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1.
Curr Med Imaging ; 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533548

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the Computed Tomography (CT) imaging characteristics and dynamic changes of COVID-19 pneumonia at different stages. METHODS: Forty-six patients infected with COVID-19 who had chest CT scans were enrolled, and CT scans were performed 4-6 times with an interval of 2-5 days. RESULTS: At the early stage (n=25), ground glass opacity was presented in 11 patients (11/25 or 44.0%) and ground glass opacity mixed with consolidation in 13 (13/25 or 52.0%) in the lung CT images. At the progressive stage (n=38), ground glass opacity was presented in only one patient (1/38 or 2.6%) and ground glass opacity mixed with consolidation in 33 (33/38 or 86.8%). In the early improvement stage (n=38), the imaging presentation was ground glass opacity alone in three patients (3/38 or 7.9%) and ground glass opacity mixed with consolidation in 34 (34/38 or 89.5%). In the late improvement (absorption) stage (n=33), the primary imaging presentation was ground glass presentation in eight patients (8/33 or 24.2%) and ground glass opacity mixed with consolidation in 23 (23/33 or 69.7%). The lesion reached the peak at 4-16 days after disease onset, and 26 (26/38 or 68.4%) patients reached the disease peak within ten days. Starting from 6 to 20 days after onset, the disease began to be improved, with 30 (30/38 or 78.9%) patients being improved within 15 days. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pneumonia will progress to the peak stage at a mediate time of seven days and enter the improvement stage at twelve days. Computed tomography imaging of the pulmonary lesion has a common pattern from disease onset to improvement and recovery and provides important information for evaluation of the disease course and treatment effect.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(28): e26503, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494082

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been rapidly spreading on a global scale and poses a great threat to human health. However, efficient indicators for disease severity have not been fully investigated. Here, we aim to investigate whether dynamic changes of lymphocyte counts can predict the deterioration of patients with COVID-19.We collected data from 2923 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Patients were then screened, and we focused on 145 severe cases and 60 critical cases (29 recovered cases, 31 deaths). The length of hospitalization was divided into five time points, namely admission, 25%, 50%, 75% and discharge or death, according to the principle of interquartile distance. A series of laboratory findings and clinical data were collected and analyzed during hospitalization. The results showed that there were differences in levels of leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes at almost every time point in the severe cases and 60 critical cases (29 recovered cases, 31 deaths). Further analysis showed that 70.2% of the COVID-19 cases had low circulating lymphocyte count, of which 64.1% were severe cases and 85.0% were critical cases (75.9% recovered cases and 93.5% died). Moreover, the lymphocyte count in dead cases was significantly lower than that of critical cases who recovered, at almost every time point in the critical groups. We also divided critical patients into group A (<1.1 × 109/L) and group B (>1.1 × 109/L) according to number of lymphocytes. Through survival analysis, we found that there was no significant difference in survival between group A and group B at admission (P = .3065). However, the survival rate according to lymphocyte levels in group A was significantly lower than that of group B at 25% hospital stay (on average day 6.5), 50% and 75% time points (P < .001).Lymphocyte counts that remain lower after the first week following symptom onset are highly predictive of in-hospital death of adults with COVID-19. This predictor may help clinicians identify patients with a poor prognosis and may be useful for guiding clinical decision-making at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Lymphocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Young Adult
4.
Journal of Physics Communications ; 5(10), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1462255

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, two drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), have received renewed attention. Using the density functional theory method in the CASTEP and DMol3 packages, we calculated both molecules’ infrared spectra and the partial phonon density of states of the hydroxyl group to identify the origin of the differences between the two spectra. Some characteristic vibrational modes of the hydroxyl group in HCQ were analysed individually. We also compared their Fukui functions and found that the oxygen atom in HCQ possesses electrophilic properties. This finding may be related to the large difference in toxicity between these two drugs. The method herein presents a new pathway to investigate organic molecules from the view of physics.

5.
Front Neurol ; 12: 673703, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441124

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Thousands of designated COVID-19 hospitals have been set up in China to fight the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Anecdotal reports indicate a falling rate of acute stroke diagnoses in these hospitals during the COVID-19 period. We conducted an exploratory single-center analysis to estimate the change in acute stroke presentation at the designated COVID-19 hospitals. Methods: This retrospective observational study included all patients admitted to Yongchuan Hospital Affiliated to Chongqing Medical University with acute stroke between January 24 and March 10, 2020. Patient demographics, characteristics of the stroke, treatment details, and clinical outcomes were compared with those of patients admitted in the corresponding period in the year before (2019, "the pre-COVID-19 period"). Subgroup analysis was performed in the ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke groups. Results: A total of 110 patients presented with acute stroke symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared with 173 patients in the pre-COVID-19 period. A higher proportion of stroke patients presented to the hospital via emergency medical services during the pandemic (48.2 vs. 31.8%, p = 0.006). There was a lower proportion of ischemic stroke patients (50.9 vs. 65.3%, p = 0.016) than in the preceding year. There were significantly fewer patients with 90-day modified Rankin Scale score ≥3 in the COVID-19 period compared with the pre-COVID-19 period (17.3 vs. 30.6%, p = 0.012). Among patients with ischemic stroke, the mean time from patient arrival to vessel puncture for emergency endovascular therapy in the COVID-19 period was shorter than that in the pre-COVID-19 period (109.18 ± 71.39 vs. 270.50 ± 161.51 min, p = 0.002). Among patients with hemorrhagic stroke, the rate of emergency surgical operation in the COVID-19 period was higher than that in the pre-COVID-19 period (48.1 vs. 30.0%, p = 0.047). The mean time from patient arrival to emergency surgical operation (15.31 ± 22.89 vs. 51.72 ± 40.47 min, p = 0.002) was shorter in the COVID-19 period than in the pre-COVID-19 period. Conclusions: Although fewer acute stroke patients sought medical care in this designated COVID-19 hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic, this type of hospital was more efficient for timely treatment of acute stroke. Recognizing how acute strokes presented in designated COVID-19 hospitals will contribute to appropriate adjustments in strategy for dealing with acute stroke during COVID-19 and future pandemics.

6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430274

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Alteration of human respiratory microbiota had been observed in COVID-19. How the microbiota is associated with the prognosis in COVID-19 is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the feature and dynamics of the respiratory microbiota and its associations with clinical features in COVID-19 patients. Methods:We conducted metatranscriptome sequencing on 588 longitudinal oropharyngeal swab specimens collected from 192 COVID-19 patients (including 39 deceased patients), and 95 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Meanwhile, the concentration of 27 cytokines and chemokines in plasma was measured for COVID-19 patients. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota in COVID-19 patients differed from that in healthy controls, while deceased patients possessed a more distinct microbiota, both on admission and before discharge/death. The alteration of URT microbiota showed a significant correlation with the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines and mortality. Specifically, Streptococcus-dominated microbiota was enriched in recovered patients, and show high temporal stability and resistance against pathogens. In contrast, the microbiota in deceased patients was more susceptible to secondary infections, and became more deviated from the normality after admission. Moreover, the abundance of S. parasanguinis on admission was significantly correlated with prognosis in non-severe patients (lower vs. higher abundance, odds ratio=7.80, [95% CI 1.70-42.05]). Conclusions:URT microbiota dysbiosis is a remarkable manifestation of COVID-19; its association with mortality suggests it may reflect the interplay between pathogens, symbionts, and the host immune status. Whether URT microbiota could be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases merits further investigation. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 328, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392810

ABSTRACT

Understanding the pathological features of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in an animal model is crucial for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we compared immunopathological changes in young and old rhesus macaques (RMs) before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection at the tissue level. Quantitative analysis of multiplex immunofluorescence staining images of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection specifically induced elevated levels of apoptosis, autophagy, and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)+ cells, and increased interferon α (IFN-α)- and interleukin 6 (IL-6)-secreting cells and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3)+ cells in lung tissue of old RMs. This pathological pattern, which may be related to the age-related pro-inflammatory microenvironment in both lungs and spleens, was significantly correlated with the systemic accumulation of CXCR3+ cells in lungs, spleens, and peripheral blood. Furthermore, the ratio of CXCR3+ to T-box protein expression in T cell (T-bet)+ (CXCR3+/T-bet+ ratio) in CD8+ cells may be used as a predictor of severe COVID-19. These findings uncovered the impact of aging on the immunopathology of early SARS-CoV-2 infection and demonstrated the potential application of CXCR3+ cells in predicting severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cellular Microenvironment/immunology , Lung/immunology , Receptors, CXCR3/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male
8.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376991

ABSTRACT

RNA interference (RNAi), especially the small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways, plays an important role in defending against viruses in plants and insects. However, how insect-transmitted phytoviruses regulate the RNAi-mediated antiviral response in vector insects has barely been uncovered. In this study, we explored the interaction between rice stripe virus (RSV) and the miRNA and siRNA pathways of the small brown planthopper, which is a vector insect. The transcript and protein levels of key genes in the two RNAi pathways did not change during the RSV infection process. When the expression of insect Ago1, Ago2, or Translin was silenced by the injection of double-stranded RNAs targeting these genes, viral replication was promoted with Ago2 silencing but inhibited with Translin silencing. Protein-protein binding assays showed that viral NS2 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase interacted with insect Ago2 and Translin, respectively. When NS2 was knocked down, the transcript level of Ago2 increased and viral replication was inhibited. Therefore, viral NS2 behaved like an siRNA suppressor in vector insects. This protein-binding regulation of insect RNAi systems reflects a complicated and diverse coevolution of viruses with their vector insects.

9.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 633-636, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369995

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiologic agent responsible for the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Numerous studies have demonstrated that cardiovascular disease may affect COVID-19 progression. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypertension on viral replication and COVID-19 progression using a hypertensive mouse model infected with SARS-CoV-2. Results revealed that SARS-CoV-2 replication was delayed in hypertensive mouse lungs. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 replication in hypertensive mice treated with the antihypertensive drug captopril demonstrated similar virus replication as SARS-CoV-2-infected normotensive mice. Furthermore, antihypertensive treatment alleviated lung inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 replication (interleukin (IL)-1ß up-regulation and increased immune cell infiltration). No differences in lung inflammation were observed between the SARS-CoV-2-infected normotensive mice and hypertensive mice. Our findings suggest that captopril treatment may alleviate COVID-19 progression but not affect viral replication.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Captopril/therapeutic use , Hypertension/complications , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Captopril/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/virology , Mice , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 304: 114153, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336864

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the sleep-related problems and predictors of probable clinical insomnia among college students during the COVID-19 remission period in China. 146,102 college students from 22 colleges/universities in Guangdong province participated in this study from 1th to 15th June, 2020. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess demographic characteristics. Sleep-related problems, depression and anxiety symptoms were measured by Youth Self-Rating Insomnia Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7, respectively. The prevalence of difficulty in initiating sleep, difficulty in maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, sleep insufficiency, unrefreshing sleep and daytime functioning impairment were 7.2%, 3.4%, 3.5%, 9.6%, 14.6%, and 7.6%, respectively. 16.9% students had varying degrees of insomnia and 6.3% were considered as displaying probable clinical insomnia. Moreover, being urban residents, having a history of physical or mental illness, and probable clinical depression or anxiety were significant risk factors of probable clinical insomnia, while college senior degree and 7-8 hours' sleep duration per day was the protective factor for probable clinical insomnia. Unrefreshing sleep was the most prominent sleep problem among college students during COVID-19 remission in China. Good sleep hygiene practices are strongly suggested to develop in the time of prolonged home isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315591

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can induce acute inflammatory response like acute lung inflammation (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome, leading to severe progression and mortality. Therapeutics for treatment of SARS-CoV-2-triggered respiratory inflammation are urgent to be discovered. Our previous study shows that Salvianolic acid C potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effects of a Salvia miltiorrhiza compound, Danshensu, in vitro and in vivo, including the mechanism of S protein-mediated virus attachment and entry into target cells. In authentic and pseudo-typed virus assays in vitro, Danshensu displayed a potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 with EC50 of 0.97 µM, and potently inhibited the entry of SARS-CoV-2 S protein-pseudo-typed virus (SARS-CoV-2 S) into ACE2-overexpressed HEK-293T cells (IC50 = 0.31 µM) and Vero-E6 cell (IC50 = 4.97 µM). Mice received SARS-CoV-2 S via trachea to induce ALI, while the VSV-G treated mice served as controls. The mice were administered Danshensu (25, 50, 100 mg/kg, i.v., once) or Danshensu (25, 50, 100 mg·kg-1·d-1, oral administration, for 7 days) before SARS-CoV-2 S infection. We showed that SARS-CoV-2 S infection induced severe inflammatory cell infiltration, severely damaged lung tissue structure, highly expressed levels of inflammatory cytokines, and activated TLR4 and hyperphosphorylation of the NF-κB p65; the high expression of angiotensinogen (AGT) and low expression of ACE2 at the mRNA level in the lung tissue were also observed. Both oral and intravenous pretreatment with Danshensu dose-dependently alleviated the pathological alterations in mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 S. This study not only establishes a mouse model of pseudo-typed SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2 S) induced ALI, but also demonstrates that Danshensu is a potential treatment for COVID-19 patients to inhibit the lung inflammatory response.

12.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series ; 1955(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1286531

ABSTRACT

The continuous spread of COVID-19 virus around the world has exerted a great impact on the world’s economy and security. China took the lead in responding to the epidemic with a positive attitude and contributed valuable experience to the fight against the epidemic for people around the world Based on the COVID-19 epidemic data published by the National Health Commission, this study established a time series of the number of newly diagnosed patients on a daily basis. The SIR model of transmission dynamics was used to determine the trend and inflection point of the epidemic, and the SVR algorithm was used to reasonably predict and analyze the number of newly diagnosed patients on a daily basis.

13.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-449680

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced hyper-inflammation links to the acute lung injury and COVID-19 severity. Identifying the primary mediators that initiate the uncontrolled hypercytokinemia is essential for treatments. Mast cells (MCs) are strategically located at the mucosa and beneficially or detrimentally regulate immune inflammations. Here we showed that SARS-CoV-2-triggeed MC degranulation initiated alveolar epithelial inflammation and lung injury. SARS-CoV-2 challenge induced MC degranulation in ACE-2 humanized mice and rhesus macaques, and a rapid MC degranulation could be recapitulated with Spike-RBD binding to ACE2 in cells; MC degranulation alterred various signaling pathways in alveolar epithelial cells, particularly, led to the production of pro-inflammatory factors and consequential disruption of tight junctions. Importantly, the administration of clinical MC stabilizers for blocking degranulation dampened SARS-CoV-2-induced production of pro-inflammatory factors and prevented lung injury. These findings uncover a novel mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 initiating lung inflammation, and suggest an off-label use of MC stabilizer as immunomodulators for COVID-19 treatments. Graphical abstract O_FIG O_LINKSMALLFIG WIDTH=200 HEIGHT=135 SRC="FIGDIR/small/449680v1_ufig1.gif" ALT="Figure 1"> View larger version (29K): org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@899996org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@1c26c0eorg.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@1442cdcorg.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@dd4204_HPS_FORMAT_FIGEXP M_FIG C_FIG In BriefSARS-CoV-2 triggers an immediate mast cell (MC) degranulation, which initiates the alveolar epithelial inflammation and disrupts the tight junction. MC stabilizers that block degranulation reduce virus-induced lung inflammation and injury. HighlightsO_LIThe binding of RBD of Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2-to ACE2 receptor protein triggers an immediate MC degranulation C_LIO_LIMC degranulation induces transcriptomic changes include an upregulated inflammatory signaling and a downregulated cell-junction signaling C_LIO_LIMC degranulation leads to alveolar epithelial inflammation and disruption of tight junctions C_LIO_LIMC stabilizer that inhibits degranulation reduces SARS-CoV-2-induced lung inflammation and injury in vivo C_LI

14.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2299-2303, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260595

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid testing and antibody testing data from 143 recovered COVID-19 patients during the convalescent phase were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 23 (16.1%) recovered patients re-tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR. Three months after symptom onset, 100% and 99.3% of the patients remained positive for total and IgG antibodies, and the antibody levels remained high. IgM antibodies declined rapidly, with a median time to seroconversion of 67 (95% CI: 59, 75) days after onset. Approximately 25% of patients were seronegative for IgA antibodies at three months after onset. There was no statistically significant difference in antibody kinetics between patients with and without re-positive RT-PCR results during the convalescent phase.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroconversion
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 336: 123-129, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has recently been identified as the functional receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent response for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to explore the roles of ACE2, apelin and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in SARS-CoV-2-mediated cardiorenal damage. METHODS AND RESULTS: The published RNA-sequencing datasets of cardiomyocytes infected with SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 patients were used. String, UMAP plots and single cell RNA sequencing data were analyzed to show the close relationship and distinct cardiorenal distribution patterns of ACE2, apelin and SGLT2. Intriguingly, there were decreases in ACE2 and apelin expression as well as marked increases in SGLT2 and endothelin-1 levels in SARS-CoV-2-infected cardiomyocytes, animal models with diabetes, acute kidney injury, heart failure and COVID-19 patients. These changes were linked with downregulated levels of interleukin (IL)-10, superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase as well as upregulated expression of profibrotic genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Genetic ACE2 deletion resulted in upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines containing IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor α. More importantly, dapagliflozin strikingly alleviated cardiorenal fibrosis in diabetic db/db mice by suppressing SGLT2 levels and potentiating the apelin-ACE2 signaling. CONCLUSION: Downregulation of apelin and ACE2 and upregulation of SGLT2, endothelin-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to SARS-CoV-2-mediated cardiorenal injury, indicating that the apelin-ACE2 signaling and SGLT2 inhibitors are potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Apelin , Humans , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 778-785, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major healthcare threat. The current method of detection involves a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based technique, which identifies the viral nucleic acids when present in sufficient quantity. False-negative results can be achieved and failure to quarantine the infected patient would be a major setback in containing the viral transmission. We aim to describe the time kinetics of various antibodies produced against the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and evaluate the potential of antibody testing to diagnose COVID-19. METHODS: The host humoral response against SARS-CoV-2, including IgA, IgM, and IgG response, was examined by using an ELISA-based assay on the recombinant viral nucleocapsid protein. 208 plasma samples were collected from 82 confirmed and 58 probable cases (qPCR negative but with typical manifestation). The diagnostic value of IgM was evaluated in this cohort. RESULTS: The median duration of IgM and IgA antibody detection was 5 (IQR, 3-6) days, while IgG was detected 14 (IQR, 10-18) days after symptom onset, with a positive rate of 85.4%, 92.7%, and 77.9%, respectively. In confirmed and probable cases, the positive rates of IgM antibodies were 75.6% and 93.1%, respectively. The detection efficiency by IgM ELISA is higher than that of qPCR after 5.5 days of symptom onset. The positive detection rate is significantly increased (98.6%) when combining IgM ELISA assay with PCR for each patient compared with a single qPCR test (51.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 can aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19, including subclinical cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Case Rep Womens Health ; 31: e00321, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213126

ABSTRACT

The effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first trimester on the pregnant woman and the fetus remain unclear. We describe the complete follow-up of a pregnant woman with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first trimester. The woman tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swabs in her seventh week of gestation and was admitted to a local hospital for treatment. Although the woman had a BMI above 28 and a total gestational weight gain of 21 kg, no pregnancy complications or severe complications related to SARS-CoV-2 were reported. An ultrasound scan identified no fetal abnormalities at 22 weeks. The pregnancy ended at term (37 weeks), and the newborn's birth weight was 3100 g. Placental insufficiency was revealed by placental histology examination but this appeared not to be related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In-situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical tests for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, spike protein 1, and nucleocapsid proteins were negative. However, ACE-2 was positive in samples of the placenta, umbilical cord and fetal membrane. The baby was followed up through to 10 days after birth and grew normally. Our results suggest that asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first trimester of pregnancy might not have significant harmful effects on the mother and the developing fetus. This finding may be of interest to the general public, midwives and general practitioners. However, large population studies are needed to confirm our findings.

18.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 43(1):83-87, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1140722

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 (Corona virus disease 2019) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) poses a huge threat to human health worldwide since December 2019. In order to study the correlation betweenSARS-CoV-2 and porcine coronavirus, the phylogenetic analysis of spike (S) protein amino acid sequence of human coronavirusand porcine coronavirus, the similarity analysis of the spatial structure of S1 subunit receptor binding domain (RBD) of S proteinwere conducted by bioinformatics analysis, moreover, the double- antigen sandwich ELISA kit was utilized to detect the SARSCoV-2 antibody in common porcine coronavirus positive serum. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed a low identity of Sprotein amino acid sequence between SARS-CoV-2 and porcine coronavirus, indicating a long distance of genetic evolution, andthe S1 subunit RBD spatial structure showed huge differences, meanwhile, all of the porcine coronavirus positive serum samplestested were negative of SARS-CoV-2 antibody. Our data suggested the huge differences in gene and protein level between SARS-CoV-2 and porcine coronavirus, which indicating that SARS-CoV-2 shows a minimal risk of achieving cross-species transmission byinfecting pigs to threaten public health security. This research provides a basis for studying COVID-19 pathogen traceability andbiosafety analysis of cross-species transmission.

19.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf ; 47(5): 273-274, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118533
20.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(12): 893-905, 2020 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060079

ABSTRACT

Objective: Several COVID-19 patients have overlapping comorbidities. The independent role of each component contributing to the risk of COVID-19 is unknown, and how some non-cardiometabolic comorbidities affect the risk of COVID-19 remains unclear. Methods: A retrospective follow-up design was adopted. A total of 1,160 laboratory-confirmed patients were enrolled from nine provinces in China. Data on comorbidities were obtained from the patients' medical records. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio ( OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the associations between comorbidities (cardiometabolic or non-cardiometabolic diseases), clinical severity, and treatment outcomes of COVID-19. Results: Overall, 158 (13.6%) patients were diagnosed with severe illness and 32 (2.7%) had unfavorable outcomes. Hypertension (2.87, 1.30-6.32), type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (3.57, 2.32-5.49), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (3.78, 1.81-7.89), fatty liver disease (7.53, 1.96-28.96), hyperlipidemia (2.15, 1.26-3.67), other lung diseases (6.00, 3.01-11.96), and electrolyte imbalance (10.40, 3.00-26.10) were independently linked to increased odds of being severely ill. T2DM (6.07, 2.89-12.75), CVD (8.47, 6.03-11.89), and electrolyte imbalance (19.44, 11.47-32.96) were also strong predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Women with comorbidities were more likely to have severe disease on admission (5.46, 3.25-9.19), while men with comorbidities were more likely to have unfavorable treatment outcomes (6.58, 1.46-29.64) within two weeks. Conclusion: Besides hypertension, diabetes, and CVD, fatty liver disease, hyperlipidemia, other lung diseases, and electrolyte imbalance were independent risk factors for COVID-19 severity and poor treatment outcome. Women with comorbidities were more likely to have severe disease, while men with comorbidities were more likely to have unfavorable treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
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