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1.
Lab Med ; 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for rapid detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in community or primary-care settings. METHOD: We systematically searched the Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases. We conducted quality evaluation using ReviewManager software (version 5.0). We then used MetaDisc software (version 1.4) and Stata software (version 12.0) to build forest plots, along with a Deeks funnel plot and a bivariate boxplot for analysis. RESULT: Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio were 0.79, 0.97, and 328.18, respectively. The sensitivity for the subgroup with RNA extraction appeared to be higher, at 0.88 (0.86-0.90), compared to the subgroup without RNA extraction, at 0.50 (0.45-0.55), with no significant difference in specificity. CONCLUSION: RT-LAMP assay exhibited high specificity regarding current SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, its overall sensitivity was relatively moderate. Extracting RNA was found to be beneficial in improving sensitivity.

2.
Environ Res ; 211: 112984, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906997

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown policy reduced anthropogenic emissions and impacted the atmospheric chemical characteristics in Chinese urban cities. However, rare studies were conducted at the high mountain site. In this work, in-situ measurements of light absorption by carbonaceous aerosols and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were conducted at Waliguan (WLG) over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau of China from January 3 to March 30, 2020. The data was employed to explore the influence of the COVID-19 lockdown on atmospheric chemistry in the background-free troposphere. During the sampling period, the light absorption near-infrared (>470 nm) was mainly contributed by BC (>72%), however, BC and brown carbon (BrC) contributed equally to light absorption in the short wavelength (∼350 nm). The average BC concentrations in the pre-, during and post-lockdown were 0.28 ±â€¯0.25, 0.18 ±â€¯0.16, and 0.28 ±â€¯0.20 µg m-3, respectively, which decreased by approximately 35% during the lockdown period. Meanwhile, CO2 also showed slight decreases during the lockdown period. The declined BC was profoundly attributed to the reduced emissions (∼86%), especially for the combustion of fossil fuels. Moreover, the declined light absorption of BC, primary and secondary BrC decreased the solar energy absorbance by 35, 15, and 14%, respectively. The concentration weighted trajectories (CWT) analysis suggested that the decreased BC and CO2 at WLG were exclusively associated with the emission reduction in the eastern region of WLG. Our results highlighted that the reduced anthropogenic emissions attributed to the lockdown in the urban cities did impact the atmospheric chemistry in the free troposphere of the Tibetan Plateau.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Soot/analysis
3.
Yonsei Med J ; 63(5): 480-489, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834349

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019. Diagnostic methods based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) have been developed to detect SARS-CoV-2 rapidly. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CRISPR for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies published before August 2021 were retrieved from four databases, using the keywords "SARS-CoV-2" and "CRISPR." Data were collected from these publications, and the sensitivity, specificity, negative likelihood ratio (NLR), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated. The summary receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted for analysis with MetaDiSc 1.4. The Stata 15.0 software was used to draw Deeks' funnel plots to evaluate publication bias. RESULTS: We performed a pooled analysis of 38 independent studies shown in 30 publications. The reference standard was reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The results indicated that the sensitivity of CRISPR-based methods for diagnosis was 0.94 (95% CI 0.93-0.95), the specificity was 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-0.99), the PLR was 34.03 (95% CI 20.81-55.66), the NLR was 0.08 (95% CI 0.06-0.10), and the DOR was 575.74 (95% CI 382.36-866.95). The area under the curve was 0.9894. CONCLUSION: Studies indicate that a diagnostic method based on CRISPR has high sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, this would be a potential diagnostic tool to improve the accuracy of SARS-CoV-2 detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , ROC Curve , Reference Standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324255

ABSTRACT

Background: The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a serious public health threat to the survival and health of people all over the world. We analyzed related mRNA data and gene expression profiles of human cell lines infected with SARS-CoV-2 obtained from GEO (GSE148729), using bioinformatics tools. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of human cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 were identified. Method: The GSE148729 datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. To explore the Biological significance of DEGs , Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment of the DEGs was performed. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of the DEGs were constructed by using the STRING database. The hub genes were selected using the Cytoscape Software, and a t-test was performed to validate the hub genes. Result: A total of 1241 DEGs were screened, including 1049 up-regulated genes and 192 down-regulated genes. Besides, 10 hub genes were obtained from the PPI network , among which the expression level of CXCL2 , Etv7 , and HIST1H2BG was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, bioinformatics analysis reveals genes and cellular pathways that are significantly altered in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. This is conducive to further guide the clinical study of SARS-CoV-2 and provides new perspectives for vaccine development.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261771, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622341

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of unconventional emergencies leads to a surge in demand for emergency supplies. How to effectively arrange emergency production processes and improve production efficiency is significant. The emergency manufacturing systems are typically complex systems, which are difficult to be analyzed by using physical experiments. Based on the theory of Random Service System (RSS) and Parallel Emergency Management System (PeMS), a parallel simulation and optimization framework of production processes for surging demand of emergency supplies is constructed. Under this novel framework, an artificial system model paralleling with the real scenarios is established and optimized by the parallel implementation processes. Furthermore, a concrete example of mask shortage, which occurred at Huoshenshan Hospital in the COVID-19 pandemic, verifies the feasibility of this method.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Public Health/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergencies , Humans
6.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(1)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613738

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, does more internet and social media use lead to taking more- or less-effective preventive measures against the disease? A two-wave longitudinal survey with the general population in mainland China in mid-2020 found that during the COVID-19 pandemic, internet and social media use intensity promoted the adoption of nonpharmaceutical and pharmaceutical antipandemic measures. The first wave of data (n = 1014) showed that the more intensively people used the internet/social media, the more they perceived the threat of the pandemic, and took more nonpharmaceutical preventive measures (e.g., wearing masks, maintaining social distance, and washing hands) as a result. The second wave (n = 220) showed firstly the predicted relationship between internet/social media use intensity and the perceived threat of the pandemic and the adoption of nonpharmaceutical preventive measures by cross-lagged analysis; secondly, the predictive effect of internet/social media use on the adoption of pharmacological measures (i.e., willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19) and the mediating role of perceived pandemic threat were verified. The article concludes with a discussion of the role of the internet and social media use in the fight against COVID-19 in specific macrosocial contexts.

7.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 146, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the end of 2019, the world witnessed the emergence and ravages of a viral infection induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Also known as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has been identified as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO) because of its severity. METHODS: The gene data of 51 samples were extracted from the GSE150316 and GSE147507 data set and then processed by means of the programming language R, through which the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that meet the standards were screened. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed on the selected DEGs to understand the functions and approaches of DEGs. The online tool STRING was employed to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs and, in turn, to identify hub genes. RESULTS: A total of 52 intersection genes were obtained through DEG identification. Through the GO analysis, we realized that the biological processes (BPs) that have the deepest impact on the human body after SARS-CoV-2 infection are various immune responses. By using STRING to construct a PPI network, 10 hub genes were identified, including IFIH1, DDX58, ISG15, EGR1, OASL, SAMD9, SAMD9L, XAF1, IFITM1, and TNFSF10. CONCLUSION: The results of this study will hopefully provide guidance for future studies on the pathophysiological mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Lung/pathology , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Ontology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Lung/virology , Neutrophil Activation/genetics , Neutrophil Activation/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome/genetics
8.
Biochem Genet ; 2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520387

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a serious infectious disease that has recently swept the world, and research on its causative virus, SARS-CoV-2, remains insufficient. Therefore, this study uses bioinformatics analysis techniques to explore the human digestive tract diseases that may be caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The gene expression profile data set, numbered GSE149312, is from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and is divided into a 24-h group and a 60-h group. R software is used to analyze and screen out differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and then gene ontology (GO) term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses are performed. In KEGG, the pathway of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease exists in both the 24-h group and 60-h group. STRING is used to establish a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and Cytoscape is then used to visualize the PPI and define the top 12 genes of the node as the hub genes. Through verification, nine statistically significant hub genes are identified: AKT1, TIMP1, NOTCH, CCNA2, RRM2, TTK, BUB1B, KIF20A, and PLK1. In conclusion, the results of this study can provide a certain direction and basis for follow-up studies of SARS-CoV-2 infection of the human digestive tract and provide new insights for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Drug Dev Res ; 83(1): 16-54, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508642

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global threat since its first outbreak at the end of 2019. Several review articles have been published recently, focusing on the aspects of target biology, drug repurposing, and mechanisms of action (MOAs) for potential treatment. This review gathers all small molecules currently in active clinical trials, categorizes them into six sub-classes, and summarizes their clinical progress. The aim is to provide the researchers from both pharmaceutical industries and academic institutes with the handful information and dataset to accelerate their research programs in searching effective small molecule therapy for treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Drug Industry , Humans , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(1): 79-89, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in COVID-19 patients compared with standard care or placebo. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies. The mortality, adverse events, and other data from studies were pooled for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Ten randomized clinical trials were eligible for inclusion. Corticosteroid treatment in COVID-19 patients did not significantly reduce the risk of death (RR: 0.93; CI: 0.82, 1.05) and the need for mechanical ventilation (RR: 0.82; CI: 0.62, 1.08). No mortality reduction was also observed in the subgroup of patients requiring mechanical ventilation (RR: 0.90; CI: 0.79-1.03). The use of corticosteroids increased mortality in the subgroup of patients not requiring oxygen support (RR: 1.24; CI: 1.00-1.55). The survival benefit was observed in a low dosage of corticosteroids (RR: 0.90; CI: 0.84-0.97) and dexamethasone (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.79-1.04). There was no difference in the rates of adverse events (RR: 1.13; CI: 0.58, 2.20) and secondary infections (RR: 0.87; CI: 0.66, 1.15). CONCLUSION: Corticosteroid treatment did not convincingly improve survival in severe COVID-19 patients. Low-dose dexamethasone could be considered as a drug for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. More high-quality trials are needed to further verify this conclusion.Expert Opinion: The effect of corticosteroids on patient survival highly depended on the selection of the right dosage and type and in a specific subgroup of patients. This meta-analysis, which included more RCTs, evaluated the safety and efficacy in severe COVID-19 patients and analyzed the effects of different types of corticosteroid treatments. Corticosteroid treatment did not convincingly improve survival in severe COVID-19 patients. But the low dose dexamethasone appear to have a role in the management of severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206349

ABSTRACT

Negative online public sentiment generated by government mishandling of pandemics and other disasters can easily trigger widespread panic and distrust, causing great harm. It is important to understand the law of public sentiment dissemination and use it in a timely and appropriate way. Using the big data of online public sentiment during the COVID-19 period, this paper analyzes and establishes a cross-validation based public sentiment system dynamics model which can simulate the evolution processes of public sentiment under the effects of individual behaviors and governmental guidance measures. A concrete case of a violation of relevant regulations during COVID-19 epidemic that sparked public sentiment in China is introduced as a study sample to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. By running the model, the results show that an increase in government responsiveness contributes to the spread of positive social sentiment but also promotes negative sentiment. Positive individual behavior suppresses negative emotions while promoting the spread of positive emotions. Changes in the disaster context (epidemic) have an impact on the spread of sentiment, but the effect is mediocre.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , China/epidemiology , Government , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Virulence ; 12(1): 918-936, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147910

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global public health crisis. As of 7 January 2021, 87,640,402 confirmed cases and 1,891,692 mortalities have been reported worldwide. Studies focusing on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients have suggested a dysregulated immune response characterized by lymphopenia and cytokine storm in these patients. The exaggerated immune response induced by the cytokine storm causes septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and/or multiple organs failure, which increases the fatality rate of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Herein, we review the recent research progress on epidemiology, clinical features, and system pathology in COVID-19. Moreover, we summarized the recent therapeutic strategies, which are either approved, under clinical trial, and/or under investigation by the local or global health authorities. We assume that treatments should focus on the use of antiviral drugs in combination with immunomodulators as well as treatment of the underlying comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adaptive Immunity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Lymphopenia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Load
13.
Hum Genomics ; 15(1): 18, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the novel coronavirus pandemic, the high infection rate and high mortality have seriously affected people's health and social order. To better explore the infection mechanism and treatment, the three-dimensional structure of human bronchus has been employed in a better in-depth study on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We downloaded a separate microarray from the Integrated Gene Expression System (GEO) on a human bronchial organoids sample to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGS) and analyzed it with R software. After processing with R software, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto PBMCs of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were analyzed, while a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed to show the interactions and influence relationships between these differential genes. Finally, the selected highly connected genes, which are called hub genes, were verified in CytoHubba plug-in. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 966 differentially expressed genes, including 490 upregulated genes and 476 downregulated genes were used. Analysis of GO and KEGG revealed that these differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to immune response and cytokines. We construct protein-protein interaction network and identify 10 hub genes, including IL6, MMP9, IL1B, CXCL8, ICAM1, FGF2, EGF, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1, and FN1. Finally, with the help of GSE150728, we verified that CXCl1, CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL5, EGF differently expressed before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection in clinical patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we used mRNA expression data from GSE150819 to preliminarily confirm the feasibility of hBO as an in vitro model to further study the pathogenesis and potential treatment of COVID-19. Moreover, based on the mRNA differentiated expression of this model, we found that CXCL8, CXCL10, and EGF are hub genes in the process of SARS-COV-2 infection, and we emphasized their key roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection. And we also suggested that further study of these hub genes may be beneficial to treatment, prognostic prediction of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/virology , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Bronchi/physiology , Chemokine CXCL10/genetics , Epidermal Growth Factor/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Interleukin-8/genetics , Organoids , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , Software
14.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(21): 5361-5370, 2020 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been confirmed to be a newly discovered zoonotic pathogen that causes highly contagious viral pneumonia, which the World Health Organization has named novel coronavirus pneumonia. Since its outbreak, it has become a global pandemic. During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), however, there is no mature experience or guidance on how to carry out emergency surgery for suspected cases requiring emergency surgical intervention and perioperative safety protection against virus. CASE SUMMARY: A 41-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for emergency treatment due to "3-d abdominal pain aggravated with cessation of exhaust and defecation". After improving inspections and laboratory tests, the patient was assessed and diagnosed by the multiple discipline team as "strangulation obstruction, pulmonary infection". His body temperature was 38.8 °C, and the chest computed tomography showed pulmonary infection. Given fever and pneumonia, we could not rule out COVID-19 after consultation by fever clinicians and respiratory experts. Hence, we performed emergency surgery under three-level protection for the suspected case. After surgery, his nucleic acid test for COVID-19 was negative, meaning COVID-19 was excluded, and routine postoperative treatment and nursing was followed. The patient was treated with symptomatic support after the operation. The stomach tube and urinary tube were removed on the 1st d after the operation. The clearing diet was started on the 3rd d after the operation, and the body temperature returned to normal. Flatus and bowel movements were noted on 5th postoperative day. He was discharged after 8 d of hospitalization. The patient was followed up for 4 mo after discharge, no serious complications occurred. A 71-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency room due to "abdominal distention, fatigue for 6 d and fever for 13 h". After the multiple discipline team evaluation, the patient was diagnosed as "intestinal obstruction, abdominal mass, peritonitis and pulmonary infection". At that time, the patient's body temperature was 39.6 °C, and chest computed tomography indicated pulmonary infection. COVID-19 could not be completely excluded after consultation in the fever outpatient department and respiratory department. Therefore, the patient was treated as a suspected case, and an urgent operation was performed under three-level medical protection. Postoperative nucleic acid test was negative, COVID-19 was excluded, and routine postoperative treatment and nursing were followed. After the operation, the patient received symptomatic and supportive treatment. The gastric tube was removed on the 1st d after the operation, and the urinary tube was removed on the 3rd d after the operation. Enteral nutrition began on the 3rd d after the operation. To date, no serious complications have been found during follow-up after discharge. CONCLUSION: Based on the previous treatment experience, we reviewed the procedures of two cases of suspected COVID-19 emergency surgery and extracted the perioperative protection experience. By referring to the literature and following the regulations on prevention and management of infectious diseases, we have developed a relatively mature and complete emergency surgical workflow for suspected COVID-19 cases and shared perioperative protection and management experience and measures.

17.
mSphere ; 5(4)2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647106

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a threat to global health. The mortality rate of severely ill patients in the early stage is 32.5%. The exacerbation of the condition and death of patients are closely associated with inflammatory cytokine storms, which are caused by excessive activation of the immune and complement systems as well as the coinfection of other pathogens. However, the immunological characteristics and the mechanisms underlying inflammatory storms have not been well elucidated. Here, we analyzed the clinical and immunological characteristics of 71 confirmed COVID-19 patients. Based on the National Health Commission of China (NHCC) guidelines, patients were stratified into mild and severe types. We compared the clinical and laboratory data obtained from electronic medical records between the two types. In regard to the hematological parameters, COVID-19 patients showed decreased erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, lymphocyte count, eosinophil count, and complement C1q, whereas neutrophils, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were significantly increased, especially in severe cases. We also found that CD3+ CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD3+ CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD19+ B lymphocytes, and CD16+ CD56+ NK cells in the peripheral blood of all patients were decreased. In addition, CD3+ CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD16+ CD56+ NK cells, and complement C1q in severely ill patients decreased more significantly. Additionally, interleukin 6 (IL-6) elevation was particularly prominent in all patients, especially in severe cases. These results suggest that CD3+ CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD16+ CD56+ NK cells, C1q as well as IL-6 may play critical roles in the inflammatory cytokine storm. The dysregulation of these aforementioned immune parameters, along with bacterial coinfection, were the important causes of exacerbation of the patients' condition and death. This study improves our understanding of the immune dysregulation of COVID-19 and provides potential immunotherapeutic strategies.IMPORTANCE The dysregulation of CD3+ CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD16+ CD56+ NK cells, C1q as well as IL-6, along with bacterial coinfection, were important causes of exacerbation of the patients' condition and death.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Complement C1q/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Eur J Oper Res ; 287(3): 1131-1148, 2020 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342687

ABSTRACT

Governments face difficulties in policy making in many areas such as health, food safety, and large-scale projects where public perceptions can be misplaced. For example, the adoption of the MMR vaccine has been opposed due to the publicity indicating an erroneous link between the vaccine and autism. This research proposes the "Parallel Evolution and Response Decision Framework for Public Sentiments" as a real-time decision-making method to simulate and control the public sentiment evolution mechanisms. This framework is based on the theories of Parallel Control and Management (PCM) and System Dynamics (SD) and includes four iterative steps: namely, SD modelling, simulating, optimizing, and controlling. A concrete case of an anti-nuclear mass incident that sparked public sentiment in China is introduced as a study sample to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. In addition, the results indicate the effects by adjusting the key control variables of response strategies. These variables include response time, response capacity, and transparency of the government regarding public sentiment. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed method will be analyzed to determine how it can be used by policy makers in predicting public opinion and offering effective response strategies.

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