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J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3982-3987, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802454


There is a potential risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread through human contact with seafood and the inanimate materials contaminated by the virus. In this study, we examined the stability of the virus in artificial seawater (ASW) and on the surface of selected materials. SARS-CoV-2 (3.75 log10 TCID50 ) in ASW at 22℃ maintained infectious about 3 days and at 4℃ the virus survived more than 7 days. It should be noticed that viable virus at high titer (5.50 log10 TCID50 ) may survive more than 20 days in ASW at 4℃ and for 7 days at 22℃. SARS-CoV-2 on stainless steel and plastic bag maintained infectious for 3 days, and on nonwoven fabric for 1 day at 22℃. In addition, the virus remained infectious for 9 days on stainless steel and non-woven fabric, and on plastic bag for 12 days at 4℃. It is important to highlight the role of inanimate material surfaces as a source of infection and the necessity for surface decontamination and disinfection.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Plastics , Seawater , Stainless Steel
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(11): 1804-1807, 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639537


We present the finding of a dimeric ACE2 peptide mimetic designed through side chain cross-linking and covalent dimerization. It has a binding affinity of 16 nM for the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD, and effectively inhibits the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in Huh7-hACE2 cells with an IC50 of 190 nM and neutralizes the authentic SARS-CoV-2 in Caco2 cells with an IC50 of 2.4 µM. Our study should provide a new insight for the optimization of peptide-based anti-SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors.

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Peptidomimetics/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Peptide Fragments/chemical synthesis , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Peptidomimetics/chemical synthesis , Peptidomimetics/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
Lab Invest ; 102(1): 4-13, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402048


As one of the major approaches in combating the COVID-19 pandemics, the availability of specific and reliable assays for the SARS-CoV-2 viral genome and its proteins is essential to identify the infection in suspected populations, make diagnoses in symptomatic or asymptomatic individuals, and determine clearance of the virus after the infection. For these purposes, use of the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for detection of the viral nucleic acid remains the most valuable in terms of its specificity, fast turn-around, high-throughput capacity, and reliability. It is critical to update the sequences of primers and probes to ensure the detection of newly emerged variants. Various assays for increased levels of IgG or IgM antibodies are available for detecting ongoing or past infection, vaccination responses, and persistence and for identifying high titers of neutralizing antibodies in recovered individuals. Viral genome sequencing is increasingly used for tracing infectious sources, monitoring mutations, and subtype classification and is less valuable in diagnosis because of its capacity and high cost. Nanopore target sequencing with portable options is available for a quick process for sequencing data. Emerging CRISPR-Cas-based assays, such as SHERLOCK and AIOD-CRISPR, for viral genome detection may offer options for prompt and point-of-care detection. Moreover, aptamer-based probes may be multifaceted for developing portable and high-throughput assays with fluorescent or chemiluminescent probes for viral proteins. In conclusion, assays are available for viral genome and protein detection, and the selection of specific assays depends on the purposes of prevention, diagnosis and pandemic control, or monitoring of vaccination efficacy.

COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/trends , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/trends , COVID-19 Testing/trends , Genome, Viral , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/trends , Mutation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/trends , Open Reading Frames , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/trends , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Sequence Analysis, RNA/trends