Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263820, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793524

ABSTRACT

Many factors play a role in outcomes of an emerging highly contagious disease such as COVID-19. Identification and better understanding of these factors are critical in planning and implementation of effective response strategies during such public health crises. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of factors related to social distancing, human mobility, enforcement strategies, hospital capacity, and testing capacity on COVID-19 outcomes within counties located in District of Columbia as well as the states of Maryland and Virginia. Longitudinal data have been used in the analysis to model county-level COVID-19 infection and mortality rates. These data include big location-based service data, which were collected from anonymized mobile devices and characterize various social distancing and human mobility measures within the study area during the pandemic. The results provide empirical evidence that lower rates of COVID-19 infection and mortality are linked with increased levels of social distancing and reduced levels of travel-particularly by public transit modes. Other preventive strategies and polices also prove to be influential in COVID-19 outcomes. Most notably, lower COVID-19 infection and mortality rates are linked with stricter enforcement policies and more severe penalties for violating stay-at-home orders. Further, policies that allow gradual relaxation of social distancing measures and travel restrictions as well as those requiring usage of a face mask are related to lower rates of COVID-19 infections and deaths. Additionally, increased access to ventilators and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds, which represent hospital capacity, are linked with lower COVID-19 mortality rates. On the other hand, gaps in testing capacity are related to higher rates of COVID-19 infection. The results also provide empirical evidence for reports suggesting that certain minority groups such as African Americans and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Big Data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Public Health , Travel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , District of Columbia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Maryland/epidemiology , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virginia/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259803, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793587

ABSTRACT

Racial/ethnic disparities are among the top-selective underlying determinants associated with the disproportional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on human mobility and health outcomes. This study jointly examined county-level racial/ethnic differences in compliance with stay-at-home orders and COVID-19 health outcomes during 2020, leveraging two-year geo-tracking data of mobile devices across ~4.4 million point-of-interests (POIs) in the contiguous United States. Through a set of structural equation modeling, this study quantified how racial/ethnic differences in following stay-at-home orders could mediate COVID-19 health outcomes, controlling for state effects, socioeconomics, demographics, occupation, and partisanship. Results showed that counties with higher Asian populations decreased most in their travel, both in terms of reducing their overall POIs' visiting and increasing their staying home percentage. Moreover, counties with higher White populations experienced the lowest infection rate, while counties with higher African American populations presented the highest case-fatality ratio. Additionally, control variables, particularly partisanship, median household income, percentage of elders, and urbanization, significantly accounted for the county differences in human mobility and COVID-19 health outcomes. Mediation analyses further revealed that human mobility only statistically influenced infection rate but not case-fatality ratio, and such mediation effects varied substantially among racial/ethnic compositions. Last, robustness check of racial gradient at census block group level documented consistent associations but greater magnitude. Taken together, these findings suggest that US residents' responses to COVID-19 are subject to an entrenched and consequential racial/ethnic divide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Racism/psychology , African Americans/psychology , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Income , Mediation Analysis , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/psychology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/standards , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324270

ABSTRACT

One approach to delay the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is to reduce human travel by imposing travel restriction policies. It is yet unclear how effective those policies are on suppressing the mobility trend due to the lack of ground truth and large-scale dataset describing human mobility during the pandemic. This study uses real-world location-based service data collected from anonymized mobile devices to uncover mobility changes during COVID-19 and under the 'Stay-at-home' state orders in the U.S. The study measures human mobility with two important metrics: daily average number of trips per person and daily average person-miles traveled. The data-driven analysis and modeling attribute less than 5% of the reduction in the number of trips and person-miles traveled to the effect of the policy. The models developed in the study exhibit high prediction accuracy and can be applied to inform epidemics modeling with empirically verified mobility trends and to support time-sensitive decision-making processes.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322253

ABSTRACT

As a highly infectious respiratory disease, COVID-19 has become a pandemic that threatens global health. Without an effective treatment, non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as travel restrictions, have been widely promoted to mitigate the outbreak. Current studies analyze mobility metrics such as travel distance;however, there is a lack of research on interzonal travel flow and its impact on the pandemic. Our study specifically focuses on the inter-county mobility pattern and its influence on the COVID-19 spread in the United States. To retrieve real-world mobility patterns, we utilize an integrated set of mobile device location data including over 100 million anonymous devices. We first investigate the nationwide temporal trend and spatial distribution of inter-county mobility. Then we zoom in on the epicenter of the U.S. outbreak, New York City, and evaluate the impacts of its outflow on other counties. Finally, we develop a "log-linear double-risk" model at the county level to quantify the influence of both "external risk" imported by inter-county mobility flows and the "internal risk" defined as the vulnerability of a county in terms of population with high-risk phenotypes. Our study enhances the situation awareness of inter-county mobility in the U.S. and can help improve non-pharmaceutical interventions for COVID-19.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318624

ABSTRACT

Ever since the first case of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was confirmed in Wuhan, China, social distancing has been promoted worldwide, including the United States. It is one of the major community mitigation strategies, also known as non-pharmaceutical interventions. However, our understanding is remaining limited in how people practice social distancing. In this study, we construct a Social Distancing Index (SDI) to evaluate people's mobility pattern changes along with the spread of COVID-19. We utilize an integrated dataset of mobile device location data for the contiguous United States plus Alaska and Hawaii over a 100-day period from January 1, 2020 to April 9, 2020. The major findings are: 1) the declaration of the national emergency concerning the COVID-19 outbreak greatly encouraged social distancing and the mandatory stay-at-home orders in most states further strengthened the practice;2) the states with more confirmed cases have taken more active and timely responses in practicing social distancing;3) people in the states with fewer confirmed cases did not pay much attention to maintaining social distancing and some states, e.g., Wyoming, North Dakota, and Montana, already began to practice less social distancing despite the high increasing speed of confirmed cases;4) some counties with the highest infection rates are not performing much social distancing, e.g., Randolph County and Dougherty County in Georgia, and some counties began to practice less social distancing right after the increasing speed of confirmed cases went down, e.g., in Blaine County, Idaho, which may be dangerous as well.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315018

ABSTRACT

In March of this year, COVID-19 was declared a pandemic and it continues to threaten public health. This global health crisis imposes limitations on daily movements, which have deteriorated every sector in our society. Understanding public reactions to the virus and the non-pharmaceutical interventions should be of great help to fight COVID-19 in a strategic way. We aim to provide tangible evidence of the human mobility trends by comparing the day-by-day variations across the U.S. Large-scale public mobility at an aggregated level is observed by leveraging mobile device location data and the measures related to social distancing. Our study captures spatial and temporal heterogeneity as well as the sociodemographic variations regarding the pandemic propagation and the non-pharmaceutical interventions. All mobility metrics adapted capture decreased public movements after the national emergency declaration. The population staying home has increased in all states and becomes more stable after the stay-at-home order with a smaller range of fluctuation. There exists overall mobility heterogeneity between the income or population density groups. The public had been taking active responses, voluntarily staying home more, to the in-state confirmed cases while the stay-at-home orders stabilize the variations. The study suggests that the public mobility trends conform with the government message urging to stay home. We anticipate our data-driven analysis offers integrated perspectives and serves as evidence to raise public awareness and, consequently, reinforce the importance of social distancing while assisting policymakers.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325372

ABSTRACT

The worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 has posed a dire threat to the public. Human mobility has changed in various ways over the course of the pandemic. Despite current studies on common mobility metrics, research specifically on state-to-state mobility is very limited. By leveraging the mobile phone location data from over 100 million anonymous devices, we estimate the population flow between all states in the United States. We first analyze the temporal pattern and spatial differences of between-state flow from January 1, 2020 to May 15, 2020. Then, with repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc analysis, we discern different time-course patterns of between-state population flow by pandemic severity groups. A further analysis shows moderate to high correlation between the flow reduction and the pandemic severity, the strength of which varies with different policies. This paper is promising in predicting imported cases.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325231

ABSTRACT

By the emergence of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, and its rapid outbreak worldwide, the infectious illness has changed our everyday travel patterns. In this research, our team investigated the changes in the daily mobility pattern of people during the pandemic by utilizing an integrated data panel. To incorporate various aspects of human mobility, the team focused on the Social Distancing Index (SDI) which was calculated based on five basic mobility measures. The SDI patterns showed a plateau stage in the beginning of April that lasted for about two weeks. This phenomenon then followed by a universal decline of SDI, increased number of trips and reduction in percentage of people staying at home. We called the observation Quarantine Fatigue. The Rate of Change (ROC) method was employed to trace back the start date of quarantine fatigue which was indicated to be April 15th. Our analysis showed that despite the existence of state-to-state variations, most states started experiencing a quarantine fatigue phenomenon during the same period. This observation became more important by knowing that none of the states had officially announced the reopening until late April showing that people decided to loosen up their social distancing practices before the official reopening announcement. Moreover, our analysis indicated that official reopening led to a rapid decline in SDI, raising the concern of a second wave of outbreak. The synchronized trend among states also emphasizes the importance of a more nationwide decision-making attitude for the future as the condition of each state depends on the nationwide behavior.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259803, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511832

ABSTRACT

Racial/ethnic disparities are among the top-selective underlying determinants associated with the disproportional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on human mobility and health outcomes. This study jointly examined county-level racial/ethnic differences in compliance with stay-at-home orders and COVID-19 health outcomes during 2020, leveraging two-year geo-tracking data of mobile devices across ~4.4 million point-of-interests (POIs) in the contiguous United States. Through a set of structural equation modeling, this study quantified how racial/ethnic differences in following stay-at-home orders could mediate COVID-19 health outcomes, controlling for state effects, socioeconomics, demographics, occupation, and partisanship. Results showed that counties with higher Asian populations decreased most in their travel, both in terms of reducing their overall POIs' visiting and increasing their staying home percentage. Moreover, counties with higher White populations experienced the lowest infection rate, while counties with higher African American populations presented the highest case-fatality ratio. Additionally, control variables, particularly partisanship, median household income, percentage of elders, and urbanization, significantly accounted for the county differences in human mobility and COVID-19 health outcomes. Mediation analyses further revealed that human mobility only statistically influenced infection rate but not case-fatality ratio, and such mediation effects varied substantially among racial/ethnic compositions. Last, robustness check of racial gradient at census block group level documented consistent associations but greater magnitude. Taken together, these findings suggest that US residents' responses to COVID-19 are subject to an entrenched and consequential racial/ethnic divide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Racism/psychology , African Americans/psychology , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Income , Mediation Analysis , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/psychology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/standards , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 76: 103506, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487967

ABSTRACT

Social distancing has become a key countermeasure to contain the dissemination of COVID-19. This study examined county-level racial/ethnic disparities in human mobility and COVID-19 health outcomes during the year 2020 by leveraging geo-tracking data across the contiguous US. Sets of generalized additive models were fitted under cross-sectional and time-varying settings, with percentage of mobility change, percentage of staying home, COVID-19 infection rate, and case-fatality ratio as dependent variables, respectively. After adjusting for spatial effects, built environment, socioeconomics, demographics, and partisanship, we found counties with higher Asian populations decreased most in travel, counties with higher White and Asian populations experienced the least infection rate, and counties with higher African American populations presented the highest case-fatality ratio. Control variables, particularly partisanship and education attainment, significantly influenced modeling results. Time-varying analyses further suggested racial differences in human mobility varied dramatically at the beginning but remained stable during the pandemic, while racial differences in COVID-19 outcomes broadly decreased over time. All conclusions hold robust with different aggregation units or model specifications. Altogether, our analyses shine a spotlight on the entrenched racial segregation in the US as well as how it may influence the mobility patterns, urban forms, and health disparities during the COVID-19.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258379, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463316

ABSTRACT

During the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, Non-Pharmaceutical and Pharmaceutical treatments were alternative strategies for governments to intervene. Though many of these intervention methods proved to be effective to stop the spread of COVID-19, i.e., lockdown and curfew, they also posed risk to the economy; in such a scenario, an analysis on how to strike a balance becomes urgent. Our research leverages the mobility big data from the University of Maryland COVID-19 Impact Analysis Platform and employs the Generalized Additive Model (GAM), to understand how the social demographic variables, NPTs (Non-Pharmaceutical Treatments) and PTs (Pharmaceutical Treatments) affect the New Death Rate (NDR) at county-level. We also portray the mutual and interactive effects of NPTs and PTs on NDR. Our results show that there exists a specific usage rate of PTs where its marginal effect starts to suppress the NDR growth, and this specific rate can be reduced through implementing the NPTs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/economics , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
12.
Transportation Research Record ; : 03611981211043813, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1430338

ABSTRACT

The research team has utilized privacy-protected mobile device location data, integrated with COVID-19 case data and census population data, to produce a COVID-19 impact analysis platform that can inform users about the effects of COVID-19 spread and government orders on mobility and social distancing. The platform is being updated daily, to continuously inform decision-makers about the impacts of COVID-19 on their communities, using an interactive analytical tool. The research team has processed anonymized mobile device location data to identify trips and produced a set of variables, including social distancing index, percentage of people staying at home, visits to work and non-work locations, out-of-town trips, and trip distance. The results are aggregated to county and state levels to protect privacy, and scaled to the entire population of each county and state. The research team is making their data and findings, which are updated daily and go back to January 1, 2020, for benchmarking, available to the public to help public officials make informed decisions. This paper presents a summary of the platform and describes the methodology used to process data and produce the platform metrics.

13.
Non-conventional in English | Transportation Research Board, Grey literature | ID: grc-747483

ABSTRACT

The research team has utilized privacy-protected mobile device location data, integrated with COVID-19 case data and census population data, to produce a COVID-19 impact analysis platform that can inform users about the effects of COVID-19 spread and government orders on mobility and social distancing. The platform is being updated daily, to continuously inform decision-makers about the impacts of COVID-19 on their communities using an interactive analytical tool. The research team has processed anonymized mobile device location data to identify trips and produced a set of variables including social distancing index, percentage of people staying at home, visits to work and non-work locations, out-of-town trips, and trip distance. The results are aggregated to county and state levels to protect privacy and scaled to the entire population of each county and state. The research team are making their data and findings, which are updated daily and go back to January 1, 2020, for benchmarking, available to the public in order to help public officials make informed decisions. This paper presents a summary of the platform and describes the methodology used to process data and produce the platform metrics.

14.
Non-conventional in English | Transportation Research Board, Grey literature | ID: grc-747386

ABSTRACT

Many factors play a role in outcomes of emerging highly contagious diseases such as COVID-19. Identification and a better understanding of these factors are critical for the planning and implementation of effective response strategies during such public health crises. This study uses longitudinal data to examine the impact of factors related to social distancing, human mobility, enforcement strategies, hospital capacity, and testing capacity in COVID-19 infection and mortality rates. The results provide evidence that lower COVID-19 infection and mortality rates are linked with increased levels of social distancing and reduced levels of travel—particularly by public transit modes. Other preventive strategies also prove to be influential in COVID-19 outcomes. Most notably, lower COVID-19 infection and mortality rates are linked with stricter enforcement policies and more severe penalties for violating stay-at-home orders. Also, policies that allow gradual relaxation of social distancing measures and travel restrictions as well as those requiring usage of a face mask are related to lower COVID-19 infection and mortality rates. Additionally, increased access to ventilators and Intensive Care Unit beds, which represent hospital capacity, are linked with lower COVID-19 mortality rates. On the other hand, gaps in testing capacity are related to higher COVID-19 infection rates. The results also show that certain minority groups such as African Americans and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
J Transp Geogr ; 91: 102997, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108502

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a globally unprecedented change in human mobility. Leveraging two-year bike-sharing trips from the largest bike-sharing program in Chicago, this study examines the spatiotemporal evolution of bike-sharing usage across the pandemic and compares it with other modes of transport. A set of generalized additive (mixed) models are fitted to identify relationships and delineate nonlinear temporal interactions between station-level daily bike-sharing usage and various independent variables including socio-demographics, land use, transportation features, station characteristics, and COVID-19 infections. Results show: 1) the proportion of commuting trips is substantially lower during the pandemic; 2) the trend of bike-sharing usage follows an "increase-decrease-rebound" pattern; 3) bike-sharing presents as a more resilient option compared with transit, driving, and walking; 4) regions with more white, Asian, and fewer African-American residents are found to become less dependent on bike-sharing; 5) open space and residential areas exhibit less decrease and earlier start-to-recover time; 6) stations near the city center, with more docks, or located in high-income areas go from more increase before the pandemic to more decrease during the pandemic. Findings provide a timely understanding of bike-sharing usage changes and offer suggestions on how different stakeholders should respond to this unprecedented crisis.

16.
Transp Res Part C Emerg Technol ; 124: 102955, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014865

ABSTRACT

During the unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) challenge, non-pharmaceutical interventions became a widely adopted strategy to limit physical movements and interactions to mitigate virus transmissions. For situational awareness and decision-support, quickly available yet accurate big-data analytics about human mobility and social distancing is invaluable to agencies and decision-makers. This paper presents a big-data-driven analytical framework that ingests terabytes of data on a daily basis and quantitatively assesses the human mobility trend during COVID-19. Using mobile device location data of over 150 million monthly active samples in the United States (U.S.), the study successfully measures human mobility with three main metrics at the county level: daily average number of trips per person; daily average person-miles traveled; and daily percentage of residents staying home. A set of generalized additive mixed models is employed to disentangle the policy effect on human mobility from other confounding effects including virus effect, socio-demographic effect, weather effect, industry effect, and spatiotemporal autocorrelation. Results reveal the policy plays a limited, time-decreasing, and region-specific effect on human movement. The stay-at-home orders only contribute to a 3.5%-7.9% decrease in human mobility, while the reopening guidelines lead to a 1.6%-5.2% mobility increase. Results also indicate a reasonable spatial heterogeneity among the U.S. counties, wherein the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases, income levels, industry structure, age and racial distribution play important roles. The data informatics generated by the framework are made available to the public for a timely understanding of mobility trends and policy effects, as well as for time-sensitive decision support to further contain the spread of the virus.

17.
J R Soc Interface ; 17(173): 20200344, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978651

ABSTRACT

One approach to delaying the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is to reduce human travel by imposing travel restriction policies. Understanding the actual human mobility response to such policies remains a challenge owing to the lack of an observed and large-scale dataset describing human mobility during the pandemic. This study uses an integrated dataset, consisting of anonymized and privacy-protected location data from over 150 million monthly active samples in the USA, COVID-19 case data and census population information, to uncover mobility changes during COVID-19 and under the stay-at-home state orders in the USA. The study successfully quantifies human mobility responses with three important metrics: daily average number of trips per person; daily average person-miles travelled; and daily percentage of residents staying at home. The data analytics reveal a spontaneous mobility reduction that occurred regardless of government actions and a 'floor' phenomenon, where human mobility reached a lower bound and stopped decreasing soon after each state announced the stay-at-home order. A set of longitudinal models is then developed and confirms that the states' stay-at-home policies have only led to about a 5% reduction in average daily human mobility. Lessons learned from the data analytics and longitudinal models offer valuable insights for government actions in preparation for another COVID-19 surge or another virus outbreak in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Computers, Handheld , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Travel/legislation & jurisprudence , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Travel/trends , United States/epidemiology
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20742, 2020 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947554

ABSTRACT

Since the first case of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was confirmed in Wuhan, China, social distancing has been promoted worldwide, including in the United States, as a major community mitigation strategy. However, our understanding remains limited in how people would react to such control measures, as well as how people would resume their normal behaviours when those orders were relaxed. We utilize an integrated dataset of real-time mobile device location data involving 100 million devices in the contiguous United States (plus Alaska and Hawaii) from February 2, 2020 to May 30, 2020. Built upon the common human mobility metrics, we construct a Social Distancing Index (SDI) to evaluate people's mobility pattern changes along with the spread of COVID-19 at different geographic levels. We find that both government orders and local outbreak severity significantly contribute to the strength of social distancing. As people tend to practice less social distancing immediately after they observe a sign of local mitigation, we identify several states and counties with higher risks of continuous community transmission and a second outbreak. Our proposed index could help policymakers and researchers monitor people's real-time mobility behaviours, understand the influence of government orders, and evaluate the risk of local outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cooperative Behavior , Epidemiological Monitoring , Government Regulation , Humans , Models, Statistical , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , United States/epidemiology
19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241468, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917994

ABSTRACT

In March of this year, COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, and it continues to threaten public health. This global health crisis imposes limitations on daily movements, which have deteriorated every sector in our society. Understanding public reactions to the virus and the non-pharmaceutical interventions should be of great help to fight COVID-19 in a strategic way. We aim to provide tangible evidence of the human mobility trends by comparing the day-by-day variations across the U.S. from January 2020 to early April 2020. Large-scale public mobility at an aggregated level is observed by leveraging mobile device location data and the measures related to social distancing. Our study captures spatial and temporal heterogeneity as well as the sociodemographic variations and teleworking trends regarding the pandemic propagation and the non-pharmaceutical mobility interventions. All metrics adapted capture decreased public movements after the national emergency declaration. The population staying home has increased in all states before the stay-at-home mandates implemented and becomes more stable after the order with a smaller range of fluctuation. The public had been taking active responses, voluntarily staying home more, to the in-state confirmed cases while the stay-at-home orders stabilize the variations. As the estimated teleworking rates also continue to incline throughout the study period, the teleworking trend can be another driving factor for the growing stay-at-home population. We confirm that there exists overall mobility heterogeneity between the income or population density groups. The study suggests that public mobility trends are in line with the government message urging to stay home. We anticipate our data-driven analysis offers integrated perspectives and serves as evidence to raise public awareness and, consequently, reinforce the importance of social distancing while assisting policymakers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Movement , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cell Phone Use/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Electronic Data Processing , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , United States/epidemiology
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(44): 27087-27089, 2020 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872787

ABSTRACT

Accurately estimating human mobility and gauging its relationship with virus transmission is critical for the control of COVID-19 spreading. Using mobile device location data of over 100 million monthly active samples, we compute origin-destination travel demand and aggregate mobility inflow at each US county from March 1 to June 9, 2020. Then, we quantify the change of mobility inflow across the nation and statistically model the time-varying relationship between inflow and the infections. We find that external travel to other counties decreased by 35% soon after the nation entered the emergency situation, but recovered rapidly during the partial reopening phase. Moreover, our simultaneous equations analysis highlights the dynamics in a positive relationship between mobility inflow and the number of infections during the COVID-19 onset. This relationship is found to be increasingly stronger in partially reopened regions. Our study provides a quick reference and timely data availability for researchers and decision makers to understand the national mobility trends before and during the pandemic. The modeling results can be used to predict mobility and transmissions risks and integrated with epidemics models to further assess the public health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Cell Phone , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Travel , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL