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1.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.11.10.376277

ABSTRACT

Studies on human monocytes historically focused on characterization of bulk responses, whereas functional heterogeneity is largely unknown. Here, we identified an inducible population of CD127-expressing human monocytes under inflammatory conditions and named the subset M127. M127 is nearly absent in healthy individuals yet abundantly present in patients with infectious and inflammatory conditions such as COVID-19 and rheumatoid arthritis. Multiple genomic and functional approaches revealed unique gene signatures of M127 and unified anti-inflammatory properties imposed by the CD127-STAT5 axis. M127 expansion correlated with mild COVID-19 disease outcomes. Thereby, we phenotypically and molecularly characterized a human monocyte subset marked by CD127 that retained anti-inflammatory properties within the pro-inflammatory environments, uncovering remarkable functional diversity among monocytes and signifying M127 as a potential therapeutic target for human inflammatory disorders.

2.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.11.09.372201

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a serious problem for public health since it was identified in the province of Wuhan (China) and spread around the world producing high mortality rates and economic losses. Nowadays, WHO recognizes traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine for treating COVID-19 symptoms. Therefore, we investigated the antiviral potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa stem bark from Peru against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. The antiviral activity of U. tomentosa against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro was assessed in Vero E6 cells using cytopathic effect (CPE) and plaque reduction assay. After 48h of treatment, U. tomentosa showed an inhibition of 92.7 % of SARS-CoV-2 at 25.0 g/mL (p<0.0001) by plaque reduction assay on Vero E6 cells. In addition, U. tomentosa, induced a reduction of 98.6 % (p=0.02) and 92.7 % (p=0.03) in the CPE caused by SARS-CoV-2 on Vero E6 cells at 25 g/mL and 12.5 g/mL, respectively. The EC50 calculated for U. tomentosa extract by plaque reduction assay was 6.6 g/mL (4.89 - 8.85 g/mL) for a selectivity index of 4.1. The EC50 calculated for U. tomentosa extract by TCID50 assay was 2.57 g/mL (1.05 - 3.75 g/mL) for a selectivity index of 10.54. These results showed thatU. tomentosa known as Cat's claw has antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2 observed as a reduction in the viral titer and CPE after 48h of treatment on Vero E6 cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that U. tomentosa stem bark, could be promissory to the development of new therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2.

3.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.11.10.376905

ABSTRACT

A worldwide effort to counter the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in hundreds of candidate vaccines moving through various stages of research and development, including several vaccines in phase 1, 2 and 3 clinical trials. A relatively small number of these vaccines have been evaluated in SARS-CoV-2 disease models, and fewer in a severe disease model. Here, a SARS-CoV-2 DNA targeting the spike protein and delivered by jet injection, nCoV-S(JET), elicited neutralizing antibodies in hamsters and was protective in both wild-type and transiently immunosuppressed hamster models. This study highlights the DNA vaccine, nCoV-S(JET), we developed has a great potential to move to next stage of preclinical studies, and it also demonstrates that the transiently-immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters, which recapitulate severe and prolonged COVID-19 disease, can be used for preclinical evaluation of the protective efficacy of spike-based COVID-19 vaccine.

4.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.10.29.360479

ABSTRACT

Dysfunctional immune response in the COVID-19 patients is a recurrent theme impacting symptoms and mortality, yet the detailed understanding of pertinent immune cells is not complete. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing to 284 samples from 205 COVID-19 patients and controls to create a comprehensive immune landscape. Lymphopenia and active T and B cell responses were found to coexist and associated with age, sex and their interactions with COVID-19. Diverse epithelial and immune cell types were observed to be virus-positive and showed dramatic transcriptomic changes. Elevation of ANXA1 and S100A9 in virus-positive squamous epithelial cells may enable the initiation of neutrophil and macrophage responses via the ANXA1-FPR1 and S100A8/9-TLR4 axes. Systemic up-regulation of S100A8/A9, mainly by megakaryocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood, may contribute to the cytokine storms frequently observed in severe patients. Our data provide a rich resource for understanding the pathogenesis and designing effective therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.

5.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.10.29.361261

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a surge of crowd-sourced initiatives aimed at simulating the proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. A bottleneck currently exists in translating these simulations into tangible predictions that can be leveraged for pharmacological studies. Here we report on extensive electrostatic calculations done on an exascale simulation of the opening of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, performed by the Folding@home initiative. We compute the electric potential as the solution of the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation using a parallel sharp numerical solver. The inherent multiple length scales present in the geometry and solution are reproduced using highly adaptive Octree grids. We analyze our results focusing on the electro-geometric properties of the receptor-binding domain and its vicinity. This work paves the way for a new class of hybrid computational and data-enabled approaches, where molecular dynamics simulations are combined with continuum modeling to produce high-fidelity computational measurements serving as a basis for protein bio-mechanism investigations.

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