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1.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(6): 974-981, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579544

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of Shumian capsule in improving the symptoms of insomnia, anxiety, depression, and other symptoms of convalescent patients of COVID-19. METHODS: Totally 200 patients were collected and randomly divided into experiment group (n = 100) and control group (n = 100). The control group was treated with Shumian capsule simulator, and the experiment group was treated with Shumian capsule. The improvement of TCM symptom score, the total effective rate and symptom disappearance rate of TCM symptoms in the two groups before and after treatment were observed, and the clinical effect was evaluated. RESULTS: One week after treatment, the scores of anxiety symptoms in the experiment group were significantly different from those in the control group (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in the scores of insomnia and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the total effective rate and disappearance rate of TCM symptoms of insomnia, anxiety and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). After 2 weeks of treatment, the scores of insomnia, anxiety, depression and the total effective rate of TCM symptoms in the experiment group were significantly different from those in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the disappearance rate of insomnia, anxiety and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in heart rate, respiration, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Shumian capsule can significantly improve the symptoms of insomnia, anxiety and depression in COVID-19's convalescent patients with sleep and mood disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mood Disorders/drug therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/drug therapy , Adult , Anxiety , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
2.
Energy economics ; 102:105498-105498, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564812

ABSTRACT

Detecting the adverse effects of major emergencies on financial markets and real economy is of great importance not only for short-term policy reactions but also for economic and financial stability. This is the lesson we learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper focuses on the risk spillover effect of the COVID-19 on Chinese energy industry using a high-dimensional and time-varying factor-augmented VAR model. The results show that the net volatility spillovers of the pandemic remain positive to all underlying energy sectors during January to June of 2020 and February to April of 2021. For the former sub-period, the volatility spillover of the COVID-19 is not only the highest, but also lasts longest for oil exploitation sector, followed by the power and gas sectors. While for the latter sub-period, the COVID-19 has relatively higher volatility spillovers to the power, coal mining and petrochemical sectors. These findings suggest that the COVID-19 has significant risk spillover effects on Chinese energy sectors, and the effects vary among different energy sub-sectors and across different periods of time.

3.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294720

ABSTRACT

Consistent segmentation of COVID-19 patient's CT scans across multiple time points is essential to assess disease progression and response to therapy accurately. Existing automatic and interactive segmentation models for medical images only use data from a single time point (static). However, valuable segmentation information from previous time points is often not used to aid the segmentation of a patient's follow-up scans. Also, fully automatic segmentation techniques frequently produce results that would need further editing for clinical use. In this work, we propose a new single network model for interactive segmentation that fully utilizes all available past information to refine the segmentation of follow-up scans. In the first segmentation round, our model takes 3D volumes of medical images from two-time points (target and reference) as concatenated slices with the additional reference time point segmentation as a guide to segment the target scan. In subsequent segmentation refinement rounds, user feedback in the form of scribbles that correct the segmentation and the target's previous segmentation results are additionally fed into the model. This ensures that the segmentation information from previous refinement rounds is retained. Experimental results on our in-house multiclass longitudinal COVID-19 dataset show that the proposed model outperforms its static version and can assist in localizing COVID-19 infections in patient's follow-up scans.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440466

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases, including COVID-19, are crucial public health issues and may lead to considerable fear among the general public and stigmatization of, and discrimination against, specific populations. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of stigma in infectious disease epidemics. We systematically searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases since inception to June 08, 2021, and reported the prevalence of stigma towards people with infectious diseases including SARS, H1N1, MERS, Zika, Ebola, and COVID-19. A total of 50 eligible articles were included that contributed 51 estimates of prevalence in 92722 participants. The overall pooled prevalence of stigma across all populations was 34% [95% CI: 28-40%], including enacted stigma (36% [95% CI: 28-44%]) and perceived stigma (31% [95% CI: 22-40%]). The prevalence of stigma in patients, community population, and health care workers, was 38% [95% CI: 12- 65%], 36% [95% CI: 28-45%], and 30% [95% CI: 20-40%], respectively. The prevalence of stigma in participants from low- and middle-income countries was 37% [95% CI: 29-45%], which is higher than that from high-income countries (27% [95% CI: 18-36%]) though this difference was not statistically significant. A similar trend of prevalence of stigma was also observed in individuals with lower education (47% [95% CI: 23-71%]) compared to higher education level (33% [95% CI: 23-4%]). These findings indicate that stigma is a significant public health concern, and effective and comprehensive interventions are needed to counteract the damaging effects of the infodemics during infectious disease epidemics, including COVID-19, and reduce infectious disease-related stigma.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 737, 2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The serum surfactant protein D (SP-D) level is suggested to be a useful biomarker for acute lung injuries and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Whether the serum SP-D level could identify the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the early stage has not been elucidated. METHODS: We performed an observational study on 39 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients from The Fourth People's Hospital of Yiyang, Hunan, China. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, correlation analysis, and multivariate logistic regression model analysis were performed. RESULTS: In the acute phase, the serum levels of SP-D were elevated significantly in severe COVID-19 patients than in mild cases (mean value ± standard deviation (SD), 449.7 ± 125.8 vs 245.9 ± 90.0 ng/mL, P<0.001), while the serum levels of SP-D in the recovery period were decreased dramatically than that in the acute phase (mean value ± SD, 129.5 ± 51.7 vs 292.9 ± 130.7 ng/ml, P<0.001), and so were for the stratified patients. The chest CT imaging scores were considerably higher in the severe group compared with those in the mild group (median value, 10.0 vs 9.0, P = 0.011), while markedly lower in the recovery period than those in the acute phase (median value, 2.0 vs 9.0, P<0.001), and so were for the stratified patients. ROC curve analysis revealed that areas under the curve of lymphocyte counts (LYM), C-reaction protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and SP-D for severe COVID-19 were 0.719, 0.833, 0.817, 0.837, and 0.922, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that the SP-D levels were negatively correlated with LYM (r = - 0.320, P = 0.047), while positively correlated with CRP (r = 0.658, P<0.001), IL-6 (r = 0.471, P = 0.002), the duration of nucleic acid of throat swab turning negative (r = 0.668, P<0.001), chest CT imaging score on admission (r = 0.695, P<0.001) and length of stay (r = 0.420, P = 0.008). Multivariate logistic regression model analysis showed that age (P = 0.041, OR = 1.093) and SP-D (P = 0.008, OR = 1.018) were risk factors for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum SP-D level was a potential biomarker for the severity of COVID-19; this may be useful in identifying patients whose condition worsens at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D , Humans , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367832

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 might have long-term mental health impacts. We aim to investigate the longitudinal changes in mental problems from initial COVID-19 peak to its aftermath among general public in China. Depression, anxiety and insomnia were assessed among a large-sample nationwide cohort of 10,492 adults during the initial COVID-19 peak (28 February 2020 to 11 March 2020) and its aftermath (8 July 2020 to 8 August 2020) using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, and Insomnia Severity Index. We used generalized estimating equations and linear mixed models to explore factors associated with long-term mental health symptoms during COVID-19. During the five months, mental health symptoms remained consistently elevated (baseline 46.4%; follow-up 45.1%). Long-term depression, anxiety and insomnia were associated with several personal and work-related factors including quarantine (adjusted OR for any mental health symptoms 1.31, 95%CI 1.22-1.41, p < 0.001), increases in work burden after resuming work (1.77, 1.65-1.90, p < 0.001), occupational exposure risk to COVID-19 (1.26, 1.14-1.40, p < 0.001) and living in places severely affected by initial COVID-19 peak (1.21, 1.04-1.41, p = 0.01) or by a COVID-19 resurgence (1.38, 1.26-1.50, p < 0.001). Compliance with self-protection measures, such as wearing face masks (0.74, 0.61-0.90, p = 0.003), was associated with lower long-term risk of mental problems. The findings reveal a pronounced and prolonged mental health burden from the initial COVID-19 peak through to its aftermath in China. We should regularly monitor the mental health status of vulnerable populations throughout COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 643988, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268315

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and related compulsory measures have triggered a wide range of psychological issues. However, the effect of COVID-19 on mental health in late-middle-aged adults remains unclear. Methods: This cross-sectional, web-based survey recruited 3,730 participants (≥ 50 years old) between February 28 and March 11 of 2020. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Insomnia Severity Index, and Acute Stress Disorder Scale were used to evaluate depression, anxiety, insomnia, and acute stress symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was fitted to explore risk factors that were associated with the selected outcomes. Results: The mean age of the participants was 54.44 ± 5.99 years, and 2,026 (54.3%) of the participants were female. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and acute stress symptoms among late-middle-aged adults in China during the COVID-19 pandemic was 20.4, 27.1, 27.5, and 21.2%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that participants who were quarantined had increased odds ratios for the four mental health symptoms, and those with a good understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic displayed a decreased risk for all mental health symptoms among late-middle-aged adults. In addition, participants with a low income and with a risk of COVID-19 exposure at work had a remarkably high risk of depression, anxiety, and acute stress symptoms. Conclusions: Mental health symptoms in late-middle-aged adults in China during the COVID-19 pandemic are prevalent. Population-specific mental health interventions should be developed to improve mental health outcomes in late-middle-aged adults during this public health emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(5): 1063-1092, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263933

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease associated with high mortality, and traditional Chinese medicine decoctions (TCMDs) have been widely used for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 in China; however, the impact of these decoctions on severe and critical COVID-19-related mortality has not been evaluated. Therefore, we aimed to address this gap. In this retrospective cohort study, we included inpatients diagnosed with severe/critical COVID-19 at the Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University and grouped them depending on the recipience of TCMDs (TCMD and non-TCMD groups). We conducted a propensity score-matched analysis to adjust the imbalanced variables and treatments and used logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Among 282 patients with COVID-19 who were discharged or died, 186 patients (66.0%) received TCMD treatment (TCMD cohort) and 96 (34.0%) did not (non-TCMD cohort). After propensity score matching at a 1:1 ratio, 94 TCMD users were matched to 94 non-users, and there were no significant differences in baseline clinical variables between the two groups of patients. The all-cause mortality was significantly lower in the TCMD group than in the non-TCMD group, and this trend remained valid even after matching (21.3% [20/94] vs. 39.4% [37/94]). Multivariable logistic regression model showed that disease severity (odds ratio: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.037; [Formula: see text]¡ 0.001) was associated with increased odds of death and that TCMD treatment significantly decreased the odds of in-hospital death (odds ratio: 0.115; 95% CI: 0.035, 0.383; [Formula: see text]¡ 0.001), which was related to the duration of TCMD treatment. Our findings show that TCMD treatment may reduce the mortality in patients with severe/critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 905-912, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191602

ABSTRACT

Without an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the build-up of herd immunity through natural infection has been suggested as a means to control COVID-19. Although population immunity is typically estimated by the serological investigation of recovered patients, humoral immunity in asymptomatic subjects has not been well studied, although they represent a large proportion of all SARS-CoV-2 infection cases. In this study, we conducted a serosurvey of asymptomatic infections among food workers and performed serological and cellular response analyses of asymptomatic subjects in Wuhan, the original epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak. Our data showed that up to 5.91% of the food workers carried SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies asymptomatically; however, in 90.4% of them, the antibody level declined over a 2-week period. IgM and IgG antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies, were significantly lower in asymptomatic subjects than in recovered symptomatic patients with similar disease courses. Furthermore, the asymptomatic subjects showed lymphopenia and a prominent decrease in the B-cell population, as well as a low frequency of antibody-secreting cells and a low cytokine response. These factors probably contributed to the low and unsustained antibody levels in asymptomatic subjects. Our results show that asymptomatic subjects are likely to be vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, and neither the proportion of population immunity nor the breadth of immune responses is sufficient for herd immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , China/epidemiology , Convalescence , Cytokines/blood , Disease Susceptibility , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Follow-Up Studies , Food Handling , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin M/biosynthesis , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/etiology , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sputum/virology
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 897, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075219

ABSTRACT

The dynamics, duration, and nature of immunity produced during SARS-CoV-2 infection are still unclear. Here, we longitudinally measured virus-neutralising antibody, specific antibodies against the spike (S) protein, receptor-binding domain (RBD), and the nucleoprotein (N) of SARS-CoV-2, as well as T cell responses, in 25 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients up to 121 days post-symptom onset (PSO). All patients seroconvert for IgG against N, S, or RBD, as well as IgM against RBD, and produce neutralising antibodies (NAb) by 14 days PSO, with the peak levels attained by 15-30 days PSO. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and NAb remain detectable and relatively stable 3-4 months PSO, whereas IgM antibody rapidly decay. Approximately 65% of patients have detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cell responses 3-4 months PSO. Our results thus provide critical evidence that IgG, NAb, and T cell responses persist in the majority of patients for at least 3-4 months after infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Kinetics , Leukocyte Common Antigens/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Receptors, CCR7/metabolism
11.
Cell Rep ; 34(4): 108666, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064915

ABSTRACT

Although vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are under development, the antigen epitopes on the virus and their immunogenicity are poorly understood. Here, we simulate the 3D structures and predict the B cell epitopes on the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 using structure-based approaches and validate epitope immunogenicity by immunizing mice. Almost all 33 predicted epitopes effectively induce antibody production, six of these are immunodominant epitopes in individuals, and 23 are conserved within SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and bat coronavirus RaTG13. We find that the immunodominant epitopes of individuals with domestic (China) SARS-CoV-2 are different from those of individuals with imported (Europe) SARS-CoV-2, which may be caused by mutations on the S (G614D) and N proteins. Importantly, we find several epitopes on the S protein that elicit neutralizing antibodies against D614 and G614 SARS-CoV-2, which can contribute to vaccine design against coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Viroporin Proteins/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Young Adult
12.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 13(1): e2021015, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045343

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly contagious and deadly and is associated with coagulopathy. Pentraxin-3(PTX3) participates in innate resistance to infections and plays a role in thrombogenesis. Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the role of PTX3 in coagulopathy in patients with COVID-19. Methods: A retrospective study, including thirty-nine COVID-19 patients, enrolled in Hunan, China, were performed. The patients were classified into the D-dimer_L (D-dimer <1mg/L) and D-dimer_H (D-dimer≥1mg/L) groups basing on the plasma D-dimer levels on admission. Serum PTX3 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and compared between those two groups, then receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, correlation analysis, and linear regression models were performed to analyze the association between PTX3 and D-dimer. Results: Our results showed that serum PTX3 levels (median values, 10.21 vs. 3.36, P<0.001), computerized chest tomography (C.T.) scores (median values, 10.0 vs. 9.0, P<0.05), and length of stay (LOS) (mean values, 16.0 vs. 10.7, P=0.001) in the D-dimer_H group were significantly higher than that in D-dimer_L group. ROC curve analysis revealed that the AUC of white blood corpuscle counts, C-reaction protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and PTX3 for COVID-19 were 0.685, 0.863, 0.846, and 0.985, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that there was a positive relationship between PTX3 and D-dimer (r=0.721, P<0.001), chest CT imaging score (r=0.418, P=0.008), and LOS (r=0.486, P=0.002). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the coefficient of determination was 0.657 (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Serum level of PTX3 was positively correlated with disease severity and coagulopathy. Detection of serum PTX3 level could help identify severer patients on admission and may be a potential therapeutic target for coagulopathy in patients with COVID-19.

15.
Preprint | CAplus | ID: ppcovidwho-2038

ABSTRACT

A review. Acupuncture has played important role in infection disease pandemic. This review provided guiding opinions on acupuncture intervention for the new coronavirus pneumonia (second edition).

16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239532, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-798278

ABSTRACT

To investigate the clinical value of changes in the subtypes of peripheral blood lymphocytes and levels of inflammatory cytokines in patients with COVID-19, the total numbers of lymphocytes and CD4+ lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes were calculated and observed in different groups of patients with COVID-19. The results show that the lymphocytopenia in patients with COVID-19 was mainly manifested by decreases in the CD4+ T lymphocyte number and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio. The decreased number of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the elevated levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were correlated with the severity of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-CD8 Ratio , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
17.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-267716

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) becomes a tremendous threat to global health. Although vaccines against the virus are under development, the antigen epitopes on the virus and their immunogenicity are poorly understood. Here, we simulated the three-dimensional structures of SARS-CoV-2 proteins with high performance computer, predicted the B cell epitopes on spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 using structure-based approaches, and then validated the epitope immunogenicity by immunizing mice. Almost all 33 predicted epitopes effectively induced antibody production, six of which were immunodominant epitopes in patients identified via the binding of epitopes with the sera from domestic and imported COVID-19 patients, and 23 were conserved within SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and bat coronavirus RaTG13. We also found that the immunodominant epitopes of domestic SARS-CoV-2 were different from that of the imported, which may be caused by the mutations on S (G614D) and N proteins. Importantly, we validated that eight epitopes on S protein elicited neutralizing antibodies that blocked the cell entry of both D614 and G614 pseudo-virus of SARS-CoV-2, three and nine epitopes induced D614 or G614 neutralizing antibodies, respectively. Our present study shed light on the immunodominance, neutralization, and conserved epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 which are potently used for the diagnosis, virus classification and the vaccine design tackling inefficiency, virus mutation and different species of coronaviruses.

18.
Chin Med ; 15: 78, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688856

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new global public health emergency. The therapeutic benefits of Cold‒Damp Plague Formula (CDPF) against COVID-19, which was used to treat "cold‒dampness stagnation in the lung" in Trial Versions 6 and 7 of the "Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19", have been demonstrated, but the effective components and their mechanism of action remain unclear. Methods: In this study, a network pharmacology approach was employed, including drug-likeness evaluation, oral bioavailability prediction, protein‒protein interaction (PPI) network construction and analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation, and virtual docking, to predict the bioactive components, potential targets, and molecular mechanism of CDPF for COVID-19 treatment. Results: The active compound of herbs in CDPF and their candidate targets were obtained through database mining, and an herbs-ingredients-targets network was constructed. Subsequently, the candidate targets of the active compounds were compared to those relevant to COVID-19, to identify the potential targets of CDPF for COVID-19 treatment. Subsequently, the PPI network was constructed, which provided a basis for cluster analysis and hub gene screening. The seed targets in the most significant module were selected for further functional annotation. GO enrichment analysis identified four main areas: (1) cellular responses to external stimuli, (2) regulation of blood production and circulation, (3) free radical regulation, (4) immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects. KEGG pathway analysis also revealed that CDPF could play pharmacological roles against COVID-19 through "multi components‒multi targets‒multi pathways" at the molecular level, mainly involving anti-viral, immune-regulatory, and anti-inflammatory pathways; consequently, a "CDPF-herbs-ingredients-targets-pathways-COVID-19" network was constructed. In hub target analysis, the top hub target IL6, and ACE2, the receptor via which SARS-CoV-2 typically enters host cells, were selected for molecular docking analyses, and revealed good binding activities. Conclusions: This study revealed the active ingredients and potential molecular mechanism by which CDPF treatment is effective against COVID-19, and provides a reference basis for the wider application and further mechanistic investigations of CDPF in the fight against COVID-19.

19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2014053, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627105

ABSTRACT

Importance: People exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a series of imperative containment measures could be psychologically stressed, yet the burden of and factors associated with mental health symptoms remain unclear. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with mental health symptoms in the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This large-sample, cross-sectional, population-based, online survey study was conducted from February 28, 2020, to March 11, 2020. It involved all 34 province-level regions in China and included participants aged 18 years and older. Data analysis was performed from March to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and acute stress among the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Insomnia Severity Index, and Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore demographic and COVID-19-related risk factors. Results: Of 71 227 individuals who clicked on the survey link, 56 932 submitted the questionnaires, for a participation rate of 79.9%. After excluding the invalid questionnaires, 56 679 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.97 [8.22] years; 27 149 men [47.9%]) were included in the study; 39 468 respondents (69.6%) were aged 18 to 39 years. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the rates of mental health symptoms among the survey respondents were 27.9% (95% CI, 27.5%-28.2%) for depression, 31.6% (95% CI, 31.2%-32.0%) for anxiety, 29.2% (95% CI, 28.8%-29.6%) for insomnia, and 24.4% (95% CI, 24.0%-24.7%) for acute stress. Participants with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 and their family members or friends had a high risk for symptoms of depression (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 3.27 [95% CI, 1.84-5.80] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.26-1.85] for family or friends), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 2.48 [95% CI, 1.43-4.31] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.27-1.84] for family or friends), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 3.06 [95% CI, 1.73-5.43] for patients; 1.62 [95% CI, 1.35-1.96] for family or friends), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 3.50 [95% CI, 2.02-6.07] for patients; 1.77 [95% CI, 1.46-2.15] for family or friends). Moreover, people with occupational exposure risks and residents in Hubei province had increased odds of symptoms of depression (adjusted ORs, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.77-2.17] for occupational exposure; 1.42 [95% CI, 1.19-1.68] for Hubei residence), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.75-2.13] for occupational exposure; 1.54 [95% CI, 1.30-1.82] for Hubei residence), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.45-1.77] for occupational exposure; 1.20 [95% CI, 1.01-1.42] for Hubei residence), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.79-2.20] for occupational exposure; 1.49 [95% CI, 1.25-1.79] for Hubei residence). Both centralized quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.10-1.61] for depression; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.22-1.75] for anxiety; 1.63 [95% CI, 1.36-1.95] for insomnia; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.21-1.77] for acute stress) and home quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.25-1.36] for depression; 1.28 [95% CI, 1.23-1.34] for anxiety; 1.24 [95% CI, 1.19-1.30] for insomnia; 1.29 [95% CI, 1.24-1.35] for acute stress) were associated with the 4 negative mental health outcomes. Being at work was associated with lower risks of depression (adjusted OR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.79-0.91]), anxiety (adjusted OR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.99]), and insomnia (adjusted OR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81-0.94]). Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this survey indicate that mental health symptoms may have been common during the COVID-19 outbreak among the general population in China, especially among infected individuals, people with suspected infection, and people who might have contact with patients with COVID-19. Some measures, such as quarantine and delays in returning to work, were also associated with mental health among the public. These findings identify populations at risk for mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and may help in implementing mental health intervention policies in other countries and regions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Status Schedule/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Quarantine/psychology , Return to Work/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology
20.
J Infect Dis ; 221(12): 1948-1952, 2020 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599716

ABSTRACT

Data concerning the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in asymptomatic and paucisymptomatic patients are lacking. We report a 3-family cluster of infections involving asymptomatic and paucisymptomatic transmission. Eight of 15 (53%) members from 3 families were confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of 8 patients, 3 were asymptomatic and 1 was paucisymptomatic. An asymptomatic mother transmitted the virus to her son, and a paucisymptomatic father transmitted the virus to his 3-month-old daughter. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the environment of 1 household. The complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 from the patients were > 99.9% identical and were clustered with other SARS-CoV-2 sequences reported from China and other countries.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Family Health , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
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