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1.
Advanced Materials ; 34(21):2270160, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1866500

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticle Vaccines In article number 2200443, Liangzhi Xie, Chengfeng Qin, and co-workers develop a novel bivalent nanoparticle vaccine that confers protection against infection of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants and Streptococcus pneumoniae. This universal polysaccharide?protein-conjugated vaccine platform provides a powerful tool to fight against cocirculating viral and bacterial pathogens worldwide.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820439

ABSTRACT

With the emergence and rapid spread of new pandemic variants, especially variants of concern (VOCs), the development of next-generation vaccines with broad-spectrum neutralizing activities is of great importance. In this study, SCTV01C, a clinical stage bivalent vaccine based on trimeric spike extracellular domain (S-ECD) of SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha (B.1.1.7) and Beta (B.1.351) with a squalene-based oil-in-water adjuvant was evaluated in comparison to its two corresponding (Alpha and Beta) monovalent vaccines in mouse immunogenicity studies. The two monovalent vaccines induced potent neutralizing antibody responses against the antigen-matched variants, but drastic reductions in neutralizing antibody titers against antigen-mismatched variants were observed. In comparison, the bivalent vaccine SCTV01C induced relatively higher and broad-spectrum cross-neutralizing activities against various SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the D614G variant, VOCs (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.617.2, B.1.1.529), variants of interest (VOIs) (C.37, B.1.621), variants under monitoring (VUMs) (B.1.526, B.1.617.1, B.1.429, C.36.3) and other variants (B.1.618, 20I/484Q). All three vaccines elicited potent Th1-biased T-cell immune responses. These results provide direct evidence that variant-based multivalent vaccines could play important roles in addressing the critical issue of reduced protective efficacy against the existing and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

3.
Theranostics ; 12(6): 2519-2534, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771697

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Mutations of SARS-CoV-2, which is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), could impede drug development and reduce the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we developed a multiplexed Spike-ACE2 Inhibitor Screening (mSAIS) assay that can measure the neutralizing effect of antibodies across numerous variants of the coronavirus's Spike (S) protein simultaneously. Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 spike variant protein microarrays were prepared by printing 72 S variants onto a chemically-modified glass slides. The neutralization potential of purified anti-S antibodies and serum from convalescent COVID-19 patients and vaccinees to S variants were assessed with the mSAIS assay. Results: We identified new S mutations that are sensitive and resistant to neutralization. Serum from both infected and vaccinated groups with a high titer of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) displayed a broader capacity to neutralize S variants than serum with low titer NAbs. These data were validated using serum from a large vaccinated cohort (n = 104) with a tiled S peptide microarray. In addition, similar results were obtained using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay specific for wild-type S and five prevalent S variants (D614G, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.617.2), thus demonstrating that high antibody diversity is associated with high NAb titers. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the utility of the mSAIS platform in screening NAbs. Moreover, we show that heterogeneous antibody populations provide a more protective effect against S variants, which may help direct COVID-19 vaccine and drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
4.
Adv Mater ; 34(21): e2200443, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763176

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has led to millions of deaths worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) remains a major cause of mortality in underdeveloped countries. A vaccine that prevents both SARS-CoV-2 and S. pneumoniae infection represents a long-sought "magic bullet". Herein, a nanoparticle vaccine, termed SCTV01B, is rationally developed by using the capsular polysaccharide of S. pneumoniae serotype 14 (PPS14) as the backbone to conjugate with the recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The final formulation of conjugated nanoparticles in the network structure exhibits high thermal stability. Immunization with SCTV01B induces potent humoral and Type 1/Type 2 T helper cell (Th1/Th2) cellular immune responses in mice, rats, and rhesus macaques. In particular, SCTV01B-immunized serum not only broadly cross-neutralizes all SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), including the most recent Omicron variant, but also shows high opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) against S. pneumoniae serotype 14. Finally, SCTV01B vaccination confers protection against challenges with the SARS-CoV-2 mouse-adapted strain and the original strain in established murine models. Collectively, these promising preclinical results support further clinical evaluation of SCTV01B, highlighting the potency of polysaccharide-RBD-conjugated nanoparticle vaccine platforms for the development of vaccines for COVID-19 and other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta/metabolism , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics , Polysaccharides , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Streptococcus pneumoniae/metabolism
5.
Anal Chem ; 94(10): 4504-4512, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721380

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and nanobodies have shown promising results as potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19. Identifying such antibodies and nanobodies requires evaluating the neutralization activity of a large number of lead molecules via biological assays, such as the virus neutralization test (VNT). These assays are typically time-consuming and demanding on-lab facilities. Here, we present a rapid and quantitative assay that evaluates the neutralizing efficacy of an antibody or nanobody within 1.5 h, does not require BSL-2 facilities, and consumes only 8 µL of a low concentration (ng/mL) sample for each assay run. We tested the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding inhibition efficacy of seven antibodies and eight nanobodies and verified that the IC50 values of our assay are comparable with those from SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization tests. We also found that our assay could evaluate the neutralizing efficacy against three widespread SARS-CoV-2 variants. We observed increased affinity of these variants for ACE2, including the ß and γ variants. Finally, we demonstrated that our assay enables the rapid identification of an immune-evasive mutation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, utilizing a set of nanobodies with known binding epitopes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Domain Antibodies , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
Cell Res ; 32(4): 375-382, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707327

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies represent important weapons in our arsenal to against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, this potential is severely limited by the time-consuming process of developing effective antibodies and the relative high cost of manufacturing. Herein, we present a rapid and cost-effective lipid nanoparticle (LNP) encapsulated-mRNA platform for in vivo delivery of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization antibodies. Two mRNAs encoding the light and heavy chains of a potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody HB27, which is currently being evaluated in clinical trials, were encapsulated into clinical grade LNP formulations (named as mRNA-HB27-LNP). In vivo characterization demonstrated that intravenous administration of mRNA-HB27-LNP in mice resulted in a longer circulating half-life compared with the original HB27 antibody in protein format. More importantly, a single prophylactic administration of mRNA-HB27-LNP provided protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in mice at 1, 7 and even 63 days post administration. In a close contact transmission model, prophylactic administration of mRNA-HB27-LNP prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection between hamsters in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, our results demonstrate a superior long-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 conferred by a single administration of this unique mRNA antibody, highlighting the potential of this universal platform for antibody-based disease prevention and therapy against COVID-19 as well as a variety of other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cricetinae , Humans , Liposomes , Mice , Nanoparticles , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(11): e0106321, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398568

ABSTRACT

SCTA01 is a novel monoclonal antibody with promising prophylactic and therapeutic potential for COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and immunogenicity of SCTA01 in healthy adults. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalation phase I clinical trial. Healthy adults were randomly assigned to cohort 1 (n = 5; 3:2), cohort 2 (n = 8; 6:2), cohort 3, or cohort 4 (both n = 10; 8:2) to receive SCTA01 (5, 15, 30, and 50 mg/kg, respectively) versus placebo. All participants were followed up for clinical, laboratory, PK, and immunogenicity assessments for 84 days. The primary outcomes were the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximal tolerable dose (MTD), and the secondary outcomes included PK parameters, immunogenicity, and adverse events (AE). Of the 33 participants, 18 experienced treatment-related AEs; the frequency was 52.0% (13/25) in participants receiving SCTA01 and 62.5% (5/8) in those receiving placebo. All AEs were mild. There was no serious AE or death. No DLT was reported, and the MTD of SCTA01 was not reached. SCTA01 with a dose range of 5 to 50 mg/kg had nearly linear dose-proportional increases in Cmax and AUC parameters. An antidrug antibody response was detected in four (16.0%) participants receiving SCTA01, with low titers, between the baseline and day 28, but all became negative later. In conclusion, SCTA01 up to 50 mg/kg was safe and well-tolerated in healthy participants. Its PK parameters were nearly linear dose-proportional. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT04483375.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Viral , Double-Blind Method , Humans
8.
Cell ; 184(9): 2362-2371.e9, 2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139468

ABSTRACT

The 501Y.V2 variants of SARS-CoV-2 containing multiple mutations in spike are now dominant in South Africa and are rapidly spreading to other countries. Here, experiments with 18 pseudotyped viruses showed that the 501Y.V2 variants do not confer increased infectivity in multiple cell types except for murine ACE2-overexpressing cells, where a substantial increase in infectivity was observed. Notably, the susceptibility of the 501Y.V2 variants to 12 of 17 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies was substantially diminished, and the neutralization ability of the sera from convalescent patients and immunized mice was also reduced for these variants. The neutralization resistance was mainly caused by E484K and N501Y mutations in the receptor-binding domain of spike. The enhanced infectivity in murine ACE2-overexpressing cells suggests the possibility of spillover of the 501Y.V2 variants to mice. Moreover, the neutralization resistance we detected for the 501Y.V2 variants suggests the potential for compromised efficacy of monoclonal antibodies and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mutation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(3): nwaa297, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990776

ABSTRACT

Receptor recognition and subsequent membrane fusion are essential for the establishment of successful infection by SARS-CoV-2. Halting these steps can cure COVID-19. Here we have identified and characterized a potent human monoclonal antibody, HB27, that blocks SARS-CoV-2 attachment to its cellular receptor at sub-nM concentrations. Remarkably, HB27 can also prevent SARS-CoV-2 membrane fusion. Consequently, a single dose of HB27 conferred effective protection against SARS-CoV-2 in two established mouse models. Rhesus macaques showed no obvious adverse events when administrated with 10 times the effective dose of HB27. Cryo-EM studies on complex of SARS-CoV-2 trimeric S with HB27 Fab reveal that three Fab fragments work synergistically to occlude SARS-CoV-2 from binding to the ACE2 receptor. Binding of the antibody also restrains any further conformational changes of the receptor binding domain, possibly interfering with progression from the prefusion to the postfusion stage. These results suggest that HB27 is a promising candidate for immuno-therapies against COVID-19.

11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 283, 2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957563

ABSTRACT

In face of the everlasting battle toward COVID-19 and the rapid evolution of SARS-CoV-2, no specific and effective drugs for treating this disease have been reported until today. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor of SARS-CoV-2, mediates the virus infection by binding to spike protein. Although ACE2 is expressed in the lung, kidney, and intestine, its expressing levels are rather low, especially in the lung. Considering the great infectivity of COVID-19, we speculate that SARS-CoV-2 may depend on other routes to facilitate its infection. Here, we first discover an interaction between host cell receptor CD147 and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The loss of CD147 or blocking CD147 in Vero E6 and BEAS-2B cell lines by anti-CD147 antibody, Meplazumab, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 amplification. Expression of human CD147 allows virus entry into non-susceptible BHK-21 cells, which can be neutralized by CD147 extracellular fragment. Viral loads are detectable in the lungs of human CD147 (hCD147) mice infected with SARS-CoV-2, but not in those of virus-infected wild type mice. Interestingly, virions are observed in lymphocytes of lung tissue from a COVID-19 patient. Human T cells with a property of ACE2 natural deficiency can be infected with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in a dose-dependent manner, which is specifically inhibited by Meplazumab. Furthermore, CD147 mediates virus entering host cells by endocytosis. Together, our study reveals a novel virus entry route, CD147-spike protein, which provides an important target for developing specific and effective drug against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Basigin/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Basigin/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Pandemics , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/genetics , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization
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