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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 56, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safety data reported from the large-scale clinical trials of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine are extremely limited in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. The vaccination campaign in this specific population could be difficult due to uncertainty about the adverse events following vaccination. We aimed to assessed the COVID-19 vaccination rate, factors associated with unvaccinated status, and the adverse events following vaccination in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: This is a retrospective study from Ruijin Hospial (Shanghai, China) on an ongoing prospective cohort designed for long-term survival analysis of decompensated cirrhotic patients who recovered from decompensating events or acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) between 2016 and 2018. We assessed the COVID-19 vaccination rate, the number of doses, type of vaccine, safety data, patient-reported reasons for remaining unvaccinated, factors associated with unvaccinated status, and the adverse events of COVID-19 vaccine. Binary logistic regression was used for identifying factors associated with unvaccinated status. RESULTS: A total of 229 patients with decompensated cirrhosis without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection participated (mean age, 56 ± 12.2 years, 75% male, 65% viral-related cirrhosis). Mode of decompensation were grade II‒III ascites (82.5%), gastroesophageal varices bleeding (7.9%), hepatic encephalopathy (7.9%). Eighty-five participants (37.1%) received at least one dose of vaccination (1 dose: n = 1, 2 doses: n = 65, 3 doses: n = 19) while 62.9% remained unvaccinated. Patient-reported reasons for remaining unvaccinated were mainly fear of adverse events (37.5%) and lack of positive advice from healthcare providers (52.1%). The experience of hepatic encephalopathy (OR = 5.61, 95% CI: 1.24-25.4) or ACLF (OR = 3.13, 95% CI: 1.12-8.69) and post-liver transplantation status (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.06-5.76) were risk factors of remaining unvaccinated independent of residential areas. The safety analysis demonstrated that 75.3% had no adverse events, 23.6% had non-severe reactions (20% injection-site pain, 1.2% fatigue, 2.4% rash) and 1.2% had a severe event (development of acute decompensation requiring hospitalization). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with decompensated cirrhosis in eastern China are largely remained at unvaccinated status, particularly those with previous episodes of ACLF or hepatic encephalopathy and liver transplantation recipients. Vaccination against COVID-19 in this population is safe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Female , Hepatic Encephalopathy/complications , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3791-3800, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802449

ABSTRACT

The emerging coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has become a severe threat to global public health and local economies. In this study, several single-chain antibody fragments that bind to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein were identified and used to construct human-mouse chimeric antibodies and humanized antibodies. These antibodies exhibited strong binding to RBD and neutralization activity towards a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Moreover, these antibodies recognize different RBD epitopes and exhibit synergistic neutralizing activity. These provide candidate to combination use or bispecific antibody to potential clinical therapy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Humans , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324111

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, there has be an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China. Nowadays, it rapidly spread across the country and then the worldwide. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19. Methods: The patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted between January 25 and February 10, 2020, were enrolled. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological data, and antivirus therapies, were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The 90-day follow-up of these patients was also performed. Results: A total of 107 patients were included. The median age was 55.0 years (range from 18.0 to 85.0 years), and 72 (67.3%) were female. Ninety-three (86.9%) of the patients had a history of contacting with residents from Wuhan (n=31), or contacting with confirmed COVID-19 patients (n=62) within 2 weeks. Fifty-eight (54.2%) had a family cluster onset. Fever and cough were the most common symptoms. Only two patients had diarrhea. The most common underlying disease was hypertension. Lymphopenia was observed in 26 patients. Fifty-two patients with an elevated level of IL-6. On admission, bilateral patchy shadowing and ground-glass opacity were the typical radiological findings on chest computed tomography. Six patients had an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Antivirus therapy was performed to all patients. 105 patients discharged with an improved condition, and no death was occurred during our 90-day follow-up for these patients. Conclusions: Patients with COVID-19 in our hospital had relatively mild symptoms, and good prognosis. This study also highlights the importance of human-to-human transmission in COVID-19.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315318

ABSTRACT

Background: Different clinical classifications of COVID-19 pneumonia patients have different clinical and CT features, which is very important for the treatment after admission. As the epidemic situation in China continues to improve, it is particularly important to re-clarify the correlation between them. Methods: 97 confirmed patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were enrolled from January 17, 2019 to February 21, 2020, including 75 mild/ordinary cases and 22 severe/critical cases. The clinical data and initial chest CT images of the patients were reviewed and compared. The risk factors associated with disease severity were analyzed. Results: Compared with the mild/ordinary patients, the severe/critical patients had older ages, higher incidence of comorbidities, first CT positive, CT always negative and fever. Mild/ordinary patients had lower body temperature than mild/ordinary patients. The incidences of large/multiple GGO in severe/critical patients were significantly higher than those of the mild/ordinary patients, furthermore, severe/critical patients showed higher incidences of 4-5 lobe infections than the ordinary patients. The CT scores of severe/critical patients were significantly higher than those of the ordinary patients ( P < 0.001). The clinical factors of age, sex, comorbidities, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, pharyngeal discomfort, abdominal pain/diarrhea, temperature and CT score were risk factors for severe/critical COVID-19 pneumonia. Conclusion: The initial clinical and CT characteristics have certain significance for the clinical classification of COVID-19 respiratory infection. Especially in terms of CT score, it can predict the trend of clinical classification of patients to a certain extent.

6.
BMJ ; 369: m1849, 2020 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine plus standard of care compared with standard of care alone in adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Multicentre, open label, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 16 government designated covid-19 treatment centres in China, 11 to 29 February 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 150 patients admitted to hospital with laboratory confirmed covid-19 were included in the intention to treat analysis (75 patients assigned to hydroxychloroquine plus standard of care, 75 to standard of care alone). INTERVENTIONS: Hydroxychloroquine administrated at a loading dose of 1200 mg daily for three days followed by a maintenance dose of 800 mg daily (total treatment duration: two or three weeks for patients with mild to moderate or severe disease, respectively). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Negative conversion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by 28 days, analysed according to the intention to treat principle. Adverse events were analysed in the safety population in which hydroxychloroquine recipients were participants who received at least one dose of hydroxychloroquine and hydroxychloroquine non-recipients were those managed with standard of care alone. RESULTS: Of 150 patients, 148 had mild to moderate disease and two had severe disease. The mean duration from symptom onset to randomisation was 16.6 (SD 10.5; range 3-41) days. A total of 109 (73%) patients (56 standard of care; 53 standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine) had negative conversion well before 28 days, and the remaining 41 (27%) patients (19 standard of care; 22 standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine) were censored as they did not reach negative conversion of virus. The probability of negative conversion by 28 days in the standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine group was 85.4% (95% confidence interval 73.8% to 93.8%), similar to that in the standard of care group (81.3%, 71.2% to 89.6%). The difference between groups was 4.1% (95% confidence interval -10.3% to 18.5%). In the safety population, adverse events were recorded in 7/80 (9%) hydroxychloroquine non-recipients and in 21/70 (30%) hydroxychloroquine recipients. The most common adverse event in the hydroxychloroquine recipients was diarrhoea, reported in 7/70 (10%) patients. Two hydroxychloroquine recipients reported serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of hydroxychloroquine did not result in a significantly higher probability of negative conversion than standard of care alone in patients admitted to hospital with mainly persistent mild to moderate covid-19. Adverse events were higher in hydroxychloroquine recipients than in non-recipients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR2000029868.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Hepatol ; 75(2): 439-441, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The development of COVID-19 vaccines has progressed with encouraging safety and efficacy data. Concerns have been raised about SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study aimed to explore the safety and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccination in NAFLD. METHODS: This multicenter study included patients with NAFLD without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. All patients were vaccinated with 2 doses of inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The primary safety outcome was the incidence of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and overall incidence of adverse reactions within 28 days, and the primary immunogenicity outcome was neutralizing antibody response at least 14 days after the whole-course vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 381 patients with pre-existing NAFLD were included from 11 designated centers in China. The median age was 39.0 years (IQR 33.0-48.0 years) and 179 (47.0%) were male. The median BMI was 26.1 kg/m2 (IQR 23.8-28.1 kg/m2). The number of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and adverse reactions within 28 days totaled 95 (24.9%) and 112 (29.4%), respectively. The most common adverse reactions were injection site pain in 70 (18.4%), followed by muscle pain in 21 (5.5%), and headache in 20 (5.2%). All adverse reactions were mild and self-limiting, and no grade 3 adverse reactions were recorded. Notably, neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 364 (95.5%) patients with NAFLD. The median neutralizing antibody titer was 32 (IQR 8-64), and the neutralizing antibody titers were maintained. CONCLUSIONS: The inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in patients with NAFLD. LAY SUMMARY: The development of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has progressed rapidly, with encouraging safety and efficacy data. This study now shows that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126848, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347702

ABSTRACT

Face masks are necessary for fighting against the coronavirus disease 2019 around the world. As the face mask is usually made from polymers and phthalates are widely-used additives into the polymers, the face mask could be a potential source of phthalate exposure to humans. However, limited knowledge is available on the occurrence and risks of the phthalates from the face mask. In this study, twelve phthalates were determined in 56 mask samples collected from different countries. The phthalates were detected in all the samples with total levels ranging from 115 ng/g to 37,700 ng/g. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of the phthalates from the masks ranged from 3.71 to 639 ng/kg-bw/day, and the EDIs of the phthalates from masks for toddlers were approximately 4-5 times higher than those for adults. Non-carcinogenic risks in relation to the phthalates in masks were found to be within safe levels, yet 89.3% of the mask samples exhibited potential carcinogenic effects to humans. The extent of the risks for wearing masks located at a moderate level comparing with other skin-contacted products. This study unveiled a potential source of phthalate exposure to human, and indicated necessity of managing types and levels of additives in the face masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Phthalic Acids , Adult , Humans , Masks , Phthalic Acids/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Community Psychol ; 50(2): 806-822, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347408

ABSTRACT

The early 2020 witnessed Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic followed by a nationwide lockdown in the whole history for the first time. The entire world had to go for nationwide lockdown to curb the spread of such contagious and deadly disease. In short, the coronavirus outbreak and the subsequent lockdown had created a storm in the world giving rise to change in public with respect to parameters like trust in the government institutions, civic engagement, and so on. In this raising dilemma, multiple countries have acknowledged the significance of trusting institutions, especially during lockdown. It is also widely accepted that lives of individuals had been undergoing change ever since the spread of COVID-19. Likewise, public's trust in the institutions is directly related to the civic engagement. Civic engagement is commonly understood as a phenomenon that develops a difference in an individual's civic life by combining values, skills, motivation, as well as knowledge. Different forms of civic engagement include national service, volunteering, societal services, and so forth. The main focus of this article is to examine the influence of COVID-19 outbreak on general attitude of the citizens of Malaysia and India, their trust on the governing institutions, and the civic engagement. In other words, this study tries to assess the impact of the pandemic on variables such as attitude toward the lockdown, trust in institutions, and civic engagement. For this, the study adopted cross-sectional community questionnaire survey in two countries-Malaysia and India. The respondents selected for the study was 1437. The respondent's demographics, attitude toward lockdown, trust in institutions, and civic engagement during the lockdown were collected by means of convenience sampling technique. Later the collected data were measured in terms of descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings of the study stated that public's trust in the institution can be increased by enhancing the civic activities and implementing policies that govern and build the society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trust , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Med ; 15(4): 644-648, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204958

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused global public health and economic crises. Thus, new therapeutic strategies and effective vaccines are urgently needed to cope with this severe pandemic. The development of a broadly neutralizing antibody against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is one of the attractive treatment strategies for COVID-19. Currently, the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein is the main target of neutralizing antibodies when SARS-CoV-2 enters human cells through an interaction between the S protein and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expressed on various human cells. A single monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment is prone to selective pressure due to increased possibility of targeted epitope mutation, leading to viral escape. In addition, the antibody-dependent enhancement effect is a potential risk of enhancing the viral infection. These risks can be reduced using multiple mAbs that target nonoverlapping epitopes. Thus, a cocktail therapy combining two or more antibodies that recognize different regions of the viral surface may be the most effective therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University ; 42(3):255-260, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1197698

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the efficacy of respiratory rehabilitation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the effect of different respiratory training methods.

12.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 42: 101297, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977991

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This review aimed at systematically evaluating the efficacy and safety of Yinqiao powder combined with western medicine in the treatment of pneumonia. METHODS: A systematic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on pneumonia treatment using a combination of Yinqiao powder and western medicine was performed in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang, Weipu (VIP) and CBM. The retrieval time limit was from the establishment of the database to June 2020. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted the data and evaluated the bias risk of the included studies. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan5.3 software. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULT: Fifteen RCTs involving 1705 patients were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis results revealed the total effective rate of the treatment group [RR = 1.21, 95% CI (1.15, 1.27), P < 0.00001], bacterial clearance rate [RR = 1.13, 95% CI (1.05, 1.22), P = 0.001], adverse reactions [RR = 0.54, 95% CI (0.38, 0.76), P = 0.0005]. There were statistically significant differences in the cooling time, T cell number, procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) value decline rate (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the decline rate of neutrophils and leukocytes (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The current evidence indicated that the Yinqiao powder combined with western medicine can improve total efficiency in the treatment of pneumonia patients. The combination therapy performed better when compared to western medicine alone in the cooling time, bacterial clearance rate, T cell count, decline rates of CRP and PCT as well as in the incidences of adverse reactions. However, there was no significant difference in the decline rates of neutrophils and leucocytes between the two groups. The funnel plot, Egger's test and Begg's test indicated publication bias, which may be associated with unpublished negative study results. Due to the limitation of the quality and quantity of the included studies, more high-quality studies should be performed to verify our conclusions.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine , Pneumonia , Child , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Powders
13.
Front Physiol ; 12: 642922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become the most severe global health issue. Abnormal liver functions are frequently reported in these patients. However, liver function abnormality was often overlooked during COVID-19 treatment, and data regarding liver functions after cure of COVID-19 is limited. This study aimed to reveal the changes of liver function tests (LFTs) during hospitalization, and its clinical significance in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective, bi-center study, a total of 158 hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in China were included from January 22nd, 2020 to February 20th, 2020. Clinical features, laboratory parameters including LFTs, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. LFTs included alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and total bilirubin. Patients were considered with abnormal LFTs when any value of these tests was higher than upper limit of normal. RESULTS: Of 158 patients with COVID-19, 67 (42.41%) patients had abnormal LFTs on admission and another 50 (31.65%) patients developed abnormal LFTs during hospitalization. The incidence of LFTs abnormality in severe COVID-19 cases was significantly higher than non-severe cases. All LFTs in COVID-19 patients were correlated with oxygenation index. There was no statistical difference in treatment between the patients with or without liver test abnormalities. By the time of discharge, there were still 64 (40.50%) patients with abnormal LFTs. Logistic regression analysis identified younger age, hypertension and low lymphocyte counts as independent risk factors for persistent abnormal LFTs during hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Liver function tests abnormality was common in COVID-19 patients and was more prevalent in severe cases than in non-severe cases. A substantial percentage of patients still had abnormal LFTs by the time of discharge.

14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 28, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses (CoVs) are distributed worldwide and have various susceptible hosts; CoVs infecting humans are called human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Although HCoV-specific drugs are still lacking, many potent targets for drug discovery are being explored, and many vigorously designed clinical trials are being carried out in an orderly manner. The aim of this review was to gain a comprehensive understanding of the current status of drug development against HCoVs, particularly severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). MAIN TEXT: A scoping review was conducted by electronically searching research studies, reviews, and clinical trials in PubMed and the CNKI. Studies on HCoVs and therapeutic drug discovery published between January 2000 and October 2020 and in English or Chinese were included, and the information was summarized. Of the 3248 studies identified, 159 publication were finally included. Advances in drug development against HCoV, especially SARS-CoV-2, are summarized under three categories: antiviral drugs aimed at inhibiting the HCoV proliferation process, drugs acting on the host's immune system, and drugs derived from plants with potent activity. Furthermore, clinical trials of drugs targeting SARS-CoV-2 are summarized. CONCLUSIONS: During the spread of COVID-19 outbreak, great efforts have been made in therapeutic drug discovery against the virus, although the pharmacological effects and adverse reactions of some drugs under study are still unclear. However, well-designed high-quality studies are needed to further study the effectiveness and safety of these potential drugs so as to provide valid recommendations for better control of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/physiology , Drug Discovery , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Drug Development , Drug Discovery/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(4): 615-625, 2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005368

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread all over the world in a short time. Information about the differences between COVID-19 patients with and without hypertension is limited. To explore the characteristics and outcomes differences between COVID-19 patients with and without hypertension, the medical records and cardiac biomarkers of 414 patients were analyzed. A total of 149 patients had a history of hypertension, while 265 patients did not have hypertension, and the groups were compared based on their clinical characteristics and laboratory findings as well as the hazard risk for composite outcomes, including intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, or death. The results are as follows. On admission, 22.1% of patients in hypertension group had elevated high sensitivity troponin I (hs-TNI > 26 pg/mL), which was higher than the proportion in the nonhypertension group (6.4%). Median NT-proBNP levels in patients with hypertension (141.9 pg/mL) were higher than those in patients without hypertension (77.3 pg/mL). Patients in the hypertension group had a higher risk for in-hospital death [HR: 2.57, 95% CI (1.46~4.51)]. However, the impact of hypertension on the prognosis was not significant after adjusting for age and sex. Multivariate Cox hazard regression confirmed that NT-proBNP levels in the highest tertile (upper 75 % of patients with hypertension) was an independent risk factor for in-hospital death in all COVID-19 patients. Taken together, hypertension per se had a modest impact on the prognosis in COVID-19 patients. In COVID-19 patients with and without hypertension, NT-proBNP may be a better predictor of prognosis than hs-TNI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
Chin Med ; 15: 102, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797649

ABSTRACT

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. (SB) is a common heat-clearing medicine in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been used for thousands of years in China and its neighboring countries. Clinically, it is mostly used to treat diseases such as cold and cough. SB has different harvesting periods and processed products for different clinical symptoms. Botanical researches proved that SB included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1st, 2020) was consistent with the medicinal SB described in ancient books. Modern phytochemical analysis had found that SB contains hundreds of active ingredients, of which flavonoids are its major components. These chemical components are the material basis for SB to exert pharmacological effects. Pharmacological studies had shown that SB has a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, liver protection, etc. The active ingredients of SB were mostly distributed in liver and kidney, and couldn't be absorbed into brain via oral absorption. SB's toxicity was mostly manifested in liver fibrosis and allergic reactions, mainly caused by baicalin. The non-medicinal application prospects of SB were broad, such as antibacterial plastics, UV-resistant silk, animal feed, etc. In response to the Coronavirus Disease In 2019 (COVID-19), based on the network pharmacology research, SB's active ingredients may have potential therapeutic effects, such as baicalin and baicalein. Therefore, the exact therapeutic effects are still need to be determined in clinical trials. SB has been reviewed in the past 2 years, but the content of these articles were not comprehensive and accurate. In view of the above, we made a comprehensive overview of the research progress of SB, and expect to provide ideas for the follow-up study of SB.

17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e205, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729971

ABSTRACT

Sentinel surveillance system plays a key role in screening and monitoring emerging and acute infectious diseases in order to identify the suspected cases in time. During SARS period in 2003, fever clinics emerged in many cities in mainland China with the purpose to screen the suspected SARS patients and to transfer the confirmed cases to designated hospitals for professional management. Shanghai city has reserved the fever clinics and the designated hospitals since then. Hence, clinicians in the front line are able to respond quickly to the emerging COVID-19 outbreak with their accumulated knowledge and experiences from the past. One hundred seventeen fever clinics distributed in various district areas in Shanghai have played a vital 'sentinel' role to fight against the COVID-19 epidemic. Most of suspected patients were identified in fever clinics and thereafter among these suspected patients the COVID-19 cases were confirmed and were isolated quickly to avoid the spread. We would like to share the sentinel roadmap for screening and diagnosis of COVID-19 to medical healthcare workers around the world, especially countries who are facing great challenges to cope with COVID-19 and meanwhile with limited medical resources. These sentinel surveillance strategies will certainly provide insight into the early detection and timely isolation of suspected cases from the others.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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