease, past medical history (PMH), compulsive behavior, regularity of daily life, and exercise during the epidemic outbreak are the key factors making college students anxious or depressed. The results provided a theoretical basis for relevant interventions;it is also essential for medical education and public health epidemic prevention.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324793

ABSTRACT

Initially found at Hubei, Wuhan and identified as a novel virus of coronavirus family by WHO, COVID-19 has spread worldwide with an exponentially speed, causing millions of death and public fear. Currently, COVID19 has brought a secondary wave within U.S., India, Brazil and other parts of the world. However, its transmission, incubation, and recovery processes are still unclear from the medical, mathematical and pharmaceutical aspects. Classical Suspect-Infection-Recovery model has limitations to describe the dynamic behavior of COVID-19. Hence, it becomes necessary to introduce a recursive, latent model to predict the number of future COVID-19 infected cases in U.S. In this article, a dynamic model called RLIM based on classical SEIR model is proposed to predict the number of COVID-19 infections with a dynamic secondary infection rate ω in assumption. An intermediate state called SI is introduced between recovery and infection statues to record the number of secondary infected cases from a latent period of recovery. Compared with other models, RLIM fits historical recovery cases and utilizes them to predict future infections. Because RLIM utilizes multiple information sources, and provides error back propagation schematics, it is reasonable to assert that its predictions are more accurate and persuasive. Projections of four U.S. COVID19 states show that with the secondary infectious rate ω varies from 0.01 to 0.3 within a latent period of 14 days chosen, RLIM can predict the newly infected number from January 15 to February 15, 2021 with AFER lower to 14%. It also successfully estimates the turning point of New Yorks infections in January 2021, based on current data records.

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323928

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei, China. Moreover, it has become a global pandemic. This is of great value in describing the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients in detail and looking for markers which are significant to predict the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Methods: In this multicenter, retrospective study, 476 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled from a consecutive series. After screening, a total of 395 patients were included in this study. All-cause death was the primary endpoint. All patients were followed up from admission till discharge or death. Results: The main symptoms observed in the study included fever on admission, cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. The most common comorbidities were hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Patients with lower CD4 + T cell level were older and more often male compared to those with higher CD4 + T cell level. Reduced CD8 + T cell level was an indicator of the severity of COVID-19. Both decreased CD4 + T [HR:13.659;95%CI: 3.235-57.671] and CD8 + T [HR: 10.883;95%CI: 3.277-36.145] cell levels were associated with in-hospital death in COVID-19 patients, but only the decrease of CD4 + T cell level was an independent predictor of in-hospital death in COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: Reductions in lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets were common in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe cases of COVID-19. It was the CD8 + T cell level, not the CD4 + T cell level, that reflected the severity of the patient’s disease. Only reduced CD4 + T cell level was independently associated with increased in-hospital death in COVID-19 patients. Trial registration: Prognostic Factors of Patients With COVID-19, NCT04292964. Registered 03 March 2020. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04292964. Retrospectively registered.

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