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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is dominated by variant viruses; the resulting impact on disease severity remains unclear. Using a retrospective cohort study, we assessed the hospitalization risk following infection with seven SARS-CoV-2 variants. METHODS: Our study includes individuals with positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in the Washington Disease Reporting System with available viral genome data, from December 1, 2020 to January 14, 2022. The analysis was restricted to cases with specimens collected through sentinel surveillance. Using a Cox proportional hazards model with mixed effects, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) for hospitalization risk following infection with a variant, adjusting for age, sex, calendar week, and vaccination. FINDINGS: 58,848 cases were sequenced through sentinel surveillance, of which 1705 (2.9%) were hospitalized due to COVID-19. Higher hospitalization risk was found for infections with Gamma (HR 3.20, 95%CI 2.40-4.26), Beta (HR 2.85, 95%CI 1.56-5.23), Delta (HR 2.28 95%CI 1.56-3.34) or Alpha (HR 1.64, 95%CI 1.29-2.07) compared to infections with ancestral lineages; Omicron (HR 0.92, 95%CI 0.56-1.52) showed no significant difference in risk. Following Alpha, Gamma, or Delta infection, unvaccinated patients show higher hospitalization risk, while vaccinated patients show no significant difference in risk, both compared to unvaccinated, ancestral lineage cases. Hospitalization risk following Omicron infection is lower with vaccination. CONCLUSION: Infection with Alpha, Gamma, or Delta results in a higher hospitalization risk, with vaccination attenuating that risk. Our findings support hospital preparedness, vaccination, and genomic surveillance.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5856, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784021

ABSTRACT

Rapid dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 sequencing data to public repositories has enabled widespread study of viral genomes, but studies of longitudinal specimens from infected persons are relatively limited. Analysis of longitudinal specimens enables understanding of how host immune pressures drive viral evolution in vivo. Here we performed sequencing of 49 longitudinal SARS-CoV-2-positive samples from 20 patients in Washington State collected between March and September of 2020. Viral loads declined over time with an average increase in RT-QPCR cycle threshold of 0.87 per day. We found that there was negligible change in SARS-CoV-2 consensus sequences over time, but identified a number of nonsynonymous variants at low frequencies across the genome. We observed enrichment for a relatively small number of these variants, all of which are now seen in consensus genomes across the globe at low prevalence. In one patient, we saw rapid emergence of various low-level deletion variants at the N-terminal domain of the spike glycoprotein, some of which have previously been shown to be associated with reduced neutralization potency from sera. In a subset of samples that were sequenced using metagenomic methods, differential gene expression analysis showed a downregulation of cytoskeletal genes that was consistent with a loss of ciliated epithelium during infection and recovery. We also identified co-occurrence of bacterial species in samples from multiple hospitalized individuals. These results demonstrate that the intrahost genetic composition of SARS-CoV-2 is dynamic during the course of COVID-19, and highlight the need for continued surveillance and deep sequencing of minor variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral , Humans , Metagenome , Metagenomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327565

ABSTRACT

The long-term evolution of viruses is ultimately due to viral mutants that arise within infected individuals and transmit to other individuals. Here we use deep sequencing to investigate the transmission of viral genetic variation among individuals during a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak that infected the vast majority of crew members on a fishing boat. We deep-sequenced nasal swabs to characterize the within-host viral population of infected crew members, using experimental duplicates and strict computational filters to ensure accurate variant calling. We find that within-host viral diversity is low in infected crew members. The mutations that did fix in some crew members during the outbreak are not observed at detectable frequencies in any of the sampled crew members in which they are not fixed, suggesting viral evolution involves occasional fixation of low-frequency mutations during transmission rather than persistent maintenance of within-host viral diversity. Overall, our results show that strong transmission bottlenecks dominate viral evolution even during a superspreading event with a very high attack rate.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 271-277, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused one of the worst pandemics in recent history. Few reports have revealed that SARS-CoV-2 was spreading in the United States as early as the end of January. In this study, we aimed to determine if SARS-CoV-2 had been circulating in the Los Angeles (LA) area at a time when access to diagnostic testing for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was severely limited. METHODS: We used a pooling strategy to look for SARS-CoV-2 in remnant respiratory samples submitted for regular respiratory pathogen testing from symptomatic patients from November 2019 to early March 2020. We then performed sequencing on the positive samples. RESULTS: We detected SARS-CoV-2 in 7 specimens from 6 patients, dating back to mid-January. The earliest positive patient, with a sample collected on January 13, 2020 had no relevant travel history but did have a sibling with similar symptoms. Sequencing of these SARS-CoV-2 genomes revealed that the virus was introduced into the LA area from both domestic and international sources as early as January. CONCLUSIONS: We present strong evidence of community spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the LA area well before widespread diagnostic testing was being performed in early 2020. These genomic data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 was being introduced into Los Angeles County from both international and domestic sources in January 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5931-5941, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432428

ABSTRACT

Real-time epidemiological tracking of variants of concern (VOCs) can help limit the spread of more contagious forms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as those containing the N501Y mutation. Typically, genetic sequencing is required to be able to track VOCs in real-time. However, sequencing can take time and may not be accessible in all laboratories. Genotyping by RT-ddPCR offers an alternative to rapidly detect VOCs through discrimination of specific alleles such as N501Y, which is associated with increased transmissibility and virulence. Here we describe the first cases of the B.1.1.7 lineage of SARS-CoV-2 detected in Washington State by using a combination of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), RT-ddPCR, and next-generation sequencing. We initially screened 1035 samples positive for SARS-CoV-2 by our CDC-based laboratory-developed assay using ThermoFisher's multiplex RT-PCR COVID-19 assay over four weeks from late December 2020 to early January 2021. S gene target failures (SGTF) were subsequently assayed by RT-ddPCR to confirm four mutations within the S gene associated with the B.1.1.7 lineage: a deletion at amino acid (AA) 69-70 (ACATGT), deletion at AA 145, (TTA), N501Y mutation (TAT), and S982A mutation (GCA). All four targets were detected in two specimens; follow-up sequencing revealed a total of 9 mutations in the S gene and phylogenetic clustering within the B.1.1.7 lineage. Next, we continued screening samples for SGTF detecting 23 additional B.1.1.7 variants by RT-ddPCR and confirmed by sequencing. As VOCs become increasingly prevalent, molecular diagnostic tools like RT-ddPCR can be utilized to quickly, accurately, and sensitively distinguish more contagious lineages of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Alleles , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genotype , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Time Factors , Washington/epidemiology
6.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 1: 100018, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309321

ABSTRACT

Background: The first confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 in North America was identified in Washington state on January 21, 2020. We aimed to quantify the number and temporal trends of out-of-state introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into Washington. Methods: We conducted a molecular epidemiologic analysis of 11,422 publicly available whole genome SARS-CoV-2 sequences from GISAID sampled between December 2019 and September 2020. We used maximum parsimony ancestral state reconstruction methods on time-calibrated phylogenies to enumerate introductions/exports, their likely geographic source (US, non-US, and between eastern and western Washington), and estimated date of introduction. To incorporate phylogenetic uncertainty into our estimates, we conducted 5,000 replicate analyses by generating 25 random time-stratified samples of non-Washington reference sequences, 20 random polytomy resolutions, and 10 random resolutions of the reconstructed ancestral state. Findings: We estimated a minimum 287 introductions (range 244-320) into Washington and 204 exported lineages (range 188-227) of SARS-CoV-2 out of Washington. Introductions began in mid-January and peaked on March 29, 2020. Lineages with the Spike D614G variant accounted for the majority (88%) of introductions. Overall, 61% (range 55-65%) of introductions into Washington likely originated from a source elsewhere within the US, while the remaining 39% (range 35-45%) likely originated from outside of the US. Intra-state transmission accounted for 65% and 28% of introductions into eastern and western Washington, respectively. Interpretation: The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Washington was continually seeded by a large number of introductions. Our findings highlight the importance of genomic surveillance to monitor for emerging variants due to high levels of inter- and intra-state transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Funding Source: None.

7.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5931-5941, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281223

ABSTRACT

Real-time epidemiological tracking of variants of concern (VOCs) can help limit the spread of more contagious forms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as those containing the N501Y mutation. Typically, genetic sequencing is required to be able to track VOCs in real-time. However, sequencing can take time and may not be accessible in all laboratories. Genotyping by RT-ddPCR offers an alternative to rapidly detect VOCs through discrimination of specific alleles such as N501Y, which is associated with increased transmissibility and virulence. Here we describe the first cases of the B.1.1.7 lineage of SARS-CoV-2 detected in Washington State by using a combination of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), RT-ddPCR, and next-generation sequencing. We initially screened 1035 samples positive for SARS-CoV-2 by our CDC-based laboratory-developed assay using ThermoFisher's multiplex RT-PCR COVID-19 assay over four weeks from late December 2020 to early January 2021. S gene target failures (SGTF) were subsequently assayed by RT-ddPCR to confirm four mutations within the S gene associated with the B.1.1.7 lineage: a deletion at amino acid (AA) 69-70 (ACATGT), deletion at AA 145, (TTA), N501Y mutation (TAT), and S982A mutation (GCA). All four targets were detected in two specimens; follow-up sequencing revealed a total of 9 mutations in the S gene and phylogenetic clustering within the B.1.1.7 lineage. Next, we continued screening samples for SGTF detecting 23 additional B.1.1.7 variants by RT-ddPCR and confirmed by sequencing. As VOCs become increasingly prevalent, molecular diagnostic tools like RT-ddPCR can be utilized to quickly, accurately, and sensitively distinguish more contagious lineages of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Alleles , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genotype , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Time Factors , Washington/epidemiology
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e25817, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Internet hospitals in China are in great demand due to limited and unevenly distributed health care resources, lack of family doctors, increased burdens of chronic diseases, and rapid growth of the aged population. The COVID-19 epidemic catalyzed the expansion of online health care services. In recent years, internet hospitals have been rapidly developed. Ping An Good Doctor is the largest, national online medical entry point in China and is a widely used platform providing online health care services. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to give a comprehensive description of the characteristics of the online consultations and inquisitions in Ping An Good Doctor. The analyses tried to answer the following questions: (1) What are the characteristics of the consultations in Ping An Good Doctor in terms of department and disease profiles? (2) Who uses the online health services most frequently? and (3) How is the user experience of the online consultations of Ping An Good Doctor? METHODS: A total of 35.3 million consultations and inquisitions over the course of 1 year were analyzed with respect to the distributions of departments and diseases, user profiles, and consulting behaviors. RESULTS: The geographical distribution of the usage of Ping An Good Doctor showed that Shandong (18.4%), Yunnan (15.6%), Shaanxi (7.2%), and Guangdong (5.5%) were the provinces that used it the most; they accounted for 46.6% of the total consultations and inquisitions. In terms of department distribution, we found that gynecology and obstetrics (19.2%), dermatology (17.0%), and pediatrics (14.4%) were the top three departments in Ping An Good Doctor. The disease distribution analysis showed that, except for nondisease-specific consultations, acute upper respiratory infection (AURI) (4.1%), pregnancy (2.8%), and dermatitis (2.4%) were the most frequently consulted diseases. In terms of user profiles, females (60.4%) from 19 to 35 years of age were most likely to seek consultations online, in general. The user behavior analyses showed that the peak times of day for online consultations occurred at 10 AM, 3 PM, and 9 PM. Regarding user experience, 93.0% of users gave full marks following their consultations. For some disease-related health problems, such as AURI, dermatitis, and eczema, the feedback scores were above average. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of internet hospitals, such as Ping An Good Doctor, illustrated the great demand for online health care services that can go beyond geographical limitations. Our analyses showed that nondisease-specific issues and moderate health problems were much more frequently consulted about than severe clinical conditions. This indicated that internet hospitals played the role of the family doctor, which helped to relieve the stress placed on offline hospitals and facilitated people's lives. In addition, good user experiences, especially regarding disease-related inquisitions, suggested that online health services can help solve health problems. With support from the government and acceptance by the public, online health care services could develop at a fast pace and greatly benefit people's daily lives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183285

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm often disrupt nucleocytoplasmic transport to preferentially translate their own transcripts and prevent host antiviral responses. The Sarbecovirus accessory protein ORF6 has previously been shown to be a major inhibitor of interferon production in both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we show SARS-CoV-2-infected cells display an elevated level of nuclear mRNA accumulation compared to mock-infected cells. We demonstrate that ORF6 is responsible for this nuclear imprisonment of host mRNA, and using a cotransfected reporter assay, we show this nuclear retention of mRNA blocks expression of newly transcribed mRNAs. ORF6's nuclear entrapment of host mRNA is associated with its ability to copurify with the mRNA export factors, Rae1 and Nup98. These protein-protein interactions map to the C terminus of ORF6 and can be abolished by a single amino acid mutation in Met58. Overexpression of Rae1 restores reporter expression in the presence of SARS-CoV-2 ORF6. SARS-CoV ORF6 also interacts with Rae1 and Nup98. However, SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 more strongly copurifies with Rae1 and Nup98 and results in significantly reduced expression of reporter proteins compared to SARS-CoV ORF6, a potential mechanism for the delayed symptom onset and presymptomatic transmission uniquely associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We also show that both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 block nuclear import of a broad range of host proteins. Together, these data support a model in which ORF6 clogs the nuclear pore through its interactions with Rae1 and Nup98 to prevent both nuclear import and export, rendering host cells incapable of responding to SARS-CoV-2 infection.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is an RNA virus with a large genome that encodes multiple accessory proteins. While these accessory proteins are not required for growth in vitro, they can contribute to the pathogenicity of the virus. We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-infected cells accumulate poly(A) mRNA in the nucleus, which is attributed to the accessory protein ORF6. Nuclear entrapment of mRNA and reduced expression of newly transcribed reporter proteins are associated with ORF6's interactions with the mRNA export proteins Rae1 and Nup98. SARS-CoV ORF6 also shows the same interactions with Rae1 and Nup98. However, SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 more strongly represses reporter expression and copurifies with Rae1 and Nup98 compared to SARS-CoV ORF6. Both SARS-CoV ORF6 and SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 block nuclear import of a wide range of host factors through interactions with Rae1 and Nup98. Together, our results suggest ORF6's disruption of nucleocytoplasmic transport prevents infected cells from responding to the invading virus.


Subject(s)
Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/metabolism , Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Mutation , Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/genetics , Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins/genetics , Protein Binding , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
10.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(1): 270-275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994131

ABSTRACT

Rationale: To identify whether the initial chest computed tomography (CT) findings of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are helpful for predicting the clinical outcome. Methods: A total of 224 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who underwent chest CT examination within the first day of admission were enrolled. CT findings, including the pattern and distribution of opacities, the number of lung lobes involved and the chest CT scores of lung involvement, were assessed. Independent predictors of adverse clinical outcomes were determined by multivariate regression analysis. Adverse outcome were defined as the need for mechanical ventilation or death. Results: Of 224 patients, 74 (33%) had adverse outcomes and 150 (67%) had good outcomes. There were higher frequencies of more than four lung zones involved (73% vs 32%), both central and peripheral distribution (57% vs 42%), consolidation (27% vs 17%), and air bronchogram (24% vs 13%) and higher initial chest CT scores (8.6±3.4 vs 5.4±2.1) (P < 0.05 for all) in the patients with poor outcomes. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that more than four lung zones (odds ratio [OR] 3.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44 to 12.89), age above 65 (OR 3.65; 95% CI: 1.11 to 10.59), the presence of comorbidity (OR 5.21; 95% CI: 1.64 to 19.22) and dyspnea on admission (OR 3.19; 95% CI: 1.35 to 8.46) were independent predictors of poor outcome. Conclusions: Involvement of more than four lung zones and a higher CT score on the initial chest CT were significantly associated with adverse clinical outcome. Initial chest CT findings may be helpful for predicting clinical outcome in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
11.
medRxiv ; 2020 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835251

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 has gravely impacted societies around the world. Outbreaks in different parts of the globe are shaped by repeated introductions of new lineages and subsequent local transmission of those lineages. Here, we sequenced 3940 SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes from Washington State to characterize how the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Washington State (USA) was shaped by differences in timing of mitigation strategies across counties, as well as by repeated introductions of viral lineages into the state. Additionally, we show that the increase in frequency of a potentially more transmissible viral variant (614G) over time can potentially be explained by regional mobility differences and multiple introductions of 614G, but not the other variant (614D) into the state. At an individual level, we see evidence of higher viral loads in patients infected with the 614G variant. However, using clinical records data, we do not find any evidence that the 614G variant impacts clinical severity or patient outcomes. Overall, this suggests that at least to date, the behavior of individuals has been more important in shaping the course of the pandemic than changes in the virus.

12.
Science ; 370(6516): 571-575, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760213

ABSTRACT

After its emergence in Wuhan, China, in late November or early December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus rapidly spread globally. Genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 allows the reconstruction of its transmission history, although this is contingent on sampling. We analyzed 453 SARS-CoV-2 genomes collected between 20 February and 15 March 2020 from infected patients in Washington state in the United States. We find that most SARS-CoV-2 infections sampled during this time derive from a single introduction in late January or early February 2020, which subsequently spread locally before active community surveillance was implemented.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Genome, Viral , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19 , Humans , Likelihood Functions , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
13.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000849, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748960

ABSTRACT

Despite limited genomic diversity, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown a wide range of clinical manifestations in different patient populations. The mechanisms behind these host differences are still unclear. Here, we examined host response gene expression across infection status, viral load, age, and sex among shotgun RNA sequencing profiles of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from 430 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and 54 negative controls. SARS-CoV-2 induced a strong antiviral response with up-regulation of antiviral factors such as OAS1-3 and IFIT1-3 and T helper type 1 (Th1) chemokines CXCL9/10/11, as well as a reduction in transcription of ribosomal proteins. SARS-CoV-2 culture in human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures replicated the in vivo antiviral host response 7 days post infection, with no induction of interferon-stimulated genes after 3 days. Patient-matched longitudinal specimens (mean elapsed time = 6.3 days) demonstrated reduction in interferon-induced transcription, recovery of transcription of ribosomal proteins, and initiation of wound healing and humoral immune responses. Expression of interferon-responsive genes, including ACE2, increased as a function of viral load, while transcripts for B cell-specific proteins and neutrophil chemokines were elevated in patients with lower viral load. Older individuals had reduced expression of the Th1 chemokines CXCL9/10/11 and their cognate receptor CXCR3, as well as CD8A and granzyme B, suggesting deficiencies in trafficking and/or function of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Relative to females, males had reduced B cell-specific and NK cell-specific transcripts and an increase in inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling, possibly inappropriately throttling antiviral responses. Collectively, our data demonstrate that host responses to SARS-CoV-2 are dependent on viral load and infection time course, with observed differences due to age and sex that may contribute to disease severity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/immunology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Signal Transduction/genetics , Viral Load , Wound Healing/genetics , Young Adult
14.
Chin. Trad. Herbal Drugs ; 9(51): 2307-2316, 20200512.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-682156

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the potential mechanism of Bufei Huoxue Capsule (BHC) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of BHC. Methods: TCMSP, BATMAN-TCM, CNKI and Pubmed databases were used to search the compounds and targets of BHC and GeneCards database was used to search the targets of COVID-19; The intersection method was used to obtain the targets related to the therapeutic effect of BHC. Cytoscape 3.7.2 software was applied for the construction of CMM-compounds-targets network map. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by STRING database. Gene ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were conducted by DAVID. AutoDock Tools 1.5.6 and AutoDock vina 1.1.2 were used for molecular docking. Results: A total of 32 potential active components were screened from BHC, corresponding to 203 targets. Among them, there were 11 core compounds and 52 core targets. PPI network analysis showed that there were 25 key targets intervening COVID-19 by BHC. A total of 251 biological processes (P < 0.05) and 93 pathways (P < 0.05) were obtained by GO analysis and KEGG analysis, respectively. The results of molecular docking showed that the key compounds had good affinity with SARS-CoV-2 3CL hydrolase and angiotensin converting enzyme II. Conclusion: The active compounds of BHC can target IL6, MAPK8, PTGS2, PTGS1 and NCOA2 to regulate multiple signal pathways, and play a therapeutic role in the recovery period of COVID-19.

15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 2993-3000, 2020 Jul.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679286

ABSTRACT

To scientifically evaluate the intervention effect of Chinese medicine preventive administration(combined use of Huo-xiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid and Jinhao Jiere Granules) on community population in the case of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), a large cohort, prospective, randomized, and parallel-controlled clinical study was conducted. Total 22 065 subjects were included and randomly divided into 2 groups. The non-intervention group was given health guidance only, while the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) intervention group was given two coordinated TCM in addition to health guidance. The medical instructions were as follows. Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid: oral before meals, 10 mL/time, 2 times/day, a course of 5 days. Jinhao Jiere Granules: dissolve in boiling water and take after meals, 8 g/time, 2 times/day, a course of 5 days, followed up for 14 days, respectively. The study found that with the intake of medication, the incidence rate of TCM intervention group was basically maintained at a low and continuous stable level(0.01%-0.02%), while the non-intervention group showed an overall trend of continuous growth(0.02%-0.18%) from 3 to 14 days. No suspected or confirmed COVID-19 case occurred in either group. There were 2 cases of colds in the TCM intervention group and 26 cases in the non-intervention group. The incidence of colds in the TCM intervention group was significantly lower(P<0.05) than that in the non-intervention group. In the population of 16-60 years old, the incidence rate of non-intervention and intervention groups were 0.01% and 0.25%, respectively. The difference of colds incidence between the two groups was statistically significant(P<0.05). In the population older than 60 years old, they were 0.04% and 0.21%, respectively. The incidence of colds in the non-intervention group was higher than that in the intervention group, but not reaching statistical difference. The protection rate of TCM for the whole population was 91.8%, especially for the population of age 16-60(95.0%). It was suggested that TCM intervention(combined use of Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid and Jinhao Jiere Granules) could effectively protect community residents against respiratory diseases, such as colds, which was worthy of promotion in the community. In addition, in terms of safety, the incidence of adverse events and adverse reactions in the TCM intervention group was relatively low, which was basically consistent with the drug instructions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
Clin Chem ; 66(7): 966-972, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 2 months separated the initial description of SARS-CoV-2 and discovery of its widespread dissemination in the United States. Despite this lengthy interval, implementation of specific quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR-based SARS-CoV-2 tests in the US has been slow, and testing is still not widely available. Metagenomic sequencing offers the promise of unbiased detection of emerging pathogens, without requiring prior knowledge of the identity of the responsible agent or its genomic sequence. METHODS: To evaluate metagenomic approaches in the context of the current SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, laboratory-confirmed positive and negative samples from Seattle, WA were evaluated by metagenomic sequencing, with comparison to a 2019 reference genomic database created before the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Within 36 h our results showed clear identification of a novel human Betacoronavirus, closely related to known Betacoronaviruses of bats, in laboratory-proven cases of SARS-CoV-2. A subset of samples also showed superinfection or colonization with human parainfluenza virus 3 or Moraxella species, highlighting the need to test directly for SARS-CoV-2 as opposed to ruling out an infection using a viral respiratory panel. Samples negative for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR were also negative by metagenomic analysis, and positive for Rhinovirus A and C. Unlike targeted SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR testing, metagenomic analysis of these SARS-CoV-2 negative samples identified candidate etiological agents for the patients' respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results demonstrate the value of metagenomic analysis in the monitoring and response to this and future viral pandemics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Metagenomics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Superinfection/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enterovirus/classification , Enterovirus/genetics , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Superinfection/virology
18.
Cell ; 181(5): 990-996.e5, 2020 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-60444

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States in January 2020, with subsequent COVID-19 outbreaks detected in all 50 states by early March. To uncover the sources of SARS-CoV-2 introductions and patterns of spread within the United States, we sequenced nine viral genomes from early reported COVID-19 patients in Connecticut. Our phylogenetic analysis places the majority of these genomes with viruses sequenced from Washington state. By coupling our genomic data with domestic and international travel patterns, we show that early SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Connecticut was likely driven by domestic introductions. Moreover, the risk of domestic importation to Connecticut exceeded that of international importation by mid-March regardless of our estimated effects of federal travel restrictions. This study provides evidence of widespread sustained transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within the United States and highlights the critical need for local surveillance.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Travel , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Connecticut/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Likelihood Functions , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel/legislation & jurisprudence , United States/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology
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