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1.
Value in Health ; 25(5):709-716, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1814876

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids were clinically used in the treatment of nonsevere patients with COVID-19, but the efficacy of such treatment lacked sufficient clinical evidence, and the impact of dose had never been studied. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of systemic corticosteroid use (SCU) in nonsevere patients with COVID-19. We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study in Hubei Province. A total of 1726 patients admitted with nonsevere type COVID-19 were included. Mixed-effect Cox model, mixed-effect Cox model with time-varying exposure, multiple linear regression, and propensity score analysis (inverse probability of treatment weight and propensity score matching) were used to explore the association between SCU and progression into severe type, all-cause mortality, and length of stay. During the follow-up of 30 days, 29.8% of nonsevere patients with COVID-19 received treatment with systemic corticosteroids. The use of systemic corticosteroids was associated with higher probability of developing severe type (adjusted hazard ratio 1.81;95% confidence interval 1.47-2.21), all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2.92;95% confidence interval 1.39-6.15) in time-varying Cox analysis, and prolonged hospitalization (β 4.14;P <.001) in multiple linear regression. Analysis with 2 propensity score cohorts displayed similar results. Besides, increased corticosteroid dose was significantly associated with elevated probability of developing severe type (P <.001) and prolonged hospitalization (P <.001). Corticosteroid treatment against nonsevere patients with COVID-19 was significantly associated with worse clinical outcomes. The higher dose was significantly associated with elevated risk of poor disease progression. We recommend that SCU should be avoided unless necessary among nonsevere patients with COVID-19. • Glucocorticoids are used to treat patients with nonsevere COVID-19 in clinic, but the efficacy of such treatment is still a matter of intense debate. • In hospitalized patients with nonsevere COVID-19, systemic glucocorticoids treatment increased the risk of progression from nonsevere to severe, all-cause mortality, and prolonged length of stay, and dose-response relationships were present. • In nonsevere patients with COVID-19, we propose that systemic glucocorticoids be avoided unless absolutely essential, but more cautious treatment strategies and clinical adverse drug reaction monitoring should be undertaken if necessary. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Value in Health is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Pathogens ; 11(4):452, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1785869

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many general hospitals have been transformed into designated infectious disease care facilities, where a large number of patients with COVID-19 infections have been treated and discharged. With declines in the number of hospitalizations, a major question for our healthcare systems, especially for these designated facilities, is how to safely resume hospital function after these patients have been discharged. Here, we take a designated COVID-19-care facility in Wuhan, China, as an example to share our experience in resuming hospital function while ensuring the safety of patients and medical workers. After more than 1200 patients with COVID-19 infections were discharged in late March, 2020, our hospital resumed function by setting up a three-level hospital infection management system with four grades of risk of exposure. Moreover, we also took measures to ensure the safety of medical personnel in different departments including clinics, wards, and operation rooms. After all patients with COVID-19 infections were discharged, during the five months of regular function from April to September in 2020, no positive cases have been found among more than 40,000 people in our hospital, including hospital staff and patients.

3.
Value Health ; 2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707896

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Corticosteroids were clinically used in the treatment of nonsevere patients with COVID-19, but the efficacy of such treatment lacked sufficient clinical evidence, and the impact of dose had never been studied. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of systemic corticosteroid use (SCU) in nonsevere patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study in Hubei Province. A total of 1726 patients admitted with nonsevere type COVID-19 were included. Mixed-effect Cox model, mixed-effect Cox model with time-varying exposure, multiple linear regression, and propensity score analysis (inverse probability of treatment weight and propensity score matching) were used to explore the association between SCU and progression into severe type, all-cause mortality, and length of stay. RESULTS: During the follow-up of 30 days, 29.8% of nonsevere patients with COVID-19 received treatment with systemic corticosteroids. The use of systemic corticosteroids was associated with higher probability of developing severe type (adjusted hazard ratio 1.81; 95% confidence interval 1.47-2.21), all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2.92; 95% confidence interval 1.39-6.15) in time-varying Cox analysis, and prolonged hospitalization (ß 4.14; P < .001) in multiple linear regression. Analysis with 2 propensity score cohorts displayed similar results. Besides, increased corticosteroid dose was significantly associated with elevated probability of developing severe type (P < .001) and prolonged hospitalization (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroid treatment against nonsevere patients with COVID-19 was significantly associated with worse clinical outcomes. The higher dose was significantly associated with elevated risk of poor disease progression. We recommend that SCU should be avoided unless necessary among nonsevere patients with COVID-19.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308169

ABSTRACT

Background: The pandemics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) threatens both human lives and health care system. COVID-19 patients may differ in their capability in spreading the causative virus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: : In this study, oropharyngeal swabs specimens from 43 patients admitted to our hospital during the COVID-19 peak time in Wuhan, China were obtained to survey temporal profiles of the viral loads in their upper respiratory tract. An internal and an absolute mRNA control were included in the real-time RT-PCR analysis and RNA extraction step to remove the potential influence of experimental variations on the result interpretation. Results: : We found about one third of the hospitalized COVID-19 patients were never tested as SARS-CoV-2 positive during the course of this study. One patient with mild symptoms displayed constant high levels of viral loads after hospitalization, which were orders of magnitude higher than all other positive patients. Conclusions: : We propose that if pharyngeal viral loads in a patient could indicate its ability in spreading the virus to others, then identification and strict separation of the high viral load patients should provide an effective mean in restricting viral spreading and protect health care workers from infection.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324684

ABSTRACT

The use of antibiotics is common in the treatment of COVID-19, but adequate evaluation is lacking. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic use in non-severe COVID-19 patients, particularly in patients admitted with low risk of bacterial infection. This is a multi-center retrospective cohort study. Patients are screened strictly according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria and are divided into two groups based on antibiotics exposure. The exposure is defined as the treatment of antibiotics prescribed within 48 hours after admission, with a course of treatment≥3 days;and patients in this group are classified as early antibiotic use group. Otherwise, patients are classified as the non early antibiotic use group. The primary end point of the study is progressing from non-severe type COVID-19 into severe type. This is the first protocol to put a focus on the transformation of the severity of the disease, based on a multi-center retrospective cohort design.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324683

ABSTRACT

The use of antibiotics is common in the treatment of COVID-19, but adequate evaluation is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early antibiotic use in non-severe COVID-19 patients admitted with low risk of bacterial infection. The multi-center retrospective cohort study included 1613 non-severe COVID-19 inpatients admitted with low risk of bacterial infection. During the follow-up of 30 days, the proportion of patients progressed into severe type COVID-19 in the early antibiotics use group was almost 1.5 times than that of the comparision group. In the mixed-effect model, the early use of antibiotics was associated with higher probability of developing severe type, staying in the hospital for over 15 days, and secondary infection. However, it was not significant association with mortality rate. Analysis with propensity score-matched cohort displayed similar results. It is suggested that antibiotic use should be avoided unless absolutely necessary in non-severe COVID-19 patients, particularly in the early stages.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323568

ABSTRACT

Background: There is limited information on the difference in epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of the initial outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan (the epicenter) and Sichuan (the peripheral area) in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was conducted to investigate the differences in the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 between the epicenter and peripheral areas of pandemic and thereby generate information that would be potentially helpful in formulating clinical practice recommendations to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The Sichuan & Wuhan Collaboration Research Group for COVID-19 established two retrospective cohorts that separately reflect the epicenter and peripheral area during the early pandemic. The epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients in the two groups were compared. Multivariate regression analyses were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with regard to the outcomes. Results: The Wuhan (epicenter) cohort included 710 randomly selected patients, and the peripheral (Sichuan) cohort included 474 consecutive patients. A higher proportion of patients from the periphery had upper airway symptoms, whereas a lower proportion of patients in the epicenter had lower airway symptoms and comorbidities. Patients in the epicenter had a higher risk of death (aOR=7.64), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (aOR=1.66), delayed time from illness onset to hospital and ICU admission (aOR=6.29 and aOR=8.03, respectively), and prolonged duration of viral shedding (aOR=1.64). Conclusions: The worse outcomes in the epicenter could be explained by the prolonged time from illness onset to hospital and ICU admission. This could potentially have been associated with elevated systemic inflammation secondary to organ dysfunction and prolonged duration of virus shedding independent of age and comorbidities. Thus, early supportive care could achieve better clinical outcomes.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315212

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiorgan damage by SARS-CoV-2 results in alterations of many clinical measures associated with mortality of COVID-19. This research discussed the pioneering pathogenicity factors that lead to the extensive damage elusive. Objectives: A cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: : We conducted a correlational analysis of hospital outcomes with an independent cohort of COVID-19 patients and we also presented a death case to illustrate for time course of immune cell density. Results: : The results showed that dysregulated immune cell densities were correlated with hospitalization duration before death, not before discharge. High neutrophil densities allowed sorting out one third of total death cases while a density of less than 70% of the white blood cells allowed sorting out 70% of surviving cases. Conclusion: Collectively surged neutrophil was a top trigger for mortality in patients with COVID-19.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315211

ABSTRACT

Background: Worldwide spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has made hundreds of thousands people sick and fortunately many of them have been treated and discharged. However, it remains unclear how well the discharged patients were recovering. Chest CT scan, with demonstrated high sensitivity to COVID-19, was used here to examine clinical manifestations in patients at discharge. Methods: This study registered retrospectively single-center case series of 180 discharged patients, all confirmed with COVID-19 at Wuhan Red Cross Hospital in Wuhan, China. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory and treatment data were collected. CT imaging features of absorption vs progressive stage were compared and analyzed. Results: Five pulmonary lobes were affected in 54 (30%) of the 180 patients at the absorption stage, comparing to 66% of them at the progressive stage ( P=1.45×10 -11 ). Forty five (25%) patients had pleural effusion on admission and 13 of them still carried hydrothorax when discharged as per standard discharge criteria( P=4.48×10 -6 ). Besides, compared with those at progressive stage, 97 (54%) discharged patients had interlobular thickening ( P=6.95×10 -3 ) and 43% of them still presented adjacent pleura thickening ( P=5.58×10 -5 ). The median total CT score of discharged patients at absorption stage was lower than progressive stage (3 vs 12.5 ). The median total CT score recovery rate was 67% (range, 0-100%) and 139 (77%) patients showed less than 90% improvement at discharge. Conclusions: A majority (77%) of the discharged patients had not recovered completely. The current discharge criteria may need to include 90% or higher CT score-based recovery rate.Authors Jingwen Li, Xi Long, Fang Fang, and Xuefei Lv contributed equally to this work.Authors Zhicheng Lin and Nian Xiong are joint last coauthors.

10.
Eur Radiol ; 2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653447

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop a dynamic 3D radiomics analysis method using artificial intelligence technique for automatically assessing four disease stages (i.e., early, progressive, peak, and absorption stages) of COVID-19 patients on CT images. METHODS: The dynamic 3D radiomics analysis method was composed of three AI algorithms (the lung segmentation, lesion segmentation, and stage-assessing AI algorithms) that were trained and tested on 313,767 CT images from 520 COVID-19 patients. This proposed method used 3D lung lesion that was segmented by the lung and lesion segmentation algorithms to extract radiomics features, and then combined with clinical metadata to assess the possible stage of COVID-19 patients using stage-assessing algorithm. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate diagnostic performance. RESULTS: Of 520 patients, 66 patients (mean age, 57 years ± 15 [standard deviation]; 35 women), including 203 CT scans, were tested. The dynamic 3D radiomics analysis method used 30 features, including 27 radiomics features and 3 clinical features to assess the possible disease stage of COVID-19 with an accuracy of 90%. For the prediction of each stage, the AUC of stage 1 was 0.965 (95% CI: 0.934, 0.997), AUC of stage 2 was 0.958 (95% CI: 0.931, 0.984), AUC of stage 3 was 0.998 (95% CI: 0.994, 1.000), and AUC of stage 4 was 0.975 (95% CI: 0.956, 0.994). CONCLUSION: With high diagnostic performance, the dynamic 3D radiomics analysis using artificial intelligence could represent a potential tool for helping hospitals make appropriate resource allocations and follow-up of treatment response. KEY POINTS: • The AI segmentation algorithms were able to accurately segment the lung and lesion of COVID-19 patients of different stages. • The dynamic 3D radiomics analysis method successfully extracted the radiomics features from the 3D lung lesion. • The stage-assessing AI algorithm combining with clinical metadata was able to assess the four stages with an accuracy of 90%, a macro-average AUC of 0.975.

11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 782731, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581325

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 and its variants are still hitting the world. Ever since the outbreak, neurological involvements as headache, ageusia, and anosmia in COVID-19 patients have been emphasized and reported. But the pathogenesis of these new-onset neurological manifestations in COVID-19 patients is still obscure and controversial. As difficulty always lay in the diagnosis of neurological infection, current reports to validate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) almost relied on the basic methods and warranted improvement. Here we reported a case series of 8 patients with prominent new-onset neurological manifestations, who were screened out from a patch of 304 COVID-19 confirmed patients. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and proteomics were conducted in the simultaneously obtained CSF and serum samples of the selected patients, with three non-COVID-19 patients with matched demographic features used as the controls for proteomic analysis. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the CSF of four COVID-19 patients and was suspicious in the rest four remaining patients by NGS, but was negative in all serum samples. Proteomic analysis revealed that 185 and 59 proteins were differentially expressed in CSF and serum samples, respectively, and that only 20 proteins were shared, indicating that the proteomic changes in CSF were highly specific. Further proteomic annotation highlighted the involvement of complement system, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, enhanced cellular interaction, and macrophages in the CSF proteomic alterations. This study, equipped with NGS and proteomics, reported a high detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in the CSF of COVID-19 patients and the proteomic alteration of CSF, which would provide insights into understanding the pathological mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 CNS infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , Central Nervous System Diseases/virology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/metabolism , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , RNA, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA
12.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 59(1): 106462, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The use of antibiotics was common in some countries during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, but adequate evaluation remains lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early antibiotic use in patients with non-severe COVID-19 admitted without bacterial infection. METHODS: This multi-centre retrospective cohort study included 1,373 inpatients with non-severe COVID-19 admitted without bacterial infection. Patients were divided into two groups according to their exposure to antibiotics within 48 h of admission. The outcomes were progression to severe COVID-19, length of stay >15 days and mortality rate. A mixed-effect Cox model and random effect logistic regression were used to explore the association between early antibiotic use and outcomes. RESULTS: During the 30-day follow-up period, the proportion of patients who progressed to severe COVID-19 in the early antibiotic use group was almost 1.4 times that of the comparison group. In the mixed-effect model, the early use of antibiotics was associated with higher probability of developing severe COVID-19 and staying in hospital for >15 days. However, there was no significant association between early use of antibiotics and mortality. Analysis with propensity-score-matched cohorts displayed similar results. In subgroup analysis, patients receiving any class of antibiotic were at increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Azithromycin did not improve disease progression and length of stay in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that antibiotic use should be avoided unless absolutely necessary in patients with non-severe COVID-19, particularly in the early stages.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Kidney Function Tests , Length of Stay , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
13.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 5(1): e00301, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441962

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a strong risk factor for complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The effect of T2DM medications on COVID-19 outcomes remains unclear. In a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 131 patients with T2DM hospitalized for COVID-19 in Wuhan, we have previously found that metformin use prior to hospitalization is associated with reduced mortality. The current study aims to investigate the effects of inpatient use of T2DM medications, including metformin, acarbose, insulin and sulfonylureas, on the mortality of COVID-19 patients with T2DM during hospitalization. METHODS: We continue to carry out a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 131 patients with T2DM hospitalized for COVID-19 and treated with different combinations of diabetes medications. RESULTS: We found that patients using metformin (p = .02) and acarbose (p = .04), alone or both together (p = .03), after admission were significantly more likely to survive than those who did not use either metformin or acarbose. 37 patients continued to take metformin after admission and 35 (94.6%) survived. Among the 57 patients who used acarbose after admission, 52 survived (91.2%). A total of 20 patients used both metformin and acarbose, while 57 used neither. Of the 20 dual-use patients, 19 (95.0%) survived. CONCLUSION: Our analyses suggest that inpatient use of metformin and acarbose together or alone during hospitalization should be studied in randomized trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Acarbose/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Inpatients , Metformin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 9756140, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334600

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2020/1652403.].

15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 651556, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295655

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Both coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia are highly contagious diseases. We aimed to characterize initial computed tomography (CT) and clinical features and to develop a model for differentiating COVID-19 pneumonia from H1N1 pneumonia. Methods: In total, we enrolled 291 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia from January 20 to February 13, 2020, and 97 patients with H1N1 pneumonia from May 24, 2009, to January 29, 2010 from two hospitals. Patients were randomly grouped into a primary cohort and a validation cohort using a seven-to-three ratio, and their clinicoradiologic data on admission were compared. The clinicoradiologic features were optimized by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression analysis to generate a model for differential diagnosis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted for assessing the performance of the model in the primary and validation cohorts. Results: The COVID-19 pneumonia mainly presented a peripheral distribution pattern (262/291, 90.0%); in contrast, H1N1 pneumonia most commonly presented a peribronchovascular distribution pattern (52/97, 53.6%). In LASSO logistic regression, peripheral distribution patterns, older age, low-grade fever, and slightly elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were associated with COVID-19 pneumonia, whereas, a peribronchovascular distribution pattern, centrilobular nodule or tree-in-bud sign, consolidation, bronchial wall thickening or bronchiectasis, younger age, hyperpyrexia, and a higher level of AST were associated with H1N1 pneumonia. For the primary and validation cohorts, the LASSO model containing above eight clinicoradiologic features yielded an area under curve (AUC) of 0.963 and 0.943, with sensitivity of 89.7 and 86.2%, specificity of 89.7 and 89.7%, and accuracy of 89.7 and 87.1%, respectively. Conclusions: Combination of distribution pattern and category of pulmonary opacity on chest CT with clinical features facilitates the differentiation of COVID-19 pneumonia from H1N1 pneumonia.

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): 2203-2205, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269541

ABSTRACT

Seventy-six days after the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic was contained in Wuhan, the Chinese government carried out a citywide severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 nucleic acid testing initiative for all residents from 14 May to 1 June 2020. Our hospital tested 107 662 residents around Huanan seafood market, uncovering a positivity rate of 0.006%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Seafood
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 680422, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266655

ABSTRACT

Background: Sex and gender are crucial variables in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to provide information on differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes between male and female patients and to explore the effect of estrogen in disease outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Method: In this retrospective, multi-center study, we included all confirmed cases of COVID-19 admitted to four hospitals in Hubei province, China from Dec 31, 2019 to Mar 31, 2020. Cases were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and were analyzed for demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiographic parameters. Random-effect logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between sex and disease outcomes. Results: A total of 2501 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included in the present study. The clinical manifestations of male and female patients with COVID-19 were similar, while male patients have more comorbidities than female patients. In terms of laboratory findings, compared with female patients, male patients were more likely to have lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, inflammatory response, hypoproteinemia, and extrapulmonary organ damage. Random-effect logistic regression analysis indicated that male patients were more likely to progress into severe type, and prone to ARDS, secondary bacterial infection, and death than females. However, there was no significant difference in disease outcomes between postmenopausal and premenopausal females after propensity score matching (PSM) by age. Conclusions: Male patients, especially those age-matched with postmenopausal females, are more likely to have poor outcomes. Sex-specific differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes do exist in patients with COVID-19, but estrogen may not be the primary cause. Further studies are needed to explore the causes of the differences in disease outcomes between the sexes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 111, 2021 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266503

ABSTRACT

Challenges have been recognized in healthcare of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the COVID-19 pandemic, given a high infection and mortality rate of COVID-19 in these patients. This situation urges the identification of underlying risks and preferably biomarkers for evidence-based, more effective healthcare. Towards this goal, current literature review and network analysis synthesize available information on the AD-related gene APOE into four lines of mechanistic evidence. At a cellular level, the risk isoform APOE4 confers high infectivity by the underlying coronavirus SARS-CoV-2; at a genetic level, APOE4 is associated with severe COVID-19; at a pathway level, networking connects APOE with COVID-19 risk factors such as ACE2, TMPRSS2, NRP1, and LZTFL1; at a behavioral level, APOE4-associated dementia may increase the exposure to coronavirus infection which causes COVID-19. Thus, APOE4 could exert multiple actions for high infection and mortality rates of the patients, or generally, with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
EClinicalMedicine ; 29: 100628, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252757
20.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 19(1): 92-96, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154160

ABSTRACT

The pandemic novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global concern in which the respiratory system is not the only one involved. Previous researches have presented the common clinical manifestations including respiratory symptoms (i.e., fever and cough), fatigue and myalgia. However, there is limited evidence for neurological and psychological influences of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we discuss the common neurological manifestations of COVID-19 including acute cerebrovascular disease (i.e., cerebral hemorrhage) and muscle ache. Possible viral transmission to the nervous system may occur via circulation, an upper nasal transcribrial route and/or conjunctival route. Moreover, we cannot ignore the psychological influence on the public, medical staff and confirmed patients. Dealing with public psychological barriers and performing psychological crisis intervention are an important part of public health interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Blood-Brain Barrier , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/psychology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/transmission , Cerebral Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Conjunctiva , Dizziness/physiopathology , Ethmoid Bone , Headache/physiopathology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
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