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1.
Iranian Journal of Public Health ; 49(6):1169-1172, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1717219

ABSTRACT

The objective of the article was to outline the practical nursing management strategies successfully followed in a general tertiary hospital involved in the of pre-screening 195458 patients, treatment of 316 suspected cases, and 4 confirmed COVID-19 cases from December 2019 to Mar 29, 2020, with no infection of medical staff. During the outbreak, the orderly management and distribution of personal protective equipment (PPE) were essential for COVID-19 prevention and control. A two-level warehouse management system for PPE was established. The hospital-level warehouse of the isolation hospital stored medical supplies. Input/output forms were used to record the usage of PPE. The wardlevel warehouse was equipped with daily requirements of protective supplies. Medical staff followed the policies and procedures of isolation precautions to use PPE. The nurse in charge reported the quantity of PPE used so that replenishment could be provided in time. Reasonable distribution and usage of PPE could be obtained through the two-level warehouse management system.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324253

ABSTRACT

Background: With the spread of the corona vi rus disease 19 (COVID-19), Sichuan provincial people's hospital, at the frontline fighting this public health crisis, took a lead in the reception, diagnosis and treatment of patients with COVID – 19 in the greater Sichuan area. As an effort to prevent nosocomial infections among the medical staff, we switched from the traditional face-to-face instruction to a web-based multimodal teaching model in our resident training program. Specifically, we explored ways to provide remote training in the proper procedure of donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various teaching methods in teaching clinical skills of our residents during the epidemic period. Methods: : 72 resident anesthesiologists (1st to 3 rd year) were recruited to receive remote skill training on donning and doffing of PPE. In this study, all participants received instructional videos/text for the proper protocol, in addition to watching a live-stream instructional video that simulated the procedure of donning and doffing of PPE. We matched the residents by year and divided them into two groups through a WeChat Draw Program. The video feedback (VF) group recorded and submitted videos of simulated donning and removing PPE followed by a debriefing session through a collaborative WeChat learning group. The independent learning (IL) group did not record videos, but were encouraged to consult with their instructors by WeChat or phone if they had any questions. Then the two groups completed questionnaire as well as theory tests and skill assessment. Results: The VF group responded positively to the additional video-recording/debriefing approach. We did not observe any significant difference between the two groups in theoretical test scores. However, the VF group had significantly higher performance than the IL group in skill assessment. Conclusion: The web-based teaching, simulation teaching and video feedback model is an effective alternative to the conventional face-to-face instruction as part of an adapted resident training curriculum involving donning and doffing of protective equipment during an epidemic outbreak.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321361

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as an infectious disease with cytokine storm, has become an emerging global challenge. To assess the duration of SARS-COV-2 viral shedding and associated risk factors in COVID-19 patients. Methods: : COVID-19 patients with interleukin (IL)-1b, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokines data consecutively admitted to Tongji Hospital from January 27, 2020 through February 5, 2020 were enrolled and been followed up until March 24, 2020. We utilized Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to assess the duration of viral shedding and risk factors affecting virus clearance. Results: : 246 inpatients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled. The median duration of viral shedding was 24 days, ranging from 6 to 63 days. Age, severity of COVID-19, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, ferritin and sIL-2R were associated with duration of viral shedding. Administration of lopinavir-ritonavir, arbidol, oseltamivir and intravenous immunoglobulin did not shorten viral shedding time. Multivariate cox regression analysis revealed that sIL-2R, LDH and severity of COVID-19 were independent factors associated with duration of viral shedding. At stratified analysis, the viral shedding time was positively correlated with age, sIL-2R and LDH in non-corticosteroid subgroup, while negatively correlated with lymphocyte count in corticosteroid group. Conclusions: : The present study demonstrated that elevated sIL-2R, increased LDH and severe status were related to prolongation of viral shedding in COVID-19 inpatients. Further research is urgent to investigate the mechanism of immune reaction involved in the virus clearance process and aim to the optimal antiviral therapy.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315482

ABSTRACT

Background: After COVID-19 early expansion occurred in mainland China, seasonal influenza transmission in Hong Kong, which was growing initially, immediately plateaued, and then abruptly declined a few weeks later. These patterns correspond to the three phases of early COVID-19 spread from Wuhan to Hong Kong, i.e. the ordinary: before the occurrence in Wuhan;the awareness: after the evidence of human-to-human transmission was revealed;and the spreading: after the first local case was confirmed in Hong Kong. The available surveyed data on changes in precautionary behavior during these phases, i.e. face mask wearing and avoiding the crowd, provide an opportunity to estimate the protectiveness of face mask on influenza transmissibility. Methods: We developed a time-series susceptible-infected-recovered (TS-SIR) regression model to estimate the time-varying effective reproduction number Rt based on the weekly reported influenza cases. The reporting rate of influenza was adjusted under the assumption that patients with severe influenza were seeking medical care. After separating the effect from herd immunity, the percent reduction in Rt from each behavior was calculated as an indication of the protectiveness. Findings: The average Rt of winter influenza season in 2019/20 was estimated in the three phases: 1.29 (95%CI, 1.27 to 1.32) in the ordinary, 1.00 (95%CI, 0.99 to 1.00) in the awareness, and 0.73 (95%CI, 0.73 to 0.74) in the spreading. Our results showed that face mask wearing protected 22% from being transmitted, which was nearly half of the effect of avoiding the crowd (42%). If more than 79% of the people adopted both precautionary behaviors, the initial Rt reduced to less than one. Interpretation: The results suggested that mandatory face mask wearing along with social distancing practices could be effective in suppressing the transmission of influenza, which may also give hints on preventing COVID-19 infection.Funding Information: We declare no competing interests.Declaration of Interests: We acknowledge the support from grants funded by Health and Medical Research Fund [COVID190329415], City University of Hong Kong [7200573], andWellcome Trust and The Royal Society [213494/Z/18/3Z95].

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 782913, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581150

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) has been coexisting with humans for almost 2 years, consistently impacting people's daily life, medical environment, and mental health. This study aimed to test the series mediation model triggered by childhood trauma, in which perceived psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic and sleep quality mediated the path sequentially and led to adverse mental health outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional design involving 817 participants were enrolled via WeChat online survey. Participants completed questionnaires, including demographic features, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Pearson correlations and hierarchical multiple linear regression were employed to examine the association of childhood trauma and psychological stress of COVID-19, sleep quality, and mental health status. In addition, a series mediate analysis was carried out to examine sequence mediating effects of psychological impact of COVID-19 and sleep quality between childhood trauma and mental health status. Results: The results showed that childhood trauma is positively and significantly related to psychological distress of COVID-19 pandemic, sleep quality, and mental health status (p < 0.05). Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis shown that demographic features explained 4.4, 2.1, and 4.0% of the total variance in DASS-21, IES-R, and PSQI total scale scores, respectively. Adding childhood trauma significantly increased the model variance of DASS-21 (ΔR 2 = 0.129, F = 126.092, p = 0.000), IES-R (ΔR 2 = 0.062, F = 54.771, p = 0.000), and PSQI total scale scores (ΔR 2 = 0.055, F = 48.733, p = 0.000), respectively. Moreover, the series mediation model showed that the perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and sleep quality were sequential mediators between childhood trauma and mental health status (proportion explained: 49.17%, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Amid the ravages of COVID-19, childhood trauma predicts poor mental health status, in part because of greater psychological impact related to COVID-19 and poorer global sleep quality. In order to improve mental health, future researchers should pay more attention to individuals with childhood trauma, for its association with greater stress related to life events and poorer sleep quality.

7.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 375, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Half of U.S. adults have received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccines produced by either Pfizer, Moderna, or Johnson and Johnson, which represents a major milestone in the ongoing pandemic. Given the emergency use authorizations for these vaccines, their side effects and safety were assessed over a compressed time period. Hence, ongoing monitoring for vaccine-related adverse events is imperative for a full understanding and delineation of their safety profile. CASE PRESENTATION: An 22-year-old Caucasian male presented to our hospital center complaining of pleuritic chest pain. Six months prior he had a mild case of COVID-19, but was otherwise healthy. He had received his first dose of the Moderna vaccine three days prior to developing symptoms. Laboratory analysis revealed a markedly elevated troponin and multiple imaging modalities during his hospitalization found evidence of wall motion abnormalities consistent with a diagnosis of perimyocarditis. He was started on aspirin and colchicine with marked improvement of his symptoms prior to discharge. CONCLUSIONS: We present a case of perimyocarditis that was temporally related to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in an young male with prior COVID-19 infection but otherwise healthy. Our case report highlights an albeit rare but important adverse event for clinicians to be aware of. It also suggests a possible mechanism for the development of myocardial injury in our patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Recovery of Function , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13854, 2021 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297314

ABSTRACT

To describe the long-term health outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and investigate the potential risk factors. Clinical data during hospitalization and at a mean (SD) day of 249 (15) days after discharge from 40 survivors with confirmed COVID-19 (including 25 severe cases) were collected and analyzed retrospectively. At follow-up, severe cases had higher incidences of persistent symptoms, DLCO impairment, and higher abnormal CT score as compared with mild cases. CT score at follow-up was positively correlated with age, LDH level, cumulative days of oxygen treatment, total dosage of glucocorticoids used, and CT peak score during hospitalization. DLCO% at follow-up was negatively correlated with cumulative days of oxygen treatment during hospitalization. DLCO/VA% at follow-up was positively correlated with BMI, and TNF-α level. Among the three groups categorized as survivors with normal DLCO, abnormal DLCO but normal DLCO/VA, and abnormal DLCO and DLCO/VA, survivors with abnormal DLCO and DLCO/VA had the lowest serum IL-2R, IL-8, and TNF-α level, while the survivors with abnormal DLCO but normal DLCO/VA had the highest levels of inflammatory cytokines during hospitalization. Altogether, COVID-19 had a greater long-term impact on the lung physiology of severe cases. The long-term radiological abnormality maybe relate to old age and the severity of COVID-19. Either absent or excess of inflammation during COVID-19 course would lead to the impairment of pulmonary diffusion function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Lung/virology , Respiration Disorders/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survivors , Adult , Aged , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration Disorders/physiopathology , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Retrospective Studies , Survivors/statistics & numerical data
9.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 567381, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295701

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to summarize the prevalence and risk factors of mental health problems among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We applied an optimized search strategy across the PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and four Chinese databases, with hand searching supplemented to identify relevant surveys. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in peer-reviewed literature and used a validated method to assess the prevalence and risk factors of mental health problems among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Heterogeneity was quantified using Q statistics and the I 2 statistics. The potential causes of heterogeneity were investigated using subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the robustness of the results. Results: We pooled and analyzed data from 20 studies comprising 10,886 healthcare workers. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia, post-traumatic stress symptoms, phobia, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and somatization symptoms was 24.1, 28.6, 44.1, 25.6, 35.0, 16.2, and 10.7%, respectively. Female and nurses had a high prevalence of depression and anxiety. Frontline healthcare workers had a higher prevalence of anxiety and a lower prevalence of depression than the those in the second-line. Furthermore, the proportion of moderate-severe depression and anxiety is higher in the frontline. Additionally, four studies reported on risk factors of mental health problems. Conclusions: In this systematic review, healthcare workers have a relatively high prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia, post-traumatic stress symptoms, phobia, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and somatization symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, and focus should be on the healthcare workers at high risk of mental problems. Mental health problems in healthcare workers should be taken seriously, and timely screening and appropriate intervention for the high-risk group are highly recommended. Systematic Review Registration:https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42020179189.

10.
Comput Ind Eng ; 156: 107235, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135283

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) began in Wuhan, China. SARS-CoV-2 exhibited efficient person-to-person transmission of what became labeled as COVID-19. It has spread worldwide with over 83,000,000 infected cases and more than 1,800,000 deaths to date (December 31, 2020). This research proposes a statistical monitoring scheme in which an optimized np control chart is utilized by sentinel metropolitan airports worldwide for early detection of coronavirus and other respiratory virus outbreaks. The sample size of this chart is optimized to ensure the best overall performance for detecting a wide range of shifts in the infection rate, based on the available resources, such as the inspection rate and the allowable false alarm rate. The effectiveness of the proposed optimized np chart is compared with that of the traditional np chart with a predetermined sample size under both sampling inspection and 100% inspection. For a variety of scenarios including a real case, the optimized np control chart is found to substantially outperform its traditional counterpart in terms of the average number of infections. Therefore, this control chart has potential to be an effective tool for early detection of respiratory virus outbreaks, promoting early outbreak investigation and mitigation.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117490

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a major global health threat. Epidemiological studies suggest that bats (Rhinolophus affinis) are the natural zoonotic reservoir for SARS-CoV-2. However, the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and intermediate hosts that facilitate its transmission to humans remain unknown. The interaction of coronavirus with its host receptor is a key genetic determinant of host range and cross-species transmission. SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor to enter host cells in a species-dependent manner. In this study, we characterized the ability of ACE2 from diverse species to support viral entry. By analyzing the conservation of five residues in two virus-binding hotspots of ACE2 (hotspot 31Lys and hotspot 353Lys), we predicted 80 ACE2 proteins from mammals that could potentially mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry. We chose 48 ACE2 orthologs among them for functional analysis, and showed that 44 of these orthologs-including domestic animals, pets, livestock, and animals commonly found in zoos and aquaria-could bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and support viral entry. In contrast, New World monkey ACE2 orthologs could not bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and support viral entry. We further identified the genetic determinant of New World monkey ACE2 that restricts viral entry using genetic and functional analyses. These findings highlight a potentially broad host tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and suggest that SARS-CoV-2 might be distributed much more widely than previously recognized, underscoring the necessity to monitor susceptible hosts to prevent future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/veterinary , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host Specificity , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Tropism , Viral Zoonoses/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/virology , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization
13.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(2): e1251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084626

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to gain an understanding of the paradox of the immunity in COVID-19 patients with T cells showing both functional defects and hyperactivation and enhanced proliferation. METHODS: A total of 280 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 were evaluated for cytokine profiles and clinical features including viral shedding. A mouse model of acute infection by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was applied to dissect the relationship between immunological, virological and pathological features. The results from the mouse model were validated by published data set of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The levels of soluble CD25 (sCD25), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were higher in severe COVID-19 patients than non-severe cases, but only sCD25 was identified as an independent risk factor for disease severity by multivariable binary logistic regression analysis and showed a positive association with the duration of viral shedding. In agreement with the clinical observation, LCMV-infected mice with high levels of sCD25 demonstrated insufficient anti-viral response and delayed viral clearance. The elevation of sCD25 in mice was mainly contributed by the expansion of CD25+CD8+ T cells that also expressed the highest level of PD-1 with pro-inflammatory potential. The counterpart human CD25+PD-1+ T cells were expanded in BALF of COVID-19 patients with severe disease compared to those with modest disease. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high levels of sCD25 in COVID-19 patients probably result from insufficient anti-viral immunity and indicate an expansion of pro-inflammatory T cells that contribute to disease severity.

14.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(1): 29-41, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994132

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Previous studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were mainly focused on cross-sectional analysis. In this study, we sought to evaluate the dynamic changes of immunological and radiographic features, and the association with the outcome of pulmonary lesions in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Peripheral blood samples and radiographic data were collected longitudinally for up to 8 weeks from 158 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients. The chest computed tomography (CT) scans were scored based on a semi-quantification assessment according to the extent of pulmonary abnormalities; the temporal change of the immunological and radiographic features was analyzed. Results: Compared with mild and moderate patients, severe patients had significantly decreased counts of lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells but dramatically elevated counts of neutrophils and levels of interleukin (IL)-6. Sequential monitoring showed a sustained increase in lymphocytes counts and significantly decreased levels of IL-6 in severe patients during the disease course. Notably, patients with persistent pulmonary lesions (CT score ≥ 5 in week 8) showed high levels of IL-6 during the follow-up period, compared with those with recovery lesions (CT score < 5 in week 8). More importantly, the peak expression of IL-6 prior to the aggravated lung injury was mainly found in patients with persistent lesions, and multivariate analysis showed that IL-6 level upon admission was an independent factor associated with the persistent pulmonary injury. Conclusion: Prolonged elevation of IL-6 is associated with persistent pulmonary lesions in COVID-19 patients. Sequential monitoring and timely intervention of IL-6 may favor the clinical management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Injury/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/virology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
15.
Atmos Environ (1994) ; 246: 118103, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967750

ABSTRACT

China's lockdown to control COVID-19 brought significant declines in air pollutant emissions, but haze was still a serious problem in North China Plain (NCP) during late-January to mid-February of 2020. We seek the potential causes for the poor air quality in NCP combining satellite data, ground measurements and model analyses. Efforts to constrain COVID-19 result in a drop-off of primary gaseous pollutants, e.g., -42.4% for surface nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and -38.9% for tropospheric NO2 column, but fine particulate matter (PM25) still remains high and ozone (O3) even increases sharply (+84.1%). Stagnant weather during COVID-19 outbreak, e.g., persistent low wind speed, frequent temperature inversion and wind convergence, is one of the major drivers for the poor air quality in NCP. The surface PM2.5 levels vary between -12.9~+15.1% in NCP driven by the varying climate conditions between the years 2000 and 2020. Besides, the persistent PM2.5 pollution might be maintained by the still intensive industrial and residential emissions (primary PM2.5), and increased atmospheric oxidants (+26.1% for ozone and +29.4% for hydroxyl radical) in response to the NO2 decline (secondary PM2.5). Further understanding the nonlinear response between atmospheric secondary aerosols and NOx emissions is meaningful to cope with the emerging air pollution problems in China.

16.
China Tropical Medicine ; 20(8):746-750, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-860911

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical effect of "Feiyan Yihao" Chinese medicine granules in the treatment of cases of COVID-19.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(6): 1295-1301, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812091

ABSTRACT

The newly described severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for a pandemic (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]). It is now well established that certain comorbidities define high-risk patients. They include hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. In contrast, the context with bronchial asthma is controversial and shows marked regional differences. Because asthma is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory lung disease worldwide and SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the upper and lower airways leading to marked inflammation, the question arises about the possible clinical and pathophysiological association between asthma and SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. Here, we analyze the global epidemiology of asthma among patients with COVID-19 and propose the concept that patients suffering from different asthma endotypes (type 2 asthma vs non-type 2 asthma) present with a different risk profile in terms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, development of COVID-19, and progression to severe COVID-19 outcomes. This concept may have important implications for future COVID-19 diagnostics and immune-based therapy developments.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Pandemics
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(3): 542, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-806592
19.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1496

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 cases in children are gradually increasing with limited information. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children with mild dis

20.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-805

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 cases in children are gradually increasing with limited information. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children with mild dis

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