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1.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 781267, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957146

ABSTRACT

Background: The symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) range from moderate to critical conditions, leading to death in some patients, and the early warning indicators of the COVID-19 progression and the occurrence of its serious complications such as myocardial injury are limited. Methods: We carried out a multi-center, prospective cohort study in three hospitals in Wuhan. Genome-wide 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) profiles in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) was used to identify risk factors for COVID-19 pneumonia and develop a machine learning model using samples from 53 healthy volunteers, 66 patients with moderate COVID-19, 99 patients with severe COVID-19, and 38 patients with critical COVID-19. Results: Our warning model demonstrated that an area under the curve (AUC) for 5hmC warning moderate patients developed into severe status was 0.81 (95% CI 0.77-0.85) and for severe patients developed into critical status was 0.92 (95% CI 0.89-0.96). We further built a warning model on patients with and without myocardial injury with the AUC of 0.89 (95% CI 0.84-0.95). Conclusion: This is the first study showing the utility of 5hmC as an accurate early warning marker for disease progression and myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19. Our results show that phosphodiesterase 4D and ten-eleven translocation 2 may be important markers in the progression of COVID-19 disease.

2.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; : 1-9, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of 2022, inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines had been used in more than 91 countries. However, limited real world information was available on the immune responses of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. METHODS: We used SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirues to determine the neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to wild type and several global variants and utilized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to investigate IFN-γ-secreting T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 among 240 vaccinated individuals after two doses of inactivated vaccine in China. RESULTS: A majority of the vaccinated (>90%) developed robust NAbs and T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 in the first two months after the second dose. After six months, only 37.0% and 44.0% of vaccinees had NAbs and T-cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2, respectively. Immune serum retained most of its neutralizing potency against the Alpha and Iota variants, but lost significant neutralizing potency against the Beta, Kappa, Delta, and Omicron variants. Only 40% of vaccine-sera retained low-level neutralization activities to Omicron, with a 14.7-fold decrease compared to the wild type. CONCLUSION: The inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine stimulated robust NAbs and T-cell immune responses in the first two months after the second dose but the immune effect dropped rapidly, highlighing that a third dose or additional booster immunizations may be required to boost immunity against SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(5)2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875531

ABSTRACT

The growing demand for and supply of meat and meat products has led to a proportional increase in cases of meat adulteration. Adulterated meat poses serious economic and health consequences globally. Current laboratory methods for meat species identification require specialized equipment with limited field applications. This study developed an inexpensive, point-of-care Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)-CRISPR/Cas12a colorimetric assay to detect meat species using a Texas Red-labelled single-strand (ssDNA) reporter. As low as 1.0 pg/µL of the porcine NADH4, the chicken NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) and the duck D-loop genes was detectable under white, blue and ultraviolet light. The test turnaround time from DNA extraction to visualization was approximately 40 min. The assay accurately detected pure and mixed-meat products in the laboratory (n = 15) and during a pilot point-of-care test (n = 8) in a food processing factory. The results are 100% reproducible using lateral flow detection strips and the real-time PCR detection instrument. This technology is fully deployable and usable in any standard room. Thus, our study demonstrates that this method is a straightforward, specific, sensitive, point-of-care test (POCT) adaptable to various outlets such as customs, quarantine units and meat import/export departments.


Subject(s)
Meat Products , Animals , Chickens/genetics , Ducks , Meat/analysis , Point-of-Care Testing , Swine
4.
Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism ; : 100522-100522, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1814795
5.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 735363, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809432

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the performance of nanopore amplicon sequencing detection for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in clinical samples. Method: We carried out a single-center, prospective cohort study in a Wuhan hospital and collected a total of 86 clinical samples, including 54 pharyngeal swabs, 31 sputum samples, and 1 fecal sample, from 86 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from Feb 20 to May 15, 2020. We performed parallel detection with nanopore-based genome amplification and sequencing (NAS) on the Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) minION platform and routine reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In addition, 27 negative control samples were detected using the two methods. The sensitivity and specificity of NAS were evaluated and compared with those of RT-qPCR. Results: The viral read number and reference genome coverage were both significantly different between the two groups of samples, and the latter was a better indicator for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Based on the reference genome coverage, NAS revealed both high sensitivity (96.5%) and specificity (100%) compared with RT-qPCR (80.2 and 96.3%, respectively), although the samples had been stored for half a year before the detection. The total time cost was less than 15 h, which was acceptable compared with that of RT-qPCR (∼2.5 h). In addition, the reference genome coverage of the viral reads was in line with the cycle threshold value of RT-qPCR, indicating that this number could also be used as an indicator of the viral load in a sample. The viral load in sputum might be related to the severity of the infection, particularly in patients within 4 weeks after onset of clinical manifestations, which could be used to evaluate the infection. Conclusion: Our results showed the high sensitivity and specificity of the NAS method for SARS-CoV-2 detection compared with RT-qPCR. The sequencing results were also used as an indicator of the viral load to display the viral dynamics during infection. This study proved the wide application prospect of nanopore sequencing detection for SARS-CoV-2 and may more knowledge about the clinical characteristics of COVID-19.

6.
Case Stud Transp Policy ; 10(2): 1118-1131, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773235

ABSTRACT

The working standard of shared office spaces has evolved in recent years. Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, many companies have instituted work from home (WFH) policies in accordance with public health guidelines in order to increase social distancing and decrease the spread of COVID-19. As the pandemic and WFH-related policies have continued for more than a year, there has been a rise in people becoming accustomed to the remote environments; however, others are more enthusiastic about returning to in-person work environments, reflecting the desire to restore pre-pandemic environments. As working from home is related to transportation issues such as changing commuting patterns and decreased congestion, motorized trips, and emission, there is a need to explore the extent of public attitudes on this important issue. This study used unique open-source survey data that provides substantial information on this topic. Using an advanced categorical data analysis method known as cluster correspondence analysis, this study identified several key findings. Not having prior WFH experiences, being eager to interact with colleagues, difficulties with adapting to virtual meeting technologies, and challenges with self-discipline while WFH were strongly associated with individuals who refused to continuously WFH at all after the pandemic. Individuals holding a strong view against the seriousness of the COVID-19 pandemic were also largely associated with never choosing WFH during and after the pandemic. For individuals with some prior WFH experiences, the transition to WFH every day in response to the outbreak was much easier, compared to those without prior experiences. Moreover, being forced to WFH during the COVID-19 pandemic positively influences the choice of WFH after the pandemic. The findings of this study will be beneficial to help policymakers and sustainable city planners understand public opinions about WFH.

7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331565

ABSTRACT

The E3 ligase TRIM7 has emerged as a critical player in viral infection and pathogenesis. A recent study found that TRIM7 inhibits human enteroviruses through ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of viral 2BC protein by targeting the 2C moiety of 2BC protein. Here, we report the crystal structures of TRIM7 in complex with 2C, where the C-terminal region of 2C is inserted into a positively charged groove of the TRIM7 PRY-SPRY domain. Structure-guided biochemical studies revealed the C-terminus glutamine residue of 2C as the primary determinant for TRIM7 binding. Such a glutamine-end motif binding mechanism can be successfully extended to other substrates of TRIM7. More importantly, leveraged by this finding, we were able to identify norovirus and SARS-CoV-2 proteins, and physiological proteins, as new TRIM7 substrates. We further show that TRIM7 may function as a restriction factor to promote the degradation of the viral proteins of norovirus and SARS-CoV-2, thereby restoring the Type I interferon immune response and inhibiting viral infection. Several crystal structures of TRIM7 in complex with SARS-CoV-2 proteins are also determined, and a conserved C-terminus glutamine-specific interaction is observed. These findings unveil a common recognition mode by TRIM7, providing the foundation for further mechanistic characterization of antiviral and cellular functions of TRIM7.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 803031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753384

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has caused more than 2.6 billion infections and several million deaths since its outbreak 2 years ago. We know very little about the long-term cellular immune responses and the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to SARS-CoV-2 because it has emerged only recently in the human population. Methods: We collected blood samples from individuals who were from the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan between December 30, 2019, and February 24, 2020. We analyzed NAbs to SARS-CoV-2 using pseudoviruses and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) protein using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients' sera and determined SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses of patients with ELISpot assays. Results: We found that 91.9% (57/62) and 88.9% (40/45) of COVID-19 patients had NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 in a year (10-11 months) and one and a half years (17-18 months), respectively, after the onset of illness, indicating that NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 waned slowly and possibly persisted over a long period time. Over 80% of patients had IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 S and N protein one and a half years after illness onset. Most patients also had robust memory T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 one and a half years after the illness. Among the patients, 95.6% (43/45) had an IFN-γ-secreting T-cell response and 93.8% (15/16) had an IL-2-secreting T-cell response. The T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 were positively correlated with antibodies (including neutralizing antibodies and IgG antibodies to S and N protein) in COVID-19 patients. Eighty percent (4/5) of neutralizing antibody-negative patients also had SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response. After long-term infection, protective immunity was independent of disease severity, sex, and age. Conclusions: We concluded that SARS-CoV-2 infection elicited a robust and persistent neutralizing antibody and memory T-cell response in COVID-19 patients, indicating that these sustained immune responses, among most SARS-CoV-2-infected people, may play a crucial role in protection against reinfection.

9.
Current Issues in Tourism ; 25(3):441-457, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1722002

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed tremendous impacts on the tourism industry worldwide. The tourism sector can take advantage of the new technology (e.g. virtual tourism), to respond to the challenges. This study aims to investigate factors influencing people's acceptability in using virtual tourism during the pandemic in China and explore how virtual tourism can aid the recovery of tourism industry during and after the pandemic. We explore this through a mixed-methods approach. Our results show that the use of virtual tourism can be partially explained by the theory of planned behaviour. Virtual tourism has a strong influence on people's on-site destination choices and can be used as an effective marketing tool to promote destinations and a platform to sell souvenirs and products. Virtual tourism can be an entertainment activity to bring immersed experience to people without being actually in the destinations, and thus reinforce stay-at-home order and help contain COVID-19. Even after the pandemic is over, people still show willingness to use virtual tourism for diverse purposes. The qualitative data also suggest virtual tourism can help promote sustainable tourism by reducing unnecessary greenhouse gas emissions from transportation and enhance 'virtual accessibility' especially for the elderly and disabled with limited mobility.

10.
Arch Virol ; 167(2): 493-499, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712247

ABSTRACT

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically devastating infectious diseases in the global swine industry. A rapid and sensitive on-site detection method for PRRS virus (PRRSV) is critically important for diagnosing PRRS. In this study, we established a method that combines reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) with a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) for detecting North American PRRSV (PRRSV-2). The primers and probe were designed based on the conserved region of all complete PRRSV-2 genomic sequences available in China (n = 512) from 1996 to 2020. The detection limit of the assay was 5.6 × 10-1 median tissue culture infection dose (TCID50) per reaction within 30 min at 42 °C, which was more sensitive than that of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (5.6 TCID50 per reaction). The assay was highly specific for the epidemic lineages of PRRSV-2 in China and did not cross-react with pseudorabies virus, porcine circovirus 2, classical swine fever virus, or porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. The assay performance was evaluated by testing 179 samples and comparing the results with those of quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). The results showed that the detection coincidence rate of RT-RPA and RT-qPCR was 100% when the cycle threshold values of RT-qPCR were < 32. The assay provides a new alternative for simple and reliable detection of PRRSV-2 and has great potential for application in the field.


Subject(s)
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Animals , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/metabolism , Recombinases , Reverse Transcription , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
11.
iScience ; 25(3): 103967, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699805

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) throughout the world has caused millions of death, while the dynamics of host responses and the underlying regulation mechanisms during SARS-CoV-2 infection are not well depicted. Lung tissues from a mouse model sensitized to SARS-CoV-2 infection were serially collected at different time points for evaluation of transcriptome, proteome, and phosphoproteome. We showed the ebb and flow of several host responses in the lung across the viral infection. The signaling pathways and kinases regulating networks were alternated at different phases of infection. This multiplex evaluation also revealed that many kinases of the CDK and MAPK family were interactive and served as functional hubs in mediating the signal transduction during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study not only revealed the dynamics of lung pathophysiology and their underlying molecular mechanisms during SARS-CoV-2 infection, but also highlighted some molecules and signaling pathways that might guide future investigations on COVID-19 therapies.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND and OBJECTIVE The rhythms of life, work and entertainment behaviours are considered as the external behavioural manifestations of biological rhythm.To evaluate the distinctive disrupted rhythms of behaviours and their associations with mental health problems in people with different backgrounds under the stress of COVID-19 epidemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10-17 March 2020 under the stress of COVID-19 epidemic.A structured e-questionnaire containing general information,rhythm scale(subscale1 for life-work rhythms and subscale2 for entertainment rhythm) and Zung's self-rating depression and anxiety scale(SDS and SAS) were filled and the data were analysed. RESULTS Overall 5854 participants were included.Significant differences were found in rhythm, SDS and SAS scores among people with different backgrounds (all P <0.05). Subjects with female gender and poor health status were mostly suffered from disrupted rhythms of life- work-entertainment behaviours, combined with depression and anxiety. Nurses and subjects being divorced or with chronic disease with psychosomatic diseases were mostly suffered from disrupted rhythms of life-work behaviours, combined with depression and anxiety. Subjects with aged 26-30 years, or annual income of 50,000-100,000CY were mostly suffered from disrupted rhythms of life-work combined with depression. Subjects with income over 300,000CY were mostly suffered from disrupted rhythm of entertainment combined with anxiety.The prevalence rates of depression and anxiety in people with the high-scores of rhythm disruption increased by 34.50% and 47.16%, respectively, compared with those with low-scores.People with the high-scores of rhythm disruption had higher SDS and SAS scores, compared to those with low scores (all P <0.001). The independent related factors of disrupted rhythms included gender,age,marital status, health status,annual income and chronic diseases with psychosomatic diseases using logistic regression.The disrupted rhythms of life and work behaviours was positively correlated with both SDS and SAS scores. CONCLUSIONS The disrupted rhythms of life, work and entertainment behaviours were closely associated with mental health problems.The disrupted rhythms of behaviours are frequent and fluxible,triggering more severe mental health problems under the stress of COVID-19 epidemic.The physicians should be aware of their importance when evaluating their interviewees or patients’ mental health and achieving maximization of therapeutic efficacy by integrating the intervention of circadian rhythm and its behaviour.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318623

ABSTRACT

Background: China has been severely affected by COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) since December 2019.In the combat against COVID-19, military health workers in China suffered from many pressures. This study aimed to investigate the current psychological status and risk factors of the military health workers.Methods Using a web-based cross-sectional survey, we collected data from 194 military health workers from three inpatient wards in two COVID-19 specialized hospitals. The survey questions consisted of demographic information, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15). Hierarchical regression analysis was used to explore potential risk factors for mental health problem.Results The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety and somatic symptoms were37.6%, 32.5% and 50%, respectively. Severe depression, generalized anxiety and somatic symptoms was 5.2%, 3.6% and 15.5%. In 22.7% of cases, comorbidities existed between depression, generalized anxiety and somatization. Junior-grade professional title was associated with depression, older age was associated with generalized anxiety and somatization, and less sleep duration and poor sleep quality were associated with all three symptoms.Conclusion The prevalence of depression, generalized anxiety and somatic symptoms were high in military health workers of COVID-19 specialized hospitals during the COVID-19 outbreak. Junior-grade professional title, older age, less sleep duration, and poor sleep quality have significant effects on the mental health of military health workers. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of the psychological consequences of the COVID-19outbreak should become routine to promote the mental health of military health workers.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312188

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the advent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, in most parts of the world, people are still at risk of the disease. We aimed to establish a set of disability weights (DWs) for COVID-19 symptoms, evaluate the disease burden of inpatients, analyze the characteristics, and influencing factors of the disease. Methods: : The symptoms were identified by literature review and medical staff questionnaire. DWs of COVID-19 symptoms were determined by the person-trade-off approach proposed by the World Health Organization. The extracted medical records data of 2,702 randomly selected inpatients with COVID-19 at three temporary military hospitals in Wuhan, China, were analyzed and used to calculate the disability adjusted life years (DALY). Means DALY between gender and age groups were tested by analysis of variance. Multiple line regression models were used to determine the relationship between DALY and age, gender, body mass index, length of stay, symptom duration before admission, and native place. Results: : For the DALY of each inpatient, severe expiratory dyspnea and mild cough and sore throat had the highest (0.399) and lowest (0.004) weights, respectively. The average synthetic DALY and daily DALY were 2.29±1.33 and 0.18±0.15 days, respectively. Fever and fatigue contributed the largest DALY at 31.36%;nausea and vomiting, and anxiety and depression contributed the least at 7.05%. There were significant differences between gender and age groups in both synthetic and daily DALY. Age, body mass index, length of stay, and symptom duration before admission were strongly related to both synthetic and daily DALY. Conclusions: : COVID-19 and its symptoms could cause heavy disease burden. Although the disease burden was higher among females than in the males;however, their daily disease burdens were similar. Life value differs for different age groups;taking the changing life value with age into account;the disease burden in the younger population was higher than that in the older population. Besides, treatment at the hospitals relieved the disease burden efficiently, while delay in hospitalization could worsen it. Therefore, deployment of adequate medical resources for early hospitalization of patients with moderate or severe symptoms is needed by the public health authority.

16.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 496, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561217

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is the end stage of a broad range of heterogeneous interstitial lung diseases and more than 200 factors contribute to it. In recent years, the relationship between virus infection and pulmonary fibrosis is getting more and more attention, especially after the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019, however, the mechanisms underlying the virus-induced pulmonary fibrosis are not fully understood. Here, we review the relationship between pulmonary fibrosis and several viruses such as Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68), Influenza virus, Avian influenza virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 as well as the mechanisms underlying the virus infection induced pulmonary fibrosis. This may shed new light on the potential targets for anti-fibrotic therapy to treat pulmonary fibrosis induced by viruses including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Pulmonary Fibrosis , SARS Virus , Virus Diseases , Animals , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Mice , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism ; : 100451, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1487861

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the mobility, accessibility, and behaviors of visitors dramatically. Under the impact of COVID-19, the social carrying capacity and emotion dynamics in parks and recreation areas are expected to change due to the uncertainty of health risks associated with visitors’ behaviors. This study conducted an on-site visitor survey at Leiqiong Global Geological Park, a national park located in urban-proximate areas in Haikou, China. This study aims to examine factors impacting visitors’ perceived crowding and emotions under varying levels of visitor use in urban national parks in the context of COVID-19. Study results suggest that visitors have the highest level of motivation for scenery and culture viewing and are generally satisfied with the environmental quality and design, COVID-19 prevention strategies and implementation efforts within the park. Moreover, this study suggests that the level of crowding, COVID-19 prevention strategies and implementation can affect visitors’ emotions in nature-based parks significantly. These findings highlight the importance of enforcing the social carrying capacity limits and COVID-19 prevention strategies for urban parks and protected areas to mitigate physical and mental health risks during the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 701443, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470757

ABSTRACT

The airway mucus barrier is a primary defensive layer at the airway surface. Mucins are the major structural components of airway mucus that protect the respiratory tract. Respiratory viruses invade human airways and often induce abnormal mucin overproduction and airway mucus secretion, leading to airway obstruction and disease. The mechanism underlying the virus-induced abnormal airway mucus secretion has not been fully studied so far. Understanding the mechanisms by which viruses induce airway mucus hypersecretion may open new avenues to treatment. In this article, we elaborate the clinical and experimental evidence that respiratory viruses cause abnormal airway mucus secretion, review the underlying mechanisms, and also discuss the current research advance as well as potential strategies to treat the abnormal airway mucus secretion caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Mucus/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Respiratory System/metabolism
19.
One Health ; 13: 100332, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433701

ABSTRACT

The emerging coronavirus diseases such as COVID-19, MERS, and SARS indicated that animal coronaviruses (CoVs) spillover to humans are a huge threat to public health. Therefore, we needed to understand the CoVs carried by various animals. Wild hedgehogs were collected from rural areas in Wuhan and Xianning cities in Hubei Province for analysis of CoVs. PCR results showed that 5 out of 51 (9.8%) hedgehogs (Erinaceus amurensis) were positive to CoVs in Hubei Province with 3 samples from Wuhan City and 2 samples from Xianning City. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase showed that the CoVs from hedgehogs are classified into Merbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus; the hedgehog CoVs formed a phylogenetic sister cluster with human MERS-CoVs and bat MERS-related CoVs. Among the 12 most critical residues of receptor binding domain in MERS-CoV for binding human Dipeptidyl peptidase 4, 3 residuals were conserved between the hedgehog MERS-related CoV obtained in this study and the human MERS-CoV. We concluded that hedgehogs from Hubei Province carried MERS-related CoVs, indicating that hedgehogs might be important in the evolution and transmission of MERS-CoVs, and continuous surveillance of CoVs in hedgehogs was important.

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