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1.
Biosafety and Health ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-664504

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV), named severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) The rapid detection of viral nucleic acids is critical for the early identification of infected cases We have developed two TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays to detect SARS-CoV-2 The designed primers target the nucleocapsid (N) and open reading frame (ORF) 1b gene regions, where the probes discriminate SARS-CoV-2 from other human and animal CoVs The sensitivities are one genomic copy per reaction for the N gene assay and ten copies for the ORF 1b gene assay The overall linear detection ranges are 1–106 and 10–106 copies per reaction for the N gene assay and the ORF 1b gene assay, respectively Surveillance of 23 suspected COVID-19 patients demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 could be detected from 100% (23/23) and 62 5% (16/23) of clinical specimens by the N gene assay and the ORF 1b gene assay, respectively All of the samples not detected by the ORF 1b gene assay were throat swabs, indicating a lower viral load in the upper respiratory tract and the relatively lower sensitivity of the ORF 1b gene assay The assays developed in the present study offer alternative diagnostic tests for COVID-19

2.
Lancet ; 395(10223): 497-506, 2020 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. METHODS: All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. FINDINGS: By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0-58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0-13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. INTERPRETATION: The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. FUNDING: Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Prognosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/virology , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 83, 2020 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has seriously endangered the health and lives of Chinese people. In this study, we predicted the COVID-19 epidemic trend and estimated the efficacy of several intervention strategies in the mainland of China. METHODS: According to the COVID-19 epidemic status, we constructed a compartmental model. Based on reported data from the National Health Commission of People's Republic of China during January 10-February 17, 2020, we estimated the model parameters. We then predicted the epidemic trend and transmission risk of COVID-19. Using a sensitivity analysis method, we estimated the efficacy of several intervention strategies. RESULTS: The cumulative number of confirmed cases in the mainland of China will be 86 763 (95% CI: 86 067-87 460) on May 2, 2020. Up until March 15, 2020, the case fatality rate increased to 6.42% (95% CI: 6.16-6.68%). On February 23, 2020, the existing confirmed cases reached its peak, with 60 890 cases (95% CI: 60 350-61 431). On January 23, 2020, the effective reproduction number was 2.620 (95% CI: 2.567-2.676) and had dropped below 1.0 since February 5, 2020. Due to governmental intervention, the total number of confirmed cases was reduced by 99.85% on May 2, 2020. Had the isolation been relaxed from February 24, 2020, there might have been a second peak of infection. However, relaxing the isolation after March 16, 2020 greatly reduced the number of existing confirmed cases and deaths. The total number of confirmed cases and deaths would increase by 8.72 and 9.44%, respectively, due to a 1-day delayed diagnosis in non-isolated infected patients. Moreover, if the coverage of close contact tracing was increased to 100%, the cumulative number of confirmed cases would be decreased by 88.26% on May 2, 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The quarantine measures adopted by the Chinese government since January 23, 2020 were necessary and effective. Postponing the relaxation of isolation, early diagnosis, patient isolation, broad close-contact tracing, and strict monitoring of infected persons could effectively control the COVID-19 epidemic. April 1, 2020 would be a reasonable date to lift quarantine in Hubei and Wuhan.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/legislation & jurisprudence , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting , Humans , Models, Statistical , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
4.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2020 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648556

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop a new Chinese medicine (CM)-based drug and to evaluate its safety and effect for suppressing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A putative ARDS-suppressing drug Keguan-1 was first developed and then evaluated by a randomized, controlled two-arm trial. The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group. After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed. RESULTS: An analysis of the data from the first 30 participants showed that the control arm and the testing arm did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of adverse events. Based on this result, the study was expanded to include a total of 48 participants (24 cases each arm). The results show that compared with the control arm, the testing arm exhibited a significant improvement in time to fever resolution (P=0.035), and a significant reduction in the development of ARDS (P=0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Keguan-1-based integrative therapy was safe and superior to the standard therapy in suppressing the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. (Trial registration No. NCT04251871 at www.clinicaltrials.gov ).

5.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2020 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, the treatment of families with children on long-term KRT is challenging. This study was conducted to identify the current difficulties, worries regarding the next 2 months, and mental distress experienced by families with children on long-term KRT during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak and to deliver possible management approaches to ensure uninterrupted treatment for children on long-term KRT. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A multicenter online survey was conducted between February 10 and 15, 2020, among the families with children on long-term KRT from five major pediatric dialysis centers in mainland China. The primary caregivers of children currently on long-term KRT were eligible and included. Demographic information, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection status, current difficulties, and worries regarding the next 2 months were surveyed using a self-developed questionnaire. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the General Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 were used to screen for depressive symptoms and anxiety, respectively. RESULTS: Among the children in the 220 families included in data analysis, 113 (51%) children were on dialysis, and the other 107 (49%) had kidney transplants. No families reported confirmed or suspected cases of coronavirus disease 2019. Overall, 135 (61%) and 173 (79%) caregivers reported having difficulties now and having worries regarding the next 2 months, respectively. Dialysis supply shortage (dialysis group) and hard to have blood tests (kidney transplantation group) were most commonly reported. A total of 29 (13%) caregivers had depressive symptoms, and 24 (11%) had anxiety. After the survey, we offered online and offline interventions to address their problems. At the time of the submission of this paper, no treatment interruption had been reported. CONCLUSIONS: The coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak has had physical, mental, logistical, and financial effects on families with children on long-term KRT.

6.
World J Pediatr ; 16(4): 326-332, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613534

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 epidemic, it is important for ensuring infection prevention and control in the pediatric respiratory clinics. Herein, we introduced the practice of infection prevention and control in pediatric respiratory clinics in China. Triage measures for patients who visit respiratory clinics, quality control for pediatric respiratory clinics and other preventive measures for related examinations and treatment have been introduced in this review article.

7.
Analyst ; 145(15): 5345-5352, 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610551

ABSTRACT

The ongoing worldwide SARS-CoV-2 epidemic clearly has a tremendous influence on public health. Molecular detection based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, high false negative rates were reported. We describe here the development of a point-of-care (POC) serological assay for the detection of IgG antibody against SARS-CoV-2. The principle of a lateral flow immunoassay strip (LFIAs) consists of fixing SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein to the surface of the strip and coupling anti-human IgG with colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). A series of parameters of this method were optimized, including the concentration of coating antigen, BSA blocking concentration and pH value for conjugation. The entire detection process took 15-20 min with a volume of 80 µL of the analyte solution containing 10 µL of serum and 70 µL sample diluent. The performance of the established assay was evaluated using serum samples of the clinically diagnosed cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our results indicated that the LFIAs for SARS-CoV-2 had satisfactory stability and reproducibility. As a result, our fast and easy LFIAs could provide a preliminary test result for physicians to make the correct diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections along with alternative testing methods and clinical findings, as well as seroprevalence determination, especially in low-resource countries.

9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(7): 1075-1083, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459522

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Elevated liver enzyme levels are observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, these features have not been characterized. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang Province, China, from January 17 to February 12, 2020, were enrolled. Liver enzyme level elevation was defined as alanine aminotransferase level >35 U/L for men and 25 U/L for women at admission. Patients with normal alanine aminotransferase levels were included in the control group. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and patients symptomatic with SARS-CoV-2 infection were defined as patients with COVID-19. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were collected and compared. RESULTS: Of 788 patients with COVID-19, 222 (28.2%) patients had elevated liver enzyme levels (median [interquartile range {IQR}] age, 47.0 [35.0-55.0] years; 40.5% women). Being male, overweight, and smoking increased the risk of liver enzyme level elevation. The liver enzyme level elevation group had lesser pharyngalgia and more diarrhea than the control group. The median time from illness onset to admission was 3 days for liver enzyme level elevation groups (IQR, 2-6), whereas the median hospitalization time for 86 (38.7%) discharged patients was 13 days (IQR, 11-16). No differences in disease severity and clinical outcomes were noted between the groups. DISCUSSION: We found that 28.2% of patients with COVID-19 presented with elevated liver enzyme levels on admission, which could partially be related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Male patients had a higher risk of liver enzyme level elevation. With early medical intervention, liver enzyme level elevation did not worsen the outcomes of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/enzymology , Liver Function Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/virology , Humans , Liver Diseases/enzymology , Liver Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
ACS Omega ; 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-326200

ABSTRACT

Last year, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, and it has rapidly spread to many other countries and regions. COVID-19 exhibits a strong human-to-human transmission infectivity and could cause acute respiratory diseases. Asymptomatic carriers are able to infect other healthy persons, and this poses a challenge for public health; the World Health Organization (WHO) has already announced COVID-19 as a global pandemic. Nucleic acid testing, considered as the current primary method for diagnosing COVID-19, might lead to false negatives and is difficult to be applied for every suspected patient because of the existence of asymptomatic carriers. Meanwhile, detecting specific antibodies in blood, such as the IgM antibody, against the SARS-CoV-2 virus is another choice for COVID-19 diagnosis, as it is widely accepted that IgM is an important indicator in the acute infection period. In this study, a colloidal gold nanoparticle-based lateral-flow (AuNP-LF) assay was developed to achieve rapid diagnosis and on-site detection of the IgM antibody against the SARS-CoV-2 virus through the indirect immunochromatography method. For preparing AuNP-LF strips, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein (SARS-CoV-2 NP) was coated on an analytical membrane for sample capture, and antihuman IgM was conjugated with AuNPs to form the detecting reporter. Optimization of AuNP-LF assay was carried out by altering the pH value and the amount of antihuman IgM. The performance of AuNP-LF assay was evaluated by testing serum samples of COVID-19 patients and normal humans. The results were compared with the real-time polymerase chain reaction. The sensitivity and specificity of AuNP-LF assay were determined to be 100 and 93.3%, respectively, and an almost perfect agreement was exhibited by Kappa statistics (κ coefficient = 0.872). AuNP-LF assay showed outstanding selectivity in the detection of IgM against the SARS-CoV-2 virus with no interference from other viruses such as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) and dengue virus (DFV). AuNP-LF assay was able to achieve results within 15 min and needed only 10-20 μL serum for each test. As a whole, in the light of its advantages such as excellent specificity and stability, easy operation, low cost, and being less time-consuming, AuNP-LF assay is a feasible method for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in primary hospitals and laboratories, especially in emergency situations in which numerous samples need to be tested on time. ©

11.
Eur Respir J ; 56(1)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The duration of viral shedding is central to the guidance of decisions about isolation precautions and antiviral treatment. However, studies regarding the risk factors associated with prolonged shedding of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the impact of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) treatment on viral shedding remain scarce. METHODS: Data were collected from all SARS-CoV-2 infected patients who were admitted to isolation wards and had reverse transcription PCR conversion at the No. 3 People's Hospital of Hubei province, China, between 31 January and 9 March 2020. We compared clinical characteristics and SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding between patients initiated with LPV/r treatment and those without. Logistic regression analysis was employed to evaluate the risk factors associated with prolonged viral shedding. RESULTS: Of 120 patients, the median age was 52 years, 54 (45%) were male and 78 (65%) received LPV/r treatment. The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection from symptom onset was 23 days (interquartile range 18-32 days). Older age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.05; p=0.03) and the lack of LPV/r treatment (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.10-5.36; p=0.029) were independent risk factors for prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding. Patients who initiated LPV/r treatment within 10 days from symptom onset, but not initiated from day 11 onwards, had significantly shorter viral shedding duration compared with those without LPV/r treatment (median 19 days versus 28.5 days; log-rank p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Older age and the lack of LPV/r treatment were independently associated with prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Earlier administration of LPV/r treatment could shorten viral shedding duration.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Virus Shedding , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Case-Control Studies , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors
12.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2(6): e323-e330, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260619

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 has led to international concern. We aimed to establish an effective screening strategy in Shanghai, China, to aid early identification of patients with COVID-19. Methods: We did a multicentre, observational cohort study in fever clinics of 25 hospitals in 16 districts of Shanghai. All patients visiting the clinics within the study period were included. A strategy for COVID-19 screening was presented and then suspected cases were monitored and analysed until they were confirmed as cases or excluded. Logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors of COVID-19. Findings: We enrolled patients visiting fever clinics from Jan 17 to Feb 16, 2020. Among 53 617 patients visiting fever clinics, 1004 (1·9%) were considered as suspected cases, with 188 (0·4% of all patients, 18·7% of suspected cases) eventually diagnosed as confirmed cases. 154 patients with missing data were excluded from the analysis. Exposure history (odds ratio [OR] 4·16, 95% CI 2·74-6·33; p<0·0001), fatigue (OR 1·56, 1·01-2·41; p=0·043), white blood cell count less than 4 × 109 per L (OR 2·44, 1·28-4·64; p=0·0066), lymphocyte count less than 0·8 × 109 per L (OR 1·82, 1·00-3·31; p=0·049), ground glass opacity (OR 1·95, 1·32-2·89; p=0·0009), and having both lungs affected (OR 1·54, 1·04-2·28; p=0·032) were independent risk factors for confirmed COVID-19. Interpretation: The screening strategy was effective for confirming or excluding COVID-19 during the spread of this contagious disease. Relevant independent risk factors identified in this study might be helpful for early recognition of the disease. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China.

13.
Nature ; 583(7818): 830-833, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-220333

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has become a public health emergency of international concern1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)2. Here we infected transgenic mice that express human ACE2 (hereafter, hACE2 mice) with SARS-CoV-2 and studied the pathogenicity of the virus. We observed weight loss as well as virus replication in the lungs of hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. The typical histopathology was interstitial pneumonia with infiltration of considerable numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes into the alveolar interstitium, and the accumulation of macrophages in alveolar cavities. We observed viral antigens in bronchial epithelial cells, macrophages and alveolar epithelia. These phenomena were not found in wild-type mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Notably, we have confirmed the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 mice. This mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection will be valuable for evaluating antiviral therapeutic agents and vaccines, as well as understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19.

14.
Microbes Infect ; 22(4-5): 212-217, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197499

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) is continuously and rapidly circulating at present. Asymptomatic patients have been proven to be contagious and thus pose a significant infection control challenge. Here we describe the characteristics of asymptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Jinan, Shandong province, China. A total of 47 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were recruited. Among them, 11 patients were categorized as asymptomatic cases. We found that the asymptomatic patients in Jinan were relatively young and were mainly clustered cases. The laboratory indicators and lung lesion on chest CT were mild. No special factors were found accounting for the presence or absence of symptoms. The presence of asymptomatic patients increased the difficulty of screening. It is necessary to strengthen the identification of such patients in the future.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Young Adult
15.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 883-890.e2, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165371

ABSTRACT

The outbreaks of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection have posed a severe threat to global public health. It is unclear how the human immune system responds to this infection. Here, we used metatranscriptomic sequencing to profile immune signatures in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of eight COVID-19 cases. The expression of proinflammatory genes, especially chemokines, was markedly elevated in COVID-19 cases compared to community-acquired pneumonia patients and healthy controls, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes hypercytokinemia. Compared to SARS-CoV, which is thought to induce inadequate interferon (IFN) responses, SARS-CoV-2 robustly triggered expression of numerous IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs exhibit immunopathogenic potential, with overrepresentation of genes involved in inflammation. The transcriptome data was also used to estimate immune cell populations, revealing increases in activated dendritic cells and neutrophils. Collectively, these host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection could further our understanding of disease pathogenesis and point toward antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory System/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/analysis , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory System/pathology
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1213-1218, 2020 Mar.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-54128

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is raging in China and more than 20 other countries and regions since the middle of December 2019. Currently, there is no specific drug or vaccine besides symptomatic supportive therapy. Taking full advantage of the clinical experience of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in preventing and controlling major epidemics such as SARS, it is an important mission for TCM to propose effective formula with immediate response and solid evidence by using modern biomedical knowledge and techniques(molecular docking assisted TCM formulation for short). In view of the high homology between the gene sequences of the novel coronavirus and SARS virus, and the similarities between the two in terms of pathogenic mechanism and clinical manifestations, our team established a rapid screening and optimization model for the prevention and treatment of the novel coronavirus based on clinical experience and molecular docking technology. Firstly, the clinical team and the research team pre-developed and screened TCM formula by using "back-to-back" manner. Then, the formula was optimized and determined by comparing and analyzing the results of the two groups. The results showed that the research team screened out 46 active ingredients from candidate TCMs that could act on the novel coronavirus S-protein-binding site of human ACE2 protein, which were mainly attributed to 7 herbs such as Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Mori Folium. The result was largely consistent with the formula raised by the clinical group, verifying and supporting its rationality. This provides evidence for the scientific and potential efficacy of the TCM prescription from the perspective of treatment target analysis, and also suggests that the TCM prescription has the potential to directly inhibit viral infection in addition to improving clinical symptoms or syndromes. Based on this, our team optimized and formed a new anti-coronavirus TCM prescription "Keguan Yihao", immediately providing the TCM prescription with certain clinical experience and objective evidence support for the prevention and treatment of new emergent infectious diseases in our hospital. The TCM prescription was combined with modern medicine symptomatic supportive treatment for clinical treatment, preliminary results showed better effect than symptomatic supportive therapy alone. This research has innovated the method mode in clinical practice and basic research integration of traditional Chinese medicine for the prevention and control of new emerging infectious diseases. It is of great significance to further improve the rapid response mechanism of TCM in face of major epidemics, and further improve the capability level of TCM to prevent and treat new emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , China , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
17.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(3): 2693-2707, 2020 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-33638

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is running rampantly in China and is swiftly spreading to other countries in the world, which causes a great concern on the global public health. The absence of specific therapeutic treatment or effective vaccine against COVID-19 call for other avenues of the prevention and control measures. Media reporting is thought to be effective to curb the spreading of an emergency disease in the early stage. Cross-correlation analysis based on our collected data demonstrated a strong correlation between media data and the infection case data. Thus we proposed a deterministic dynamical model to examine the interaction of the disease progression and the media reports and to investigate the effectiveness of media reporting on mitigating the spread of COVID-19. The basic reproduction number was estimated as 5.3167 through parameterization of the model with the number of cumulative confirmed cases, the number of cumulative deaths and the daily number of media items. Sensitivity analysis suggested that, during the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak, enhancing the response rate of the media reporting to the severity of COVID-19, and enhancing the response rate of the public awareness to the media reports, both can bring forward the peak time and reduce the peak size of the infection significantly. These findings suggested that besides improving the medical levels, media coverage can be considered as an effective way to mitigate the disease spreading during the initial stage of an outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Communication , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Mass Media , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Basic Reproduction Number , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health
18.
Gut ; 69(6): 1002-1009, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-18560

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The SARS-CoV-2-infected disease (COVID-19) outbreak is a major threat to human beings. Previous studies mainly focused on Wuhan and typical symptoms. We analysed 74 confirmed COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms in the Zhejiang province to determine epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics. DESIGN: COVID-19 hospital patients were admitted in the Zhejiang province from 17 January 2020 to 8 February 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, management and outcome data of patients with GI symptoms were analysed using multivariate analysis for risk of severe/critical type. Bioinformatics were used to analyse features of SARS-CoV-2 from Zhejiang province. RESULTS: Among enrolled 651 patients, 74 (11.4%) presented with at least one GI symptom (nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea), average age of 46.14 years, 4-day incubation period and 10.8% had pre-existing liver disease. Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 17 (22.97%) and 23 (31.08%) had severe/critical types and family clustering, respectively, significantly higher than those without GI symptoms, 47 (8.14%) and 118 (20.45%). Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 29 (39.19%), 23 (31.08%), 8 (10.81%) and 16 (21.62%) had significantly higher rates of fever >38.5°C, fatigue, shortness of breath and headache, respectively. Low-dose glucocorticoids and antibiotics were administered to 14.86% and 41.89% of patients, respectively. Sputum production and increased lactate dehydrogenase/glucose levels were risk factors for severe/critical type. Bioinformatics showed sequence mutation of SARS-CoV-2 with m6A methylation and changed binding capacity with ACE2. CONCLUSION: We report COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms with novel features outside Wuhan. Attention to patients with COVID-19 with non-classic symptoms should increase to protect health providers.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Tract , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors
19.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(2): 275-280, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-13587

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, COVID-19 has occurred unexpectedly and emerged as a health problem worldwide. Despite the rapidly increasing number of cases in subsequent weeks, the clinical characteristics of pediatric cases are rarely described. A cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out in 10 hospitals across Hubei province. A total of 25 confirmed pediatric cases of COVID-19 were collected. The demographic data, epidemiological history, underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiological data, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed. Of 25 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the boy to girl ratio was 1.27:1. The median age was 3 years. COVID-19 cases in children aged <3 years, 3.6 years, and ≥6-years patients were 10 (40%), 6 (24%), and 9 (36%), respectively. The most common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (13 [52%]), and dry cough (11 [44%]). Chest CT images showed essential normal in 8 cases (33.3%), unilateral involvement of lungs in 5 cases (20.8%), and bilateral involvement in 11 cases (45.8%). Clinical diagnoses included upper respiratory tract infection (n=8), mild pneumonia (n=15), and critical cases (n=2). Two critical cases (8%) were given invasive mechanical ventilation, corticosteroids, and immunoglobulin. The symptoms in 24 (96%) of 25 patients were alleviated and one patient had been discharged. It was concluded that children were susceptible to COVID-19 like adults, while the clinical presentations and outcomes were more favorable in children. However, children less than 3 years old accounted for majority cases and critical cases lied in this age group, which demanded extra attentions during home caring and hospitalization treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 713-720, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-3950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2, has infected >75 000 individuals and spread to >20 countries. It is still unclear how fast the virus evolved and how it interacts with other microorganisms in the lung. METHODS: We have conducted metatranscriptome sequencing for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from 8 patients with SARS-CoV-2, and also analyzed data from 25 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and 20 healthy controls for comparison. RESULTS: The median number of intrahost variants was 1-4 in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, ranged from 0 to 51 in different samples. The distribution of variants on genes was similar to those observed in the population data. However, very few intrahost variants were observed in the population as polymorphisms, implying either a bottleneck or purifying selection involved in the transmission of the virus, or a consequence of the limited diversity represented in the current polymorphism data. Although current evidence did not support the transmission of intrahost variants in a possible person-to-person spread, the risk should not be overlooked. Microbiotas in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were similar to those in CAP, either dominated by the pathogens or with elevated levels of oral and upper respiratory commensal bacteria. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 evolves in vivo after infection, which may affect its virulence, infectivity, and transmissibility. Although how the intrahost variant spreads in the population is still elusive, it is necessary to strengthen the surveillance of the viral evolution in the population and associated clinical changes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Betacoronavirus , Genetic Variation , Genomics , Humans
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