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1.
2022 12th International Workshop on Computer Science and Engineering, WCSE 2022 ; : 207-211, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2025939

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is highly contagious and highly pathogenic, It seriously threatens human life and health. Rapid detection of positive COVID-19 cases is very important in stopping the spread of the virus. At early diagnosis, It is the most simple and rapid indicator for judging changes in the illness. As the COVID-19 chest X-ray image dataset continues to expand, Researchers build a CNN-based COVID-19 detection model on Apache Spark. The model can effectively detect positive cases of COVID-19. This article first introduces the big data platform Apache Spark, Deep Learning Technology CNN, transfer learning techniques, etc. Then, it summarizes the characteristics and deficiencies of the research on chest X-ray image recognition of COVID-19 in recent years. Finally, Under the big data thinking, This paper proposes a technical direction for rapid detection of COVID-19 based on the big data analysis platform Apache Spark and the deep learning algorithm CNN for large-scale COVID-19 chest X-ray image datasets. © 2022 WCSE. All Rights Reserved.

2.
Environmental Science & Technology ; 02:02, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016514

ABSTRACT

Massive diagnostic testing has been performed for appropriate screening and identification of COVID-19 cases in the ongoing global pandemic. However, the environmental impacts of COVID-19 diagnostics have been least considered. In this paper, the environmental impacts of the COVID-19 nucleic acid diagnostics were assessed by following a full cradle-to-grave life-cycle approach. The corresponding life-cycle anthology was established to provide quantitative analysis. Moreover, three alternative scenarios, i.e., material substitution, improved waste treatment, and electric vehicle (EV)-based transportation, were further proposed to discuss the potential environmental mitigation and conservation strategies. It was estimated that the life cycle of a single COVID-19 nucleic acid diagnostic test in China would lead to the emission of 612.9 g CO2 equiv global warming potential. Waste treatment, as a step of life cycle, worsen the environmental impacts such as global warming potential, eutrophication, and ecotoxicity. Meanwhile, diesel-driven transportation was considered as the major contributor to particulate air. Even though COVID-19 diagnostics are of the greatest importance to end the pandemic, their environmental impacts should not be ignored. It is suggested that improved approaches for waste treatment, low-carbon transportation, and a reliable pool sampling strategy are critical for the achievement of sustainable and green diagnostics.

3.
Archives of Virology ; 09:09, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014164

ABSTRACT

The wide spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has significantly threatened public health. Human herd immunity induced by vaccination is essential to fight the epidemic. Therefore, highly immunogenic and safe vaccines are necessary to control SARS-CoV-2, whose S protein is the antigenic determinant responsible for eliciting antibodies that prevent viral entry and fusion. In this study, we developed a SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccine expressing the S protein, named pVAX-S-OP, which was optimized according to the human-origin codon preference and using polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid as an adjuvant. pVAX-S-OP induced specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies in BALB/c and hACE2 transgenic mice. Furthermore, we observed 1.43-fold higher antibody titers in mice receiving pVAX-S-OP plus adjuvant than in those receiving pVAX-S-OP alone. Interferon gamma production in the pVAX-S-OP-immunized group was 1.58 times (CD3+CD4+IFN-gamma+) and 2.29 times (CD3+CD8+IFN-gamma+) lower than that in the pVAX-S-OP plus adjuvant group but higher than that in the control group. The pVAX-S-OP vaccine was also observed to stimulate a Th1-type immune response. When, hACE2 transgenic mice were challenged with SARS-CoV-2, qPCR detection of N and E genes showed that the viral RNA loads in pVAX-S-OP-immunized mice lung tissues were 104 times and 106 times lower than those of the PBS control group, which shows that the vaccine could reduce the amount of live virus in the lungs of hACE2 mice. In addition, pathological sections showed less lung damage in the pVAX-S-OP-immunized group. Taken together, our results demonstrated that pVAX-S-OP has significant immunogenicity, which provides support for developing SARS-CoV-2 DNA candidate vaccines.

4.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15:5167-82, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2009772

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has highlighted the need for new methods of pharmacovigilance. Here, we use adult community volunteers to obtain systematic information on vaccine effectiveness and the nature and severity of breakthrough infections. Methods: Between December 15, 2020 and September 16, 2021, 11,826 unpaid community-based volunteers reported the following information to an on-line registry: COVID-19 test results, vaccination (Pfizer, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson) and COVID-19 symptoms. COVID-19 infections were described based on vaccination status at the time of infection: 1) fully vaccinated, 2) partially vaccinated (received first of two-dose vaccines or were <14 days post-final dose), or 3) unvaccinated. Results: Among 8554 participants who received any COVID-19 vaccine, COVID-19 infections were reported by 74 (1.0%) of those who were fully vaccinated and 198 (2.3%) of those who were partially vaccinated at the time of infection. Among the 74 participants who reported a breakthrough infection after full vaccination, the median time from vaccination to reported positive test result was 104.5 days (interquartile range: 77–135 days), with no difference among vaccine manufacturers. One quarter (25.7%) of breakthrough infections in the fully vaccinated cases were asymptomatic and most (>97%) fully vaccinated participants reported no symptoms or only mild symptoms compared to 89.3% of the unvaccinated cases. Only 1.4% of fully vaccinated participants reported experiencing at least 3 moderate-to-severe symptoms compared to 7.8% in the unvaccinated. Conclusion: Person-generated health data, also referred to as patient-reported outcomes, is a useful approach for quantifying breakthrough infections and their severity and for comparing vaccines. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04368065, EU PAS Register EUPAS36240.

5.
J Cloud Comput (Heidelb) ; 11(1), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2009465

ABSTRACT

With the continuous spread of COVID-19 virus, how to guarantee the healthy living of people especially the students who are of relative weak physique is becoming a key research issue of significant values. Specifically, precise recognition of the anomaly in student health conditions is beneficial to the quick discovery of potential patients. However, there are so many students in each school that the education managers cannot know about the health conditions of students in a real-time manner and accurately recognize the possible anomaly among students quickly. Fortunately, the quick development of mobile cloud computing technologies and wearable sensors has provided a promising way to monitor the real-time health conditions of students and find out the anomalies timely. However, two challenges are present in the above anomaly detection issue. First, the health data monitored by massive wearable sensors are often massive and updated frequently, which probably leads to high sensor-cloud transmission cost for anomaly detection. Second, the health data of students are often sensitive enough, which probably impedes the integration of health data in cloud environment even renders the health data-based anomaly detection infeasible. In view of these challenges, we propose a time-efficient and privacy-aware anomaly detection solution for students with wearable sensors in mobile cloud computing environment. At last, we validate the effectiveness and efficiency of our work via a set of simulated experiments.

6.
Nat Commun ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2008278

ABSTRACT

Preliminary evidence from China and other countries has suggested that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mitigation measures have caused a decline in preterm births, but evidence is conflicting. Utilising a national representative data of 11,714,947 pregnant women in China, we explored the immediate changes in preterm birth rates during the COVID-19 mitigation period using an interrupted-time-series analysis. We defined the period prior to February 1, 2020 as the baseline, followed by the COVID-19 mitigation stage. In the first month of the COVID-19 mitigation, a significant absolute decrease in preterm birth rates of 0.68% (95%CI:−1.10% to −0.26%) in singleton, and of 2.80% (95%CI:−4.51% to −1.09%) in multiple births was noted. This immediate decline in Wuhan was greater than that at the national level among singleton births [−2.21% (95%CI:−4.09% to −0.34% vs. −0.68%)]. Here we report an immediate impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on preterm birth in China.

7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1):14296, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2000922

ABSTRACT

Honghua (Carthami flos) and Xihonghua (Croci stigma) have been used in anti-COVID-19 as Traditional Chinese Medicine, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we applied network pharmacology by analysis of active compounds and compound-targets networks, enzyme kinetics assay, signaling pathway analysis and investigated the potential mechanisms of anti-COVID-19. We found that both herbs act on signaling including kinases, response to inflammation and virus. Moreover, crocin likely has an antiviral effect due to its high affinity towards the human ACE2 receptor by simulation. The extract of Honghua and Xihonghua exhibited nanozyme/herbzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, with distinct fluorescence. Thus, our data suggest the great potential of Honghua in the development of anti-COVID-19 agents.

8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1):4958, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2000890

ABSTRACT

Omicron SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly spreading worldwide. To delineate the impact of emerging mutations on spike's properties, we performed systematic structural analyses on apo Omicron spike and its complexes with human ACE2 or S309 neutralizing antibody (NAb) by cryo-EM. The Omicron spike preferentially adopts the one-RBD-up conformation both before and after ACE2 binding, which is in sharp contrast to the orchestrated conformational changes to create more up-RBDs upon ACE2 binding as observed in the prototype and other four variants of concern (VOCs). Furthermore, we found that S371L, S373P and S375F substitutions enhance the stability of the one-RBD-up conformation to prevent exposing more up-RBDs triggered by ACE2 binding. The increased stability of the one-RBD-up conformation restricts the accessibility of S304 NAb, which targets a cryptic epitope in the closed conformation, thus facilitating the immune evasion by Omicron. These results expand our understanding of Omicron spike's conformation, receptor binding and antibody evasion mechanism.

9.
Social Psychology Quarterly ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1997269
10.
Chinese Medical Ethics ; 35(6):636-642, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1988522

ABSTRACT

Vaccine cooperation is an important means to deal with global infectious diseases. However, the cooperation cannot be achieved overnight. Ethical dilemma is one of the obstacles that hinders vaccine cooperation. Reviewing the history, the most successful vaccine collaboration to date has been the global smallpox eradication program. In the process of eradicating smallpox, there were also many ethical dilemmas, including the international pattern of the US-Soviet hegemony, which impacted the mutual help between countries, the ethical disputes of the vaccine itself hindering solidarity and cooperation among actors, and the vaccine coercion adopted to overcome vaccine hesitancy undermining the principle of proportionality among the freedom, equality and efficacy. The ethical dilemmas of vaccine cooperation were resolved by shaping professional and scientific consensus among medical professional groups, reaching consensus on cooperation between leading countries and developing countries, and integrating local culture to improve vaccination methods. Finally, in 1980, the world successfully eradicated smallpox. The case of smallpox eradication provides us lessons for vaccine cooperation against COVID-19 and the construction of a community of common health for mankind today. © 2022, Editorial department of Chinese Medical Ethics. All rights reserved.

11.
Cancer Research ; 82(12), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1986493

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) is the cellular receptor of SARS-CoV-2. At present, ACE2 receptor is considered to be the key component in the SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmitting in the host. Among the cancer patients with COVID-19, the gastrointestinal cancer is the second most prevalent. The MethyLight and QASM assays were used to evaluated the genomic DNA 5mC methylation, while the CviAII enzyme-based 6mA-RE-qPCR was applied to determine motif-specific DNA 6mA methylation. The 6mA and 5mC methylation analyses of the long interspersed nuclear elements 1 (LINE1) were used to evaluate the global level of genomic 6mA and 5mC methylations, respectively. To investigate the role of ACE2 DNA methylation in regulating ACE2 expression, we performed a genome-wide methylation analysis in colorectal cancer samples collected at the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. The DNA 5mC methylation of ACE2 promoter in tumor tissues were significantly lower than that in normal tissues, while the DNA 6mA methylation of ACE2 promoter in tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in normal tissues. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression of ACE2 in tumor tissues were lower than that in normal tissues. To explore the epigenetic regulation on ACE2 expression, we treated colon cancer cell lines with 5-Azacytidine and found ACE2 expression was upregulated after lowering the DNA 5mC methylation. The correlation analysis in patient cohort samples showed that ACE2 mRNA expression was positively correlated with DNA 5mC and negatively associated with DNA 6mA methylation. Next, a novel CRISPR-based tool was developed for sequence-specific 6mA editing on ACE2 promoter region, and it was applied in HCT116 cell to further confirm the regulatory role of DNA 6mA methylation in ACE2 mRNA expression. This tool was proved to be reliable with our findings that the CRISPR/dCas9-METTL3 tool could dramatically upregulate DNA 6mA methylation in ACE2 promoter, while the global level of genomic 6mA methylation remained unchanged. Both the mRNA and protein expression of ACE2 were significantly increased following a sequence-specific DNA 6mA editing in ACE2 promoter. In conclusion, we revealed the aberrant DNA 5mC and 6mA methylations in colorectal cancer, which upregulate ACE2 expression in colorectal cancer cells that may confer the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We developed a novel CRISPR-based tool that could realize site-directed 6mA methylation editing. Notably, the epigenetic regulation of DNA 6mA methylation on ACE2 expression provides an insight into the intersection of the biology of cancer, SARS-CoV-2 infection and organ-specific complication in COVID-19. Aberrant ACE2 methylation may serve as a biomarker and treatment target in these patients.

12.
European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):124, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928084

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: COVID-19 pandemic is affecting triage of strokes in emergency. We aimed to find whether COVID-19 delayed the reperfusion treatment in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Methods: The Shanghai Stroke Service System (4S) is a regional network that prospectively registries AIS patients within 7 days. Data with COVID- 19 negetive was extracted from January 2018 to December 2020. Compared to quality measures in 2018-2019, the performance during COVID- 19 outbreak (mainly during 1st quarter of 2020) and post were analyzed. The primary outcome was door to needle time (DTN). The secondary outcomes included the rate of reperfusion treatment and hospitalization cost. Results: Our study included 69,258 patients from 64 stroke centers. During 1st quarter 2018 to 4th quarter 2019, there was an overall downward trend of DTN (P trend=0.006). However, during 1st and 2nd quarters 2020, there was a significant delay of DTN. After outbreak in China, the average DTN plus mandatory COVID-19 PCR test dropped back to <60 minutes. The drop of reperfusion rate was also associated to COVID-19 outbreak (57.92% pre vs 51.74% during, P<0.001), while improved after, compared to those of previous(57.92% pre vs 62.32% post, P<0.001). The cost was slightly declined in 1st quarter 2020 (-$125 USD), which reflected changes in reperfusion rates. Conclusions: In 2020, COVID-19 pandemic prolonged the DTN during COVID-19 outbreak but improved after in Shanghai. Although the prevention protocol and PCR test are still in place, acute stroke care in Shanghai has back to normal post pandemic. (Figure Presented).

13.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; 34(6):699-703, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1894085

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the application and safety of apheresis technology in collection of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CP), and to analyze the quality characteristics of the plasma. Methods The general data of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CP) donors, including gender, age, date of discharge or release from medical isolation, were collected based on informed consent. After physical examination, the CP was collected by apheresis technology with plasma separator, inactivated with methylene blue, and determined for severe acute respiratory symptom Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid and specific antibody (RBD-IgG) against SARS-CoV-2. Results The collection process went well, and no serious adverse events related to plasma collection were reported during or after the collection. The average age of COVID-19 CP donors was 38 years (n = 933). The distributions of blood groups A, B, AB and 0 in RhD (+) COVID-19 CP were 33. 4%, 29. 2%, 10% and 27. 2% respectively. The plasma donation date was 18 d from the discharge date in average. All the test results of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in CP were negative, while the proportion of plasma samples at SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer of more than 1: 160 was 92. 60%. Conclusion Apheresis technology was safe and reliable. The COVID-19 CP contained high titer antibody. Large-scale collection and preparation of inactivated plasma against SARS-CoV-2 played an important role in the treatment of COVID-19.

14.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883214
15.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337444

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant BA.1 first emerged on the Chinese mainland in January 2022 in Tianjin and caused a large wave of infections. During mass PCR testing, a total of 430 cases infected with Omicron were recorded between January 8 and February 7, 2022, with no new infections detected for the following 16 days. Most patients had been vaccinated with SARSCoV-2 inactivated vaccines. The disease profile associated with BA.1 infection, especially after vaccination with inactivated vaccines, is unclear. Whether BA.1 breakthrough infection after receiving inactivated vaccine could create a strong enough humoral immunity barrier against Omicron is not yet investigated. Methods We collected the clinical information and vaccination history of the 430 COVID-19 patients infected with Omicron BA.1. Re-positive cases and inflammation markers were monitored during the patient’s convalescence phase. Ordered multiclass logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for COVID-19 disease severity. Authentic virus neutralization assays against SARS-CoV-2 wildtype, Beta and Omicron BA.1 were conducted to examine the plasma neutralizing titers induced after post-vaccination Omicron BA.1 infection, and were compared to a group of uninfected healthy individuals who were selected to have a matched vaccination profile. Findings Among the 430 patients, 316 (73.5%) were adults with a median age of 47 years, and 114 (26.5%) were under-age with a median age of 10 years. Female and male patients account for 55.6% and 44.4%, respectively. Most of the patients presented with mild (47.7%) to moderate diseases (50.2%), with only 2 severe cases (0.5%) and 7 (1.6%) asymptomatic infections. No death was recorded. 341 (79.3%) of the 430 patients received inactivated vaccines (54.3% BBIBP-CorV vs. 45.5% CoronaVac), 49 (11.4%) received adenovirus-vectored vaccines (Ad5-nCoV), 2 (0.5%) received recombinant protein subunit vaccines (ZF2001), and 38 (8.8%) received no vaccination. No vaccination is associated with a substantially higher ICU admission rate among Omicron BA.1 infected patients (2.0% for vaccinated patients vs. 23.7% for unvaccinated patients, P<0.001). Compared with adults, child patients presented with less severe illness (82.5% mild cases for children vs. 35.1% for adults, P<0.001), no ICU admission, fewer comorbidities (3.5% vs. 53.2%, P<0.001), and less chance of turning re-positive on nucleic acid tests (12.3% vs. 22.5%, P=0.019). For adult patients, compared with no prior vaccination, receiving 3 doses of inactivated vaccine was associated with significantly lower risk of severe disease (OR 0.227 [0.065-0.787], P=0.020), less ICU admission (OR 0.023 [0.002-0.214], P=0.001), lower re-positive rate on PCR (OR 0.240 [0.098-0.587], P=0.002), and shorter duration of hospitalization and recovery (OR 0.233 [0.091-0.596], P=0.002). At the beginning of the convalescence phase, patients who had received 3 doses of inactivated vaccine had substantially lower systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) and C-reactive protein than unvaccinated patients, while CD4+/CD8+ ratio, activated Treg cells and Th1/Th2 ratio were higher compared to their 2-dose counterparts, suggesting that receipt of 3 doses of inactivated vaccine could step up inflammation resolution after infection. Plasma neutralization titers against Omicron, Beta, and wildtype significantly increased after breakthrough infection with Omicron. Moderate symptoms were associated with higher plasma neutralization titers than mild symptoms. However, vaccination profiles prior to infection, whether 2 doses versus 3 doses or types of vaccines, had no significant effect on post-infection neutralization titer. Among recipients of 3 doses of CoronaVac, infection with Omicron BA.1 largely increased neutralization titers against Omicron BA.1 (8.7x), Beta (4.5x), and wildtype (2.2x), compared with uninfected healthy individuals who have a matched vaccination profile. Interpretation Receipt of 3-dose inactivated vaccines can substantially reduce the disease severity of Omicr n BA.1 infection, with most vaccinated patients presenting with mild to moderate illness. Child patients present with less severe disease than adult patients after infection. Omicron BA.1 convalescents who had received inactivated vaccines showed significantly increased plasma neutralizing antibody titers against Omicron BA.1, Beta, and wildtype SARS-CoV-2 compared with vaccinated healthy individuals.

16.
Acm Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology ; 13(2):23, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1816793

ABSTRACT

Estimating human mobility responses to the large-scale spreading of the COVID-19 pandemic is crucial, since its significance guides policymakers to give Non-pharmaceutical Interventions, such as closure or reopening of businesses. It is challenging to model due to complex social contexts and limited training data. Recently, we proposed a conditional generative adversarial network (COVID-GAN) to estimate human mobility response under a set of social and policy conditions integrated from multiple data sources. Although COVID-GAN achieves a good average estimation accuracy under real-world conditions, it produces higher errors in certain regions due to the presence of spatial heterogeneity and outliers. To address these issues, in this article, we extend our prior work by introducing a new spatio-temporal deep generative model, namely, COVID-GAN+. COVID-GAN+ deals with the spatial heterogeneity issue by introducing a new spatial feature layer that utilizes the local Moran statistic to model the spatial heterogeneity strength in the data. In addition, we redesign the training objective to learn the estimated mobility changes from historical average levels to mitigate the effects of spatial outliers. We perform comprehensive evaluations using urban mobility data derived from cell phone records and census data. Results show that COVID-GAN+ can better approximate real-world human mobility responses than prior methods, including COVID-GAN.

17.
21st IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (IEEE ICDM) ; : 767-776, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1806911

ABSTRACT

Spatial data are ubiquitous, massively collected, and widely used to support critical decision-making in many societal domains, including public health (e.g., COVID-19 pandemic control), agricultural crop monitoring, transportation, etc. While recent advances in machine learning and deep learning offer new promising ways to mine such rich datasets (e.g., satellite imagery, COVID statistics), spatial heterogeneity - an intrinsic characteristic embedded in spatial data - poses a major challenge as data distributions or generative processes often vary across space at different scales, with their spatial extents unknown. Recent studies (e.g., SVANN, spatial ensemble) targeting this difficult problem either require a known space-partitioning as the input, or can only support very limited number of partitions or classes (e.g., two) due to the decrease in training data size and the complexity of analysis. To address these limitations, we propose a model-agnostic framework to automatically transform a deep learning model into a spatial-heterogeneity-aware architecture, where the learning of arbitrary space partitionings is guided by a learning-engaged generalization of multivariate scan statistic and parameters are shared based on spatial relationships. We also propose a spatial moderator to generalize learned space partitionings to new test regions. Experiment results on real-world datasets show that the spatial transformation and moderation framework can effectively capture flexibly-shaped heterogeneous footprints and substantially improve prediction performances.

18.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-334269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 caused the pandemic affected the world deeply, with more than 3,000,000 people infected and nearly 200,000 deaths. This article aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results and laboratory findings of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We scoped for relevant literatures published during 1st Dec 2019 to 23rd Apr 2020 based on four databases by using English and Chinese. The evidence was synthesized narratively. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic was found to have a higher transmission rate compared to SARS and MERS, and involved 4 stages of evolution. The basic reproduction number (R0) is 3.32 (95% CI:3.24-3.39) and the incubation period was 5.24 days (95% CI:3.97-6.50, 5 studies) on average, and the average time for symptoms onset varied by countries. Common clinical spectrums identified included fever (38.1-39.0degreeC), cough and fatigue, with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) being the most common complication reported. Body temperatures above 39.0 degreeC, dyspnea, and anorexia were more common symptoms in severe patients. Aged over 60 years old, having co-morbidities, and developing complications were the commonest high-risk factors associated with severe conditions. Leucopenia and lymphopenia were the most common signs of infection while liver and kidney damage were rare but may cause bad outcomes for patients. The bilateral, multifocal Ground-Glass Opacification (GGO) on peripheral, and the consolidative pulmonary opacity were the most frequent CT results and the tendency of mortality rates differed by region. CONCLUSIONS: We provided a bird's-eye view of the COVID-19 during the current pandemic, which will help better understanding the key traits of the disease. The findings could be used for disease's future research, control and prevention.

19.
55th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, ACSSC 2021 ; 2021-October:1302-1306, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1779140

ABSTRACT

Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) is an useful tool to learn the causal inference and social network of random variables. In this article, we analyze the correlations between the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19) and certain self-reported COVID-19 indicators in the United States, and then adopt DBN model with search and score-based approach to analyze and interpret the causal relationships and social network between these variables by learning the structure of the Directed Acyclic Graph from the model. We explore the change of causality among fifty states during the pandemic of COVID-19 in the year of 2020 and interpret the root cause for changes and trends. We concentrate on five worst states with COVID-19 and then extended our studies to all states by comparing the causal relationships and analyzing the patterns of DAG. © 2021 IEEE.

20.
3rd International Academic Exchange Conference on Science and Technology Innovation, IAECST 2021 ; : 986-989, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1774590

ABSTRACT

After a major outbreak of the new coronavirus, people are also aware of the importance of daily disinfection of public places, which can effectively cut off the path of infection among the public and reduce the possibility of transmission. Currently, the cleaning of stairs still needs to be done manually, and there is no machine on the market that can perform the corresponding operations independently. For the handrails in the stairwell, only simple cleaning, lack of effective disinfection work, the traditional manual cleaning efficiency is low, high labor intensity, high cleaning costs, the project team designed a cleaning machine that can automatically sweep the steps and handrails. This device can realize the automatic process of handrail and stair cleaning and disinfection. © 2021 IEEE.

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