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1.
Environ Res ; 211: 112984, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906997

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown policy reduced anthropogenic emissions and impacted the atmospheric chemical characteristics in Chinese urban cities. However, rare studies were conducted at the high mountain site. In this work, in-situ measurements of light absorption by carbonaceous aerosols and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were conducted at Waliguan (WLG) over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau of China from January 3 to March 30, 2020. The data was employed to explore the influence of the COVID-19 lockdown on atmospheric chemistry in the background-free troposphere. During the sampling period, the light absorption near-infrared (>470 nm) was mainly contributed by BC (>72%), however, BC and brown carbon (BrC) contributed equally to light absorption in the short wavelength (∼350 nm). The average BC concentrations in the pre-, during and post-lockdown were 0.28 ±â€¯0.25, 0.18 ±â€¯0.16, and 0.28 ±â€¯0.20 µg m-3, respectively, which decreased by approximately 35% during the lockdown period. Meanwhile, CO2 also showed slight decreases during the lockdown period. The declined BC was profoundly attributed to the reduced emissions (∼86%), especially for the combustion of fossil fuels. Moreover, the declined light absorption of BC, primary and secondary BrC decreased the solar energy absorbance by 35, 15, and 14%, respectively. The concentration weighted trajectories (CWT) analysis suggested that the decreased BC and CO2 at WLG were exclusively associated with the emission reduction in the eastern region of WLG. Our results highlighted that the reduced anthropogenic emissions attributed to the lockdown in the urban cities did impact the atmospheric chemistry in the free troposphere of the Tibetan Plateau.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Soot/analysis
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e055365, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769912

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to provide an insight into the life of survivors of critical COVID-19 in China. METHODS: We conducted an online survey and qualitative interviews among intensive care unit survivors of critical COVID-19 between November and December 2020 in Wuhan, China. Eligible participants were asked to complete the EQ-5D-5L and the Short Form 36-Item Survey, and invited to participate in a semistructured face-to-face interview. Descriptive analyses and phenomenological approach were adopted to analyse quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. RESULTS: Of 10 survivors who completed the questionnaire, 8 participated in the interview. The mean scores±SD of EuroQol-5 Dimensions-5 Level utility and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale were 0.88±0.15 and 80.9±14.2, respectively. The qualitative interview identified four themes, namely poor physical health, post-traumatic stress, social stigma and family support. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 survivors continue fighting physical and psychological impacts. Despite strong family support, these patients are struggling with social stigma. It is a long, challenging journey to recovery for patients and society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Qualitative Research , Survivors/psychology
3.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) ; 79(9):1225-1225, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1751256
4.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265117, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the mortality and health care resource use among patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) in the first wave of pandemic in China. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the mortality, discharge rate, length of hospital stay, and use of invasive ventilation in severe or critical COVID-19 cases in China. We searched electronic databases for studies from China with no restrictions on language or interventions patients received. We screened records, extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies in duplicate. We performed the meta-analysis using random-effect models through a Bayesian framework. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine studies by disease severity, study location and patient enrolment start date. We also performed sensitivity analysis using various priors, and assessed between-study heterogeneity and publication bias for the primary outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 6,205 titles and abstracts screened, 500 were reviewed in full text. A total of 42 studies were included in the review, of which 95% were observational studies (n = 40). The pooled 28-day and 14-day mortalities among severe or critical patients were 20.48% (7,136 patients, 95% credible interval (CrI), 13.11 to 30.70) and 10.83% (95% CrI, 6.78 to 16.75), respectively. The mortality declined over time and was higher in patients with critical disease than severe cases (1,235 patients, 45.73%, 95% CrI, 22.79 to 73.52 vs. 3,969 patients, 14.90%, 95% CrI, 4.70 to 39.57) and patients in Hubei compared to those outside Hubei (6,719 patients, 26.62%, 95% CrI, 13.11 to 30.70 vs. 244 patients, 5.88%, 95% CrI 2.03 to 14.11). The length of hospital stay was estimated at 18.48 days (6,847 patients, 95% CrI, 17.59 to 21.21), the 28-day discharge rate was 50.48% (3,645 patients, 95% CrI, 26.47 to 79.53), and the use of invasive ventilation rate was 13.46% (4,108 patients, 95% CrI, 7.61 to 22.31). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review and meta-analysis found high mortality among severe and critical COVID-19 cases. Severe or critical COVID-19 cases consumed a large amount of hospital resources during the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Length of Stay , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312149

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in negative impacts on the economy, population health, and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). Objective: To assess the impact of COVID-19 on US population HRQoL using the EQ-5D-5L. Design: We surveyed respondents on physical and mental health, demographics, socioeconomics, brief medical history, current COVID-19 status, sleep, dietary, financial and spending changes. Results were compared to online and face-to-face US population norms. Predictors of EQ-5D-5L utility were analyzed using both standard and post-lasso OLS regressions. Robustness of regression coefficients against unmeasured confounding was analyzed using the E-Value sensitivity analysis. Subjects: Amazon MTurk workers (n=2776) in the US. Main Measures : EQ-5D-5L utility and VAS scores by age group. Key Results : We received n=2746 responses. Subjects 18-24 years reported lower mean (SD) health utility (0.752 (0.281)) compared with both online (0.844 (0.184), p=0.001) and face-to-face norms (0.919 (0.127), p<0.001). Among ages 25-34, utility was worse compared to face-to-face norms only (0.825 (0.235) vs. 0.911 (0.111), p<0.001). For ages 35-64, utility was better during-pandemic compared to online norms (0.845 (0.195) vs. 0.794 (0.247), p<0.001). At age 65+, utility values (0.827 (0.213)) were similar across all samples. VAS scores were worse for all age groups (p<0.005) except ages 45-54. Increasing age and income were correlated with increased utility, while being Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic, married, living alone, having history of chronic illness or self-reported depression, experiencing COVID-19-like symptoms, having a family member diagnosed with COVID-19, fear of COVID-19, being underweight and living in California were associated with worse utility scores. Results were robust to unmeasured confounding. Conclusions: HRQoL decreased during the pandemic compared to US population norms, especially for ages 18-24. The mental health impact of COVID-19 is significant and falls primarily on younger adults whose health outcomes may have been overlooked based on policy initiatives to date.

6.
Advanced Materials ; 33(49):2170388, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1557818

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 Therapy In their work reported in article number 2103471, Long Zhang, Fangfang Zhou, and co-workers fuse the S-palmitoylation-dependent plasma membrane (PM) targeting sequence with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and engineer extracellular vesicles (EVs) on their surface enriched with palmitoylated ACE2 (PM-ACE2-EVs). The PM-ACE2-EVs can bind to the SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD with high affinity and block its interaction with cell-surface ACE2, thereby preventing SARS-CoV-2 from entering the host cell. This study provides a novel EV-based candidate for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment against COVID-19.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296347

ABSTRACT

There is a continuously growing demand for emergency department (ED) services across the world, especially under the COVID-19 pandemic. Risk triaging plays a crucial role in prioritizing limited medical resources for patients who need them most. Recently the pervasive use of Electronic Health Records (EHR) has generated a large volume of stored data, accompanied by vast opportunities for the development of predictive models which could improve emergency care. However, there is an absence of widely accepted ED benchmarks based on large-scale public EHR, which new researchers could easily access. Success in filling in this gap could enable researchers to start studies on ED more quickly and conveniently without verbose data preprocessing and facilitate comparisons among different studies and methodologies. In this paper, based on the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care IV Emergency Department (MIMIC-IV-ED) database, we proposed a public ED benchmark suite and obtained a benchmark dataset containing over 500,000 ED visits episodes from 2011 to 2019. Three ED-based prediction tasks (hospitalization, critical outcomes, and 72-hour ED revisit) were introduced, where various popular methodologies, from machine learning methods to clinical scoring systems, were implemented. The results of their performance were evaluated and compared. Our codes are open-source so that anyone with access to MIMIC-IV-ED could follow the same steps of data processing, build the benchmarks, and reproduce the experiments. This study provided insights, suggestions, as well as protocols for future researchers to process the raw data and quickly build up models for emergency care.

8.
Qual Life Res ; 31(4): 1191-1198, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474067

ABSTRACT

The disruptions to health research during the COVID-19 pandemic are being recognized globally, and there is a growing need for understanding the pandemic's impact on the health and health preferences of patients, caregivers, and the general public. Ongoing and planned health preference research (HPR) has been affected due to problems associated with recruitment, data collection, and data interpretation. While there are no "one size fits all" solutions, this commentary summarizes the key challenges in HPR within the context of the pandemic and offers pragmatic solutions and directions for future research. We recommend recruitment of a diverse, typically under-represented population in HPR using online, quota-based crowdsourcing platforms, and community partnerships. We foresee emerging evidence on remote, and telephone-based HPR modes of administration, with further studies on the shifts in preferences related to health and healthcare services as a result of the pandemic. We believe that the recalibration of HPR, due to what one would hope is an impermanent change, will permanently change how we conduct HPR in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life/psychology
9.
Adv Mater ; : e2103471, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473796

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key receptor present on cell surfaces that directly interacts with the viral spike (S) protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is proposed that inhibiting this interaction can be promising in treating COVID-19. Here, the presence of ACE2 in extracellular vesicles (EVs) is reported and the EV-ACE2 levels are determined by protein palmitoylation. The Cys141 and Cys498 residues on ACE2 are S-palmitoylated by zinc finger DHHC-Type Palmitoyltransferase 3 (ZDHHC3) and de-palmitoylated by acyl protein thioesterase 1 (LYPLA1), which is critical for the membrane-targeting of ACE2 and their EV secretion. Importantly, by fusing the S-palmitoylation-dependent plasma membrane (PM) targeting sequence with ACE2, EVs enriched with ACE2 on their surface (referred to as PM-ACE2-EVs) are engineered. It is shown that PM-ACE2-EVs can bind to the SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD with high affinity and block its interaction with cell surface ACE2 in vitro. PM-ACE2-EVs show neutralization potency against pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2 in human ACE2 (hACE2) transgenic mice, efficiently block viral load of authentic SARS-CoV-2, and thus protect host against SARS-CoV-2-induced lung inflammation. The study provides an efficient engineering protocol for constructing a promising, novel biomaterial for application in prophylactic and therapeutic treatments against COVID-19.

10.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(20): 2438-2446, 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), human mobility restriction measures have raised controversies, partly because of the inconsistent findings. An empirical study is promptly needed to reliably assess the causal effects of the mobility restriction. The purpose of this study was to quantify the causal effects of human mobility restriction on the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: Our study applied the difference-in-difference (DID) model to assess the declines of population mobility at the city level, and used the log-log regression model to examine the effects of population mobility declines on the disease spread measured by cumulative or new cases of COVID-19 over time after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: The DID model showed that a continual expansion of the relative declines over time in 2020. After 4 weeks, population mobility declined by -54.81% (interquartile range, -65.50% to -43.56%). The accrued population mobility declines were associated with the significant reduction of cumulative COVID-19 cases throughout 6 weeks (ie, 1% decline of population mobility was associated with 0.72% [95% CI: 0.50%-0.93%] reduction of cumulative cases for 1 week, 1.42% 2 weeks, 1.69% 3 weeks, 1.72% 4 weeks, 1.64% 5 weeks, and 1.52% 6 weeks). The impact on the weekly new cases seemed greater in the first 4 weeks but faded thereafter. The effects on cumulative cases differed by cities of different population sizes, with greater effects seen in larger cities. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent population mobility restrictions are well deserved. Implementation of mobility restrictions in major cities with large population sizes may be even more important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Trials ; 21(1): 771, 2020 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is known to induce adverse pregnancy outcomes and even recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) by placental vascular damage and inflammation activation. Anticoagulation can prevent pregnancy morbidities. However, it is unknown whether the addition of immune suppressants to anticoagulation can prevent spontaneous pregnancy loss in UCTD patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and low-dose prednisone on recurrent pregnancy loss for women with UCTD. METHODS: The Immunosuppressant for Living Fetuses (ILIFE) Trial is a three-arm, multicenter, open-label randomized controlled trial with the primary objective of comparing hydroxychloroquine combined with low-dose prednisone and anticoagulation with anticoagulation alone in treating UCTD women with recurrent spontaneous abortion. The third arm of using hydroxychloroquine combined with anticoagulant for secondary comparison. A total of 426 eligible patients will be randomly assigned to each of the three arms with a 1:1:1 allocation ratio. The primary outcome is the rate of live births. Secondary outcomes include adverse pregnancy outcomes and progression of UCTD. DISCUSSION: This is the first multi-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial which evaluates the efficacy of immunosuppressant regimens on pregnancy outcomes and UCTD progression. It will provide evidence on whether the immunosuppressant ameliorates the pregnancy prognosis in UCTD patients with RSA and the progression into defined connective tissue disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03671174 . Registered on 14 September 2018.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Habitual , COVID-19 , Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Diseases , Abortion, Habitual/diagnosis , Abortion, Habitual/drug therapy , Abortion, Habitual/prevention & control , Female , Fetus , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Placenta , Prednisone/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
12.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 31(1): 33, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258582

ABSTRACT

Accurate prediction of the risk of progression of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is needed at the time of hospitalization. Logistic regression analyses are used to interrogate clinical and laboratory co-variates from every hospital admission from an area of 2 million people with sporadic cases. From a total of 98 subjects, 3 were severe COVID-19 on admission. From the remaining subjects, 24 developed severe/critical symptoms. The predictive model includes four co-variates: age (>60 years; odds ratio [OR] = 12 [2.3, 62]); blood oxygen saturation (<97%; OR = 10.4 [2.04, 53]); C-reactive protein (>5.75 mg/L; OR = 9.3 [1.5, 58]); and prothrombin time (>12.3 s; OR = 6.7 [1.1, 41]). Cutoff value is two factors, and the sensitivity and specificity are 96% and 78% respectively. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve is 0.937. This model is suitable in predicting which unselected newly hospitalized persons are at-risk to develop severe/critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Prognosis , Prothrombin Time , ROC Curve , Risk Assessment , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
13.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 16(9): 1425-1434, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258241

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The global health crisis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a common threat facing all humankind. In the process of diagnosing COVID-19 and treating patients, automatic COVID-19 lesion segmentation from computed tomography images helps doctors and patients intuitively understand lung infection. To effectively quantify lung infections, a convolutional neural network for automatic lung infection segmentation based on deep learning is proposed. METHOD: This new type of COVID-19 lesion segmentation network is based on a U-Net backbone. First, a coarse segmentation network is constructed to extract the lung areas. Second, in the encoding and decoding process of the fine segmentation network, a new soft attention mechanism, namely the dilated convolutional attention (DCA) mechanism, is introduced to enable the network to focus on better quantitative information to strengthen the network's segmentation ability in the subtle areas of the lesions. RESULTS: The experimental results show that the average Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE) and area under the curve of DUDA-Net are 87.06%, 90.85%, 99.59% and 0.965, respectively. In addition, the introduction of a cascade U-shaped network scheme and DCA mechanism can improve the DSC by 24.46% and 14.33%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The proposed DUDA-Net approach can automatically segment COVID-19 lesions with excellent performance, which indicates that the proposed method is of great clinical significance. In addition, the introduction of a coarse segmentation network and DCA mechanism can improve the COVID-19 segmentation performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) ; 77(18):1299-1299, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1195500
15.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(5): 1292-1301, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in negative impacts on the economy, population health, and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of COVID-19 on US population HRQoL using the EQ-5D-5L. DESIGN: We surveyed respondents on physical and mental health, demographics, socioeconomics, brief medical history, current COVID-19 status, sleep, dietary, financial, and spending changes. Results were compared to online and face-to-face US population norms. Predictors of EQ-5D-5L utility were analyzed using both standard and post-lasso OLS regressions. Robustness of regression coefficients against unmeasured confounding was analyzed using the E-Value sensitivity analysis. SUBJECTS: Amazon MTurk workers (n=2776) in the USA. MAIN MEASURES: EQ-5D-5L utility and VAS scores by age group. KEY RESULTS: We received n=2746 responses. Subjects 18-24 years reported lower mean (SD) health utility (0.752 (0.281)) compared with both online (0.844 (0.184), p=0.001) and face-to-face norms (0.919 (0.127), p<0.001). Among ages 25-34, utility was worse compared to face-to-face norms only (0.825 (0.235) vs. 0.911 (0.111), p<0.001). For ages 35-64, utility was better during pandemic compared to online norms (0.845 (0.195) vs. 0.794 (0.247), p<0.001). At age 65+, utility values (0.827 (0.213)) were similar across all samples. VAS scores were worse for all age groups (p<0.005) except ages 45-54. Increasing age and income were correlated with increased utility, while being Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic, married, living alone, having history of chronic illness or self-reported depression, experiencing COVID-19-like symptoms, having a family member diagnosed with COVID-19, fear of COVID-19, being underweight, and living in California were associated with worse utility scores. Results were robust to unmeasured confounding. CONCLUSIONS: HRQoL decreased during the pandemic compared to US population norms, especially for ages 18-24. The mental health impact of COVID-19 is significant and falls primarily on younger adults whose health outcomes may have been overlooked based on policy initiatives to date.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Population Health , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Health Status , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Environ Pollut ; 275: 116615, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077885

ABSTRACT

To prevent spreads of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), China adopted the lockdown measures in late January 2020, providing a platform to study the response of air quality and atmospheric chemical and physical properties to strict reduced emissions. In this study, the continuous measurements of aerosol light absorption were conducted in Nanjing, east China, from January 3 to March 31, 2020. Our results showed that the contribution of black carbon (BC) to light absorption at the different wavelengths was more than 75% and the rest light absorption was contributed by brown carbon (BrC), which was mainly originated from primary emissions. Secondary BrC absorption, which was mainly produced by photochemical oxidation, constituted a minor fraction (2-7%) of the total absorption. Compared with the sampling in the pre-lockdown, the significant decreases of BC (43%) and secondary BrC absorption (31%) were found during the lockdown period, resulting in a substantial decrease of solar energy absorbance by 36% on a local scale. The control measures also changed the diurnal variations of light absorption. Due to the reduced emissions, the relative fraction of fossil fuel to BC also dropped from 78% in the pre-lockdown to 71% in the lockdown. The concentrations of BC, PM2.5 and NO2 decreased 1.1 µg m-3, 33 µg m-3 and 9.1 ppb whereas O3 concentration increased 9.0 ppb during the COVID-19 lockdown period. The decreased concentrations of BC, PM2.5 and NO2 were mainly contributed by both emission reduction (51-64%) and meteorological conditions (36-49%). Our results highlighted that the balance of control measures in alleviation of particulate matter (PM) and O3 pollution, and meteorology should be seriously considered for improvement of air quality in this urban city of China.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Fossil Fuels/analysis , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(11): e25637, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-897817

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Social disruption associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) threatens to impede access to regular healthcare, including for people living with HIV (PLHIV), potentially resulting in antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption (ATI). We aimed to explore the characteristics and factors associated with ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: We conducted an online survey among PLHIV by convenience sampling through social media between 5 and 17 February 2020. Respondents were asked to report whether they were at risk of ATI (i.e. experienced ATI, risk of imminent ATI, threatened but resolved risk of ATI [obtaining ART prior to interruption]) or were not at risk of ATI associated with the COVID-19 outbreak. PLHIV were also asked to report perceived risk factors for ATI and sources of additional ART. The factors associated with the risk of ATI were assessed using logistic regression. We also evaluated the factors associated with experienced ATI. RESULTS: A total of 5084 PLHIV from 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in mainland China completed the survey, with valid response rate of 99.4%. The median age was 31 years (IQR 27 to 37), 96.5% of participants were men, and 71.3% were men who had sex with men. Over one-third (35.1%, 1782/5084) reported any risk of ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak, including 2.7% (135/5084) who experienced ATI, 18.0% (917/5084) at risk of imminent ATI and 14.4% (730/5084) at threatened but resolved risk. PLHIV with ATI were more likely to have previous interruptions in ART (aOR 8.3, 95% CI 5.6 to 12.3), travelled away from where they typically receive HIV care (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.5), stayed in an area that implemented citywide lockdowns or travel restrictions to control COVID-19 (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.6), and be in permanent residence in a rural area (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 2.3 to 5.8). CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of PLHIV in China are at risk of ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak and some have already experienced ATI. Correlates of ATI and self-reported barriers to ART suggest that social disruptions from COVID-19 have contributed to ATI. Our findings demonstrate an urgent need for policies and interventions to maintain access to HIV care during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/supply & distribution , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Surveys and Questionnaires , Travel
18.
CAplus; 2020.
Preprint | CAplus | ID: ppcovidwho-2035

ABSTRACT

A review on research status and laboratory diagnosis of the new coronavirus. It is urgently needed to have reliable and quick test technique for diagnosis. POCT and high throughput screening biochiare suggested. Protection methods for laboratory stuff are also summaried.

19.
J Med Virol ; 92(9): 1434-1436, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740827
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