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1.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1832701

ABSTRACT

In recent years, precise high flow oxygen therapy as a new type of oxygen therapy machine has gradually attracted people’s attention and has been widely used in hospital emergency and clinical treatment of respiratory diseases;especially in recent years, severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has played an important role in the treatment of patients. This paper presents a new type of precise high flow oxygen therapy machine with electromagnetic pneumatic flow valve as the core control element. A sliding mode control strategy based on the system is proposed to realize the accurate control of oxygen concentration and output flow of oxygen therapy mixture. The physical equipment of the precision high flow system is established, and its working performance is verified through the test platform. The optimization design goal of the precision high flow equipment is achieved.

2.
Teacher Education and Special Education ; : 08884064221076159, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1714574

ABSTRACT

Special education teacher (SET) burnout is a significant concern, especially for SETs serving students with emotional?behavioral disorders (EBD), as they tend to experience higher burnout than other teachers. Working conditions, especially social support, have the potential to ameliorate burnout, but prior research has not articulated the sources and types of social support that are most important. The authors conducted a longitudinal study, surveying 230 SETs serving students with EBD at three time points across 1 school year. Data revealed administrative support, adequacy of planning time, and autonomy in fall predicted emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment in winter and spring. Associations between working conditions and burnout components were partially mediated by SETs? perceptions of workload manageability. SET change in well-being due to COVID-19 during the early months of the pandemic was not associated with burnout. The authors discuss implications, limitations, and directions for future inquiry.

3.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(7): 809-819, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not only placed an unprecedented strain on healthcare systems worldwide, but has also caused irreparable physical and psychological damage to those infected. It is essential to understand the disease process and psychological experience of patients with COVID-19, to provide them with efficacious psychological guidance and interventions. This qualitative systematic review sought to explore the experience of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The meta-analysis methodology developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute guided this systematic review and qualitative meta-analysis. Seven databases were searched, with no language restrictions. This study was registered with PROSPERO under accession number CRD42021279266. RESULTS: A total of 3107 potentially eligible articles were identified through database and reference list searches, among which 23 studies (from 10 countries) were ultimately included in our analysis. Five interrelated themes emerged: the complex psychological course of COVID-19 patients; the impact of the disease on the body; the expectation of support and guidance from multiple sources; coping strategies; and post-traumatic growth. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological distress among patients with COVID-19 was found to be widespread. Healthcare providers should pay attention to the psychological changes in patients, ensure continuity of care and provide professional support from hospital to home, and build patients' confidence so that they can return to their families and society. Long-term follow-up studies may provide deeper insight into the psychological needs of survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Qualitative Research
4.
Environ Res ; 209: 112806, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654411

ABSTRACT

To prevent the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreading, Chinese government takes a series of corresponding measures to restrict human mobility, including transportation lock-down and industries suspension, which significantly influenced the ambient air quality and provided vary rare time windows to assess the impacts of anthropological activities on air pollution. In this work, we divided the studied timeframe (2019/12/24-2020/2/24) into four periods and selected 88 cities from 31 representative urban agglomerations. The indicators of PM2.5/PM10 and NO2/SO2 were applied, for the first time, to analyze the changes in stoichiometric characteristics of ambient air pollutants pre-to post-COVID-19 in China. The results indicated that the ratios of NO2/SO2 presented a responding decline, especially in YRD (-5.01), YH (-3.87), and MYR (-3.84), with the sharp reduction of traffic in post-COVID-19 periods (P3-P4: 2.34 ± 0.94 m/m) comparing with pre-COVID-19 periods (P1-P2: 4.49 ± 2.03 m/m). Whereas the ratios of PM2.5/PM10 increased in P1-P3, then decreased in P4 with relatively higher levels (>0.5) in almost all urban agglomerations. Furthermore, NO2 presented a stronger association with PM2.5/PM10 variation than CO; and PM2.5 with NO2/SO2 variation than PM10. In summary, the economic structure, lockdown measures and meteorological conditions could explain the noteworthy variations in different urban agglomerations. These results would be in great help for improving air quality in the post-epidemic periods.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis
5.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 567446, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638124

ABSTRACT

Objective: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), declared as a major public health emergency, has had profound effects on public mental health especially emotional status. Due to professional requirements, medical staff are at a higher risk of infection, which might induce stronger negative emotions. This study aims to reveal the emotional status of Chinese frontline medical staff in the early epidemic period to better maintain their mental health, and provide adequate psychological support for them. Methods: A national online survey was carried out in China at the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic. In total, 3025 Chinese frontline medical staff took part in this investigation which utilized a general information questionnaire, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), and the Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire (BEQ). Results: At the early stage of COVID-19, anxiety was the most common negative emotion of Chinese medical staff, followed by sadness, fear, and anger, mainly at a mild degree, which declined gradually over time. Nurses had the highest level of negative emotions compared with doctors and other healthcare workers. Women experienced more fear than men, younger and unmarried medical staff had more anxiety and fear compared with elders and married ones. Risk perception and emotional expressivity increased negative emotions, cognitive reappraisal reduced negative emotions, while negative emotions led to more avoidant behavior and more physical health disturbances, in which negative emotions mediated the effect of risk perception on avoidant behavior tendency in the model test. Conclusion: Chinese frontline medical staff experienced a mild level of negative emotions at the early stage of COVID-19, which decreased gradually over time. The findings suggest that during the epidemic, nurses' mental health should be extensively attended to, as well as women, younger, and unmarried medical staff. To better ensure their mental health, reducing risk perception and improving cognitive reappraisal might be important, which are potentially valuable to form targeted psychological interventions and emotional guidance under crisis in the future.

6.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610478

ABSTRACT

Objective: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), declared as a major public health emergency, has had profound effects on public mental health especially emotional status. Due to professional requirements, medical staff are at a higher risk of infection, which might induce stronger negative emotions. This study aims to reveal the emotional status of Chinese frontline medical staff in the early epidemic period to better maintain their mental health, and provide adequate psychological support for them. Methods: A national online survey was carried out in China at the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic. In total, 3025 Chinese frontline medical staff took part in this investigation which utilized a general information questionnaire, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), and the Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire (BEQ). Results: At the early stage of COVID-19, anxiety was the most common negative emotion of Chinese medical staff, followed by sadness, fear, and anger, mainly at a mild degree, which declined gradually over time. Nurses had the highest level of negative emotions compared with doctors and other healthcare workers. Women experienced more fear than men, younger and unmarried medical staff had more anxiety and fear compared with elders and married ones. Risk perception and emotional expressivity increased negative emotions, cognitive reappraisal reduced negative emotions, while negative emotions led to more avoidant behavior and more physical health disturbances, in which negative emotions mediated the effect of risk perception on avoidant behavior tendency in the model test. Conclusion: Chinese frontline medical staff experienced a mild level of negative emotions at the early stage of COVID-19, which decreased gradually over time. The findings suggest that during the epidemic, nurses' mental health should be extensively attended to, as well as women, younger, and unmarried medical staff. To better ensure their mental health, reducing risk perception and improving cognitive reappraisal might be important, which are potentially valuable to form targeted psychological interventions and emotional guidance under crisis in the future.

7.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(23): e2102593, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559092

ABSTRACT

Fast and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is critical for the proper treatment of infections. Traditional culture-based diagnosis in clinics is increasingly supplemented by metagenomic next-generation-sequencing (mNGS). Here, RNA/cDNA-targeted sequencing (meta-transcriptomics using NGS (mtNGS)) is established to reduce the host nucleotide percentage in clinic samples and by combining with Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) platforms (meta-transcriptomics using third-generation sequencing, mtTGS) to improve the sequencing time. It shows that mtNGS improves the ratio of microbial reads, facilitates bacterial identification using multiple-strategies, and discovers fungi, viruses, and antibiotic resistance genes, and displaying agreement with clinical findings. Furthermore, longer reads in mtTGS lead to additional improvement in pathogen identification and also accelerate the clinical diagnosis. Additionally, primary tests utilizing direct-RNA sequencing and targeted sequencing of ONT show that ONT displays important potential but must be further developed. This study presents the potential of RNA-targeted pathogen identification in clinical samples, especially when combined with the newest developments in ONT.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Infections/genetics , Metagenomics/methods , RNA/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Aged , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Metagenome/genetics , Middle Aged
8.
Advances in Climate Change Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1471856

ABSTRACT

PM2.5 concentrations in Wuhan, China decreased by 36.0% between the period prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (1‒23 January, 2020) and the COVID-lockdown period (24 January to 29 February, 2020). However, decreases in PM2.5 concentration due to regional PM2.5 transport driven by meteorological changes, and the relationship between the PM2.5 source and receptor, are poorly understood. Therefore, this study assessed how changes in meteorology, local emissions, and regional transport from external source emissions contributed to the decrease in Wuhan’s PM2.5 concentration, using FLEXPART-WRF and WRF-Chem modelling experiments. The results showed that meteorological changes in central China explain up to 22.2% of the total decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in Wuhan, while the remaining 77.8% was due to air pollutant emissions reduction. Reduction in air pollutant emissions depended on both local and external sources, which contributed alomst equally to the reduction in PM2.5 concentrations (38.7% and 39.1% of the total reduction, respectively). The key emissions source areas affecting PM2.5 in Wuhan during the COVID-lockdown were identified by the FLEXPART-WRF modeling, revealing that regional-joint control measures in key areas accounted for 89.3% of the decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in Wuhan. The results show that regional-joint control can be enhanced by identifying key areas of emissions reduction from the source‒receptor relationship of regional PM2.5 transport driven by meteorology under the background of East Asian monsoon climate change.

9.
Int J Clin Health Psychol ; 21(3): 100252, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345341

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study aims to record post-traumatic stress (PTS) and post-traumatic growth (PTG) of the general population of China during the first wave of COVID-19 spread. Method: An online survey was distributed in China during February and March 2020 to record the general population's PTS (using the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, PCL-C) and PTG (using the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory, PTGI) due to COVID-19. Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFAs) and a Two-Part Model (TPM) of regression analysis were conducted. Results: In total, 29,118 Chinese participants completed the survey (54.20% were in their 20s, 68% were males, and 60.30% had a university education). CFA results illustrated that bifactor models described the Chinese psychometric traits of PTS and PTG over the default models. Results of TPM suggested that female, low-educated, and middle-aged individuals were more vulnerable to PTS. Remarkably, mutual and positive correlations between the PTS and the PTG, though small in statistics, were observed through regression analyses. Conclusions: The current results presented new best-fit structural models, potential predictors, and valuable baseline information on the PTS and the PTG of the Chinese population in the context of COVID-19.


Este estudio transversal se realizó para registrar el estrés postraumático (EPT) y el crecimiento de estrés postraumático (CPT) de la población general de China durante la primera ola de la extensión del COVID-19. Método: Se realizó una encuesta en línea en China durante febrero y marzo del año 2020 para registrar EPT de la población (utilizando el Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, PCL-C) y CPT (utilizando el Post-traumatic Growth Inventory, PTGI). Se llevaron a cabo Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio (AFC) y Modelo de Dos Partes (MDP) de análisis de regresión. Resultados: En total, 29.118 chinos completaron la encuesta (54,2% de ellos tenían 20~29 años, 68,0% eran hombres, y 60,3% tenían una Educación Universitaria). Los resultados de AFC ilustraron que los modelos de bifactoriales eran mejores para descubrir los rasgos psicométricos de EPT y CPT de los participantes chinos que los modelos predeterminados. Los resultados de MDP sugirieron que las mujeres, las personas con bajo nivel educativo y de mediana edad eran más vulnerables a EPT. Se observaron correlaciones mutuas y positivas entre EPT y CPT, aunque pequeñas. Conclusiones: Los resultados actuales presentaron nuevos modelos estructurales de mejor ajuste, predictores potenciales e información de referencia valiosa de EPT y CPT de la población China en el contexto de COVID-19.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 663608, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337647

ABSTRACT

Ventilators in the intensive care units (ICU) are life-support devices that help physicians to gain additional time to cure the patients. The aim of the study was to establish a scoring system to evaluate the ventilator performance in the context of COVID-19. The scoring system was established by weighting the ventilator performance on five different aspects: the stability of pressurization, response to leaks alteration, performance of reaction, volume delivery, and accuracy in oxygen delivery. The weighting factors were determined with analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Survey was sent out to 66 clinical and mechanical experts. The scoring system was built based on 54 valid replies. A total of 12 commercially available ICU ventilators providing non-invasive ventilation were evaluated using the novel scoring system. A total of eight ICU ventilators with non-invasive ventilation mode and four dedicated non-invasive ventilators were tested according to the scoring system. Four COVID-19 phenotypes were simulated using the ASL5000 lung simulator, namely (1) increased airway resistance (IR) (10 cm H2O/L/s), (2) low compliance (LC) (compliance of 20 ml/cmH2O), (3) low compliance plus increased respiratory effort (LCIE) (respiratory rate of 40 and inspiratory effort of 10 cmH2O), (4) high compliance (HC) (compliance of 50 ml/cmH2O). All of the ventilators were set to three combinations of pressure support and positive end-expiratory pressure levels. The data were collected at baseline and at three customized leak levels. Significant inaccuracies and variations in performance between different non-invasive ventilators were observed, especially in the aspect of leaks alteration, oxygen and volume delivery. Some ventilators have stable performance in different simulated phenotypes whereas the others have over 10% scoring differences. It is feasible to use the proposed scoring system to evaluate the ventilator performance. In the COVID-19 pandemic, clinicians should be aware of possible strengths and weaknesses of ventilators.

11.
Front Psychol ; 12: 567364, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278435

ABSTRACT

Major global public health emergencies challenge public mental health. Negative emotions, and especially fear, may endanger social stability. To better cope with epidemics and pandemics, early emotional guidance should be provided based on an understanding of the status of public emotions in the given circumstances. From January 27 to February 11, 2020 (during which the cases of COVID-19 were increasing), a national online survey of the Chinese public was conducted. A total of 132,482 respondents completed a bespoke questionnaire, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and the Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire (BEQ). Results showed that at the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic, 53.0% of the Chinese population reported varying degrees of fear, mostly mild. As seen from regression analysis, for individuals who were unmarried and with a relatively higher educational level, living in city or area with fewer confirmed cases, cognitive reappraisal, positive expressivity and negative inhibition were the protective factors of fear. For participants being of older age, female, a patient or medical staff member, risk perception, negative expressivity, positive impulse strength and negative impulse strength were the risk factors for fear. The levels of fear and avoidant behavior tendencies were risk factors for disturbed physical function. Structural equation modeling suggested that fear emotion had a mediation between risk perception and escape behavior and physical function disturbance. The findings help to reveal the public emotional status at the early stage of the pandemic based on a large Chinese sample, allowing targeting of the groups that most need emotional guidance under crisis. Findings also provide evidence of the need for psychological assistance in future major public health emergencies.

12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 352, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying the causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is challenging due to the disease's complex etiology and the limitations of traditional microbiological diagnostic methods. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS)-based metagenomics allow pan-pathogen detection in a single assay, and may have significant advantages over culture-based techniques. RESULTS: We conducted a cohort study of 159 CAP patients to assess the diagnostic performance of a clinical metagenomics assay and its impact on clinical management and patient outcomes. When compared to other techniques, clinical metagenomics detected more pathogens in more CAP cases, and identified a substantial number of polymicrobial infections. Moreover, metagenomics results led to changes in or confirmation of clinical management in 35 of 59 cases; these 35 cases also had significantly improved patient outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical metagenomics could be a valuable tool for the diagnosis and treatment of CAP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2100043628 .


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Metagenomics/methods , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/metabolism , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Pneumonia/microbiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sputum/microbiology , Young Adult
13.
Sci China Technol Sci ; 64(4): 869-878, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092731

ABSTRACT

Mechanical ventilation is an effective medical means in the treatment of patients with critically ill, COVID-19 and other pulmonary diseases. During the mechanical ventilation and the weaning process, the conduct of pulmonary rehabilitation is essential for the patients to improve the spontaneous breathing ability and to avoid the weakness of respiratory muscles and other pulmonary functional trauma. However, inappropriate mechanical ventilation strategies for pulmonary rehabilitation often result in weaning difficulties and other ventilator complications. In this article, the mechanical ventilation strategies for pulmonary rehabilitation are studied based on the analysis of patient-ventilator interaction. A pneumatic model of the mechanical ventilation system is established to determine the mathematical relationship among the pressure, the volumetric flow, and the tidal volume. Each ventilation cycle is divided into four phases according to the different respiratory characteristics of patients, namely, the triggering phase, the inhalation phase, the switching phase, and the exhalation phase. The control parameters of the ventilator are adjusted by analyzing the interaction between the patient and the ventilator at different phases. A novel fuzzy control method of the ventilator support pressure is proposed in the pressure support ventilation mode. According to the fuzzy rules in this research, the plateau pressure can be obtained by the trigger sensitivity and the patient's inspiratory effort. An experiment prototype of the ventilator is established to verify the accuracy of the pneumatic model and the validity of the mechanical ventilation strategies proposed in this article. In addition, through the discussion of the patient-ventilator asynchrony, the strategies for mechanical ventilation can be adjusted accordingly. The results of this research are meaningful for the clinical operation of mechanical ventilation. Besides, these results provide a theoretical basis for the future research on the intelligent control of ventilator and the automation of weaning process.

14.
World J Mens Health ; 39(3): 444-453, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067889

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, which is quickly spreading around the world and causes coronavirus disease 2019, may attack the urogenital system. We thought that a summary of the current literature about urogenital disease associated with the virus would be useful for physicians treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019. PubMed was comprehensively screened for studies published from 2019 to 2020. Studies of coronavirus disease 2019 patients with kidney disease, reproductive system diseases, or urological cancer were included. Through reviewing current literature, we summarized that acute kidney injury is a risk factor for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and is related to their survival. A diagnosis of chronic kidney disease increases the risk of infection. The therapy for kidney transplant patients should be cautious and implemented on a case-by-case basis. When the public health burden is too heavy to bear, a rational selection of treatment for patients with urological cancer is vital. The male reproductive system is at high risk of being attacked by the virus, which may cause damage to reproductive function, and the long-term effects require further study. So, the complications associated with the urogenital system should not be ignored during the course of infection treatment and more robust evidence of long-term effects on the urogenital system will be proposed as more studies are published.

15.
Complexity ; 2020, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-825970

ABSTRACT

The synchrony of patient-ventilator interaction affects the process of mechanical ventilation which is clinically applied for respiratory support. The occurrence of patient-ventilator asynchrony (PVA) not only increases the risk of ventilator complications but also affects the comfort of patients. To solve the problem of uncertain patient-ventilator interaction in the mechanical ventilation system, a novel method to evaluate patient-ventilator synchrony is proposed in this article. Firstly, a pneumatic model is established to simulate the mechanical ventilation system, which is verified to be accurate by the experiments. Then, the PVA phenomena are classified and detected based on the analysis of the ventilator waveforms. On this basis, a novel synchrony index SIhao is established to evaluate the patient-ventilator synchrony. It not only solves the defects of previous evaluation indexes but also can be used as the response parameter in the future research of ventilator control algorithms. The accurate evaluation of patient-ventilator synchrony can be applied to the adjustment of clinical strategies and the pathological analyses of patients. This research can also reduce the burden on clinicians and help to realize the adaptive control of the mechanical ventilation and weaning process in the future.

16.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1663

ABSTRACT

Major public health emergencies bring huge influence on people’s mental health especially emotion. To escape panic generated from epidemic, early intervention o

17.
J. Pract. Oncol. ; 2(35): 123-126, 20200410.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-291655

ABSTRACT

Tumor patients are the high risk population of being infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to reduce the infection risk of the tumor patients and maintain effective antitumor treatment, the preventive strategy for tumor patients in stationary phase, in treatment period, in immunosuppressor treatment, with fever, and involved in clinical trials, are discussed here with consideration of the disease features of the tumor patients and the experience of pharmaceutical care. In addition, suggestions regarding daily protection, diet and follow-up strategy for the tumor patients are provided.

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