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1.
iScience ; 25(3): 103934, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693365

ABSTRACT

Here, we evaluated the immune properties of the HLA-A2 restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes containing mutations from B.1.1.7, and furthermore performed a comprehensive analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8+ T cell responses from COVID-19 convalescent patients and SARS-CoV-2 vaccinees recognizing the ancestral Wuhan strain compared to B.1.1.7. First, most of the predicted CD8+ T cell epitopes showed proper binding with HLA-A2, whereas epitopes from B.1.1.7 had lower binding capability than those from the ancestral strain. In addition, these peptides could effectively induce the activation and cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells. Our results further showed that at least two site mutations in B.1.1.7 resulted in a decrease in CD8+ T cell activation and a possible immune evasion, namely A1708D mutation in ORF1ab1707-1716 and I2230T mutation in ORF1ab2230-2238. Our current analysis provides information that contributes to the understanding of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell responses elicited by infection of mutated strains or vaccination.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312503

ABSTRACT

Background: In early 2020, a global pandemic (COVID-19) broke out and severely affected the progress of education in various countries’ universities and institutions, which promoted the progress of online courses at the same time. This article aims to conduct a comparative analysis of teacher-student surveys between online live teaching and traditional off-line teaching, and explore the direction of medical education reform in colleges and universities. Methods: : Surveys among teachers and students were conducted on live broadcast courses and traditional offline courses by Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Teachers were investigated from the three aspects including preparation before the class, the experience of teaching during the class, and evaluation after the class, while the students were performed investigations and statistical analysis from the aspects of class experience, learning effect, evaluation of the teachers and curricula. Results: : Both teachers and students fully recognized the orderly organization and management of online live-streaming teaching, and that online courses have a positive and powerful role in improving the quality of teaching. However, teachers and students agree that the overall teaching experience and learning effect of online courses are inferior to offline, so the traditional offline courses or the mixation of online and offline modes are tended for teaching. Conclusions: : The effective and proper use of online education in stomatology can help improve teaching effect significantly, but it is impossible to replace the traditional classroom. In the future, with the addition of online teaching, stomatological education could adopt a new mode of the combination of online and offline teaching as well as the integration of inside and outside the classroom.

5.
Drugs and Clinic ; 35(4):607-613, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1374637

ABSTRACT

From the December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was outbreak at home and abroad. Besides antiviral therapy, patients should be treated for complications, therefore a combination of drugs for treatment in Clinic need to be taken. Although recently published guidelines have repeatedly highlighted the drug interactions between the anti-COVID-l 9 medicines, it has not been detailed. The potential drug - drug interactions were reviewed 0f the anti-COVID-19 drugs, and in order to provide references for the clinical safety and rational use of the anti-COVID-19 drugs.

6.
J Transl Int Med ; 9(2): 131-142, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The majority of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases are nonsevere, but severe cases have high mortality and need early detection and treatment. We aimed to develop a nomogram to predict the disease progression of nonsevere COVID-19 based on simple data that can be easily obtained even in primary medical institutions. METHODS: In this retrospective, multicenter cohort study, we extracted data from initial simple medical evaluations of 495 COVID-19 patients randomized (2:1) into a development cohort and a validation cohort. The progression of nonsevere COVID-19 was recorded as the primary outcome. We built a nomogram with the development cohort and tested its performance in the validation cohort. RESULTS: The nomogram was developed with the nine factors included in the final model. The area under the curve (AUC) of the nomogram scoring system for predicting the progression of nonsevere COVID-19 into severe COVID-19 was 0.875 and 0.821 in the development cohort and validation cohort, respectively. The nomogram achieved a good concordance index for predicting the progression of nonsevere COVID-19 cases in the development and validation cohorts (concordance index of 0.875 in the development cohort and 0.821 in the validation cohort) and had well-fitted calibration curves showing good agreement between the estimates and the actual endpoint events. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed nomogram built with a simplified index might help to predict the progression of nonsevere COVID-19; thus, COVID-19 with a high risk of disease progression could be identified in time, allowing an appropriate therapeutic choice according to the potential disease severity.

7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(12): 11224-11237, 2020 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251837

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), Changsha faced an increasing burden of treating the Wuhan migrants and their infected patients. This study is a retrospective, single-center case series of the 238 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 at the First Hospital of Changsha city, China, from 01/21 to 02/14, 2020; the final date of follow-up was 02/27, 2020. Of 238 patients 43.7% visited Wuhan, 58.4% got in touch with Wuhan people, and 47.5% had contacted with diagnosed patients. 37.8% patients had family members infected. 190 cases had mild / general disease, and 48 cases had severe / critical disease. Compared to mild or general patients, more severe or critical patients visited Wuhan (59.6% vs 40.2%; P=0.02) and contacted with Wuhan people (74.5% vs 55.0%; P=0.02). All patients received antiviral treatment, including Lopinavir / Ritonavir (29.3%), Interferon (14.6%) and their combination (40.6%), Arbidol (6.7%), Xuebijing (7.1%) and Chloroquine phosphate (1.3%). Severe and critical patients received glucocorticoid, Gamma-globulin and oxygen inhalation. Some received mechanic ventilation support. As of 02/27, 161 patients discharged. The median length of hospital stay was 13 days. The 10-, 14-, 20- and 28-day discharge rate was 19.1%, 42.8%, 65.0% and 76.4%, respectively. No hospital-related transmission was observed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Indoles/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , gamma-Globulins/therapeutic use
8.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 611223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231402

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused public panic and psychological health problems, especially in medical staff. We aimed to investigate the psychological effect of the COVID-19 outbreak on medical staff. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the psychological impact of medical staff working in COVID-19 designated hospitals from February to March 2020 in China. We assessed psychological health problems using the Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90). Results: Among 656 medical staff, 244 were frontline medical staff and 412 general medical staff. The prevalence of psychological health problems was 19.7%. The SCL-90 scores in frontline medical staff were significantly higher than that in general medical staff (mean: 141.22 vs. 129.54, P < 0.05). Furthermore, gender [odds ratio (OR) = 1.53, 95% CI = (1.02, 2.30), P = 0.042 for female vs. male] and the burden of current work [OR = 7.55, 95% CI = (3.75, 15.21), P < 0.001 for high burden; OR = 2.76, 95% CI = (1.80, 4.24), P < 0.001 for moderate burden vs. low burden] were associated with increased risk of poor psychological status. Conclusions: Medical staff experienced a high risk of psychological health problems during the outbreak of COVID-19, especially for frontline medical staff. Psychological health services are expected to arrange for medical staff in future unexpected infectious disease outbreaks.

9.
Cell Rep ; 35(6): 109109, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201425

ABSTRACT

It is unclear whether individuals with enormous diversity in B cell receptor repertoires are consistently able to mount effective antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed antibody responses in a cohort of 55 convalescent patients and isolated 54 potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). While most of the mAbs target the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding surface on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, mAb 47D1 binds only to one side of the receptor binding surface on the RBD. Neutralization by 47D1 is achieved independent of interfering RBD-ACE2 binding. A crystal structure of the mAb-RBD complex shows that the IF motif at the tip of 47D1 CDR H2 interacts with a hydrophobic pocket in the RBD. Diverse immunoglobulin gene usage and convergent epitope targeting characterize neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that vaccines that effectively present the receptor binding site on the RBD will likely elicit neutralizing antibody responses in a large fraction of the population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Immunoglobulins/genetics , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Genes, Immunoglobulin/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/genetics , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Allergy ; 76(2): 483-496, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impacts of chronic airway diseases on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are far from understood. OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) comorbidity on disease expression and outcomes, and the potential underlying mechanisms in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A total of 961 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with a definite clinical outcome (death or discharge) were retrospectively enrolled. Demographic and clinical information were extracted from the medical records. Lung tissue sections from patients suffering from lung cancer were used for immunohistochemistry study of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) expression. BEAS-2B cell line was stimulated with various cytokines. RESULTS: In this cohort, 21 subjects (2.2%) had COPD and 22 (2.3%) had asthma. After adjusting for confounding factors, COPD patients had higher risk of developing severe illness (OR: 23.433; 95% CI 1.525-360.135; P < .01) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR: 19.762; 95% CI 1.461-267.369; P = .025) than asthmatics. COPD patients, particularly those with severe COVID-19, had lower counts of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells and B cells and higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2 receptor, IL-10, IL-8, and IL-6 than asthmatics. COPD patients had increased, whereas asthmatics had decreased ACE2 protein expression in lower airways, compared with that in control subjects without asthma and COPD. IL-4 and IL-13 downregulated, but TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-17A upregulated ACE2 expression in BEAS-2B cells. CONCLUSION: Patients with asthma and COPD likely have different risk of severe COVID-19, which may be associated with different ACE2 expression.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 84(5): e229-e230, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130292
15.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(4): e13310, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767240

ABSTRACT

Health professions preventing and controlling Coronavirus Disease 2019 are prone to skin and mucous membrane injury, which may cause acute and chronic dermatitis, secondary infection and aggravation of underlying skin diseases. This is a consensus of Chinese experts on protective measures and advice on hand-cleaning- and medical-glove-related hand protection, mask- and goggles-related face protection, UV-related protection, eye protection, nasal and oral mucosa protection, outer ear, and hair protection. It is necessary to strictly follow standards of wearing protective equipment and specification of sterilizing and cleaning. Insufficient and excessive protection will have adverse effects on the skin and mucous membrane barrier. At the same time, using moisturizing products is highly recommended to achieve better protection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Skin/pathology , COVID-19 , China , Consensus , Emollients/administration & dosage , Gloves, Protective , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment
16.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(10): e315-e317, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-766878

ABSTRACT

In the current study, we report on 4 children with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, of which 3 of them were asymptomatic. These patients had both pharyngeal swabs and anal swabs testing during hospital or after discharge. All the 4 children showed long-time positive viral RNA in the stool specimens after pharyngeal swabs turned negative during the follow-up stage, especially in the asymptomatic children. The positive RNA in stool specimens of asymptomatic children last for more than 54 days after admission or 30 days after discharge.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 84-91, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The antiviral effects of Novaferon, a potent antiviral protein drug, on COVID-19 was evaluated in the laboratory, and in a randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial. METHODS: In the laboratory, Novaferon's inhibition of viral replication in cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 entry into healthy cells was determined. Antiviral effects of Novaferon in COVID-19 patients with treatment of Novaferon, Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir, or Lopinavir/Ritonavir were evaluated. The primary endpoint was the SARS-CoV-2 clearance rates on day six of treatment, and the secondary endpoint was the time to SARS-CoV-2 clearance. RESULTS: Novaferon inhibited viral replication (EC50=1.02ng/ml), and prevented viral infection (EC50=0.10ng/ml). Results from the 89 enrolled COVID-19 patients showed that both Novaferon and Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups had significantly higher viral clearance rates on day six than Lopinavir/Ritonavir group (50.0% vs. 24.1%, p=0.0400, and 60.0% vs. 24.1%, p=0.0053). The median time to viral clearance was six days, six days, and nine days for three groups, respectively, a 3-day reduction in both the Novaferon and Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups compared with the Lopinavir/Ritonavir group. CONCLUSIONS: Novaferon exhibited anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects in vitro and in COVID-19 patients. These data justify further evaluation of Novaferon. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Number ChiCTR2000029496 at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn/).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferons/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Interferons/administration & dosage , Male , Pandemics , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/drug effects
19.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(10): 623, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To clarify the characteristic and the duration of positive nucleic acid in children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including asymptomatic children. METHODS: A total of 32 children confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection between January 24 and February 12, 2020 from four provinces in western China were enrolled in this study and followed up until discharge and quarantine 14 days later. RESULTS: Eleven children (34%) were asymptomatic, among whom six children had normal computed tomographic (CT) scan images. Age and gender were not associated with clinical symptoms or the results of CT scan in children infected with SARS-CoV-2. The concentrations of white blood cells and neutrophils were higher in children with asymptomatic infection than in children with clinical symptoms or CT abnormalities. Patients who presented with CT abnormalities had lower D-dimer or lower total bilirubin than those who had normal CT scan but clinical symptoms. All children recovered and no one died or was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The mean duration of positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was 15.4 (SD =7.2) days and similar for both asymptomatic children and children with symptoms or CT abnormalities. We found a significant negative correlation between the lymphocyte count and the duration of positive nucleic acid test. CONCLUSIONS: Children with asymptomatic infection should be quarantined for the same duration as symptomatic patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The clinical significance and mechanism behind the negative correlation between the number of lymphocytes and the duration of positive SARS-CoV-2 needs further study.

20.
J Psychiatr Res ; 129: 1-7, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: An outbreak of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan (Hubei, China) in December, 2019. Facing this largescale infectious public health event, everyone is under great psychological pressure. The aim was to investigate the psychological status of people affected by the COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: The online cross-sectional study involving 922 participants (656 medical staff and 266 general population) was conducted in China between February and March, 2020. The psychological status was evaluated using the Symptom Check List 90 Revised (SCL-90). Linear and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the effect in the study. RESULTS: Of the 922 participants, approximately 18.3% had psychological health problems. The score of the SCL-90 was significant higher in medical staff (mean = 1.49) than that in general population (mean = 1.36). In addition, the participants enrolled in March were less likely to have psychological health problems than in February (odds ratio = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30 to 0.59). Female had a 1.44-fold risk of psychological health problems than male (95% CI = 1.01 to 2.03). CONCLUSIONS: In the study, 18.3% had psychological health problems during the outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic. With the remission of the epidemic, the psychological health status of participants has been improved. Medical staff were likely to have higher SCL-90 scores than general population and female had more psychological problems than male. Our findings can be used to formulate psychological interventions for improving the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
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