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1.
China CDC Weekly ; 3(20):423-429, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1227301

ABSTRACT

Background: We explored a phenotype of liver dysfunction based on modified Child-Pugh (MCP) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and evaluated its relationship with escalation of respiratory support and survival Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving COVID-19 in-patients at the Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital This study was performed between January 24, 2020 and March 31, 2020 Escalation of respiratory support and survival were evaluated Furthermore, the trajectory of liver function was delineated considering the risk of escalation of respiratory support and survival using multilevel logistic regression Results: A total of 298 patients were enrolled in this study A higher proportion of patients with MCP-B on admission exhibited an escalated respiratory support (26 of 55;47 3%) when compared to patients with MCP-A (9 of 62;14 5%), indicating that MCP-B was strongly associated with escalation of respiratory support [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 4 530;95% confidence interval (CI): 2 060–9 970;P<0 001] Among the patients on escalated respiratory support, 5 (55 6% of 9) patients with MCP-A died compared to 10 (38 5% of 26) of the patients with MCP-B Patients with a history of liver disease had a higher mortality risk (adjusted HR: 7 830;95% CI: 1 260-48 420) Conclusion: MCP is efficient at stratifying liver dysfunction levels in COVID-19 patients and is strongly associated with escalation of respiratory support

2.
iScience ; : 102293, 2021 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203085

ABSTRACT

Recently, COVID-19 caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has brought great challenges to the world. More and more studies have shown that severe patients may suffer from cytokine storm syndrome; however, there are few studies on its pathogenesis. Here we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 coding protein open reading frame 8 (ORF8) acted as a contributing factor to cytokine storm during COVID-19 infection. ORF8 could activate IL-17 signaling pathway and promote the expression of pro-inflammatory factors. Moreover, we demonstrated that treatment of IL17RA antibody protected mice from ORF8-induced inflammation. Our findings are helpful to understand the pathogenesis of cytokine storm caused by SARS-CoV-2, and provide a potential target for the development of COVID-19 therapeutic drugs.

3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 34, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly in China and other overseas areas, which has aroused widespread concern. The sharp increase in the number of patients has led to great psychological pressure on health care workers. The purpose of this study was to understand their mental health status and needs, so as to provide a scientific basis for alleviating the psychological pressure of health care workers. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, 540 health care workers were randomly selected from two designated tuberculosis medical institutions in Anhui Province. The basic situation, perceived social support, depression level, loneliness and COVID-19 related knowledge were collected and analyzed by questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 511 valid questionnaires were finally retrieved. There were 139 people in epidemic prevention and control positions (27.20%). Depression level: People in isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were at the level of mild to moderate depression. Female was higher than male; nurse was higher than doctor; middle and junior job titles were higher than senior titles; junior college degree or below were higher than bachelor's degree, master's degree and above; isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were significantly higher than those of non-prevention and control positions (p < 0.05). Loneliness scores: Doctors were higher than that of medical technicians, and isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were higher than those of other medical departments (p < 0.05). Social support: Doctors were lower than that of medical technicians, and isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were significantly lower than those of other departments (p < 0.05). The score of social support was negatively correlated with depression and loneliness (p < 0.001), while depression was positively correlated with loneliness (p < 0.001). Health care workers most want to receive one-to-one psychological counseling (29.75%), and provide crisis management (24.07%). The awareness rate of health care workers on COVID-19's knowledge was relatively high. CONCLUSIONS: The psychological problems of health care workers, especially women, nurses with low educational background, low professional title, and staff in the epidemic prevention and control positions are relatively serious.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Anxiety , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 8893305, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949228

ABSTRACT

As an essential lipid, cholesterol is of great value in keeping cell homeostasis, being the precursor of bile acid and steroid hormones, and stabilizing membrane lipid rafts. As a kind of cholesterol metabolite produced by enzymatic or radical process, oxysterols have drawn much attention in the last decades. Among which, the role of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, antivirus process, and inflammatory response has been largely disclosed. This review is aimed at revealing these functions and underlying mechanisms of 25-HC.

5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 89(Pt A): 107065, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop acute respiratory distress and multi-system organ failure and are associated with poor prognosis and high mortality. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify early diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to determine the risk of developing serious illness. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 114 patients with COVID-19 at the Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan based on their clinical and laboratory data. Patients were categorized into severe and mild to moderate disease groups. We analyzed the potential of serological inflammation indicators in predicting the severity of COVID-19 in patients using univariate and multivariate logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic curves, and nomogram analysis. The Spearman method was used to understand the correlation between the serological biomarkers and duration of hospital stay. RESULTS: Patients with severe disease had reduced neutrophils and lymphocytes; severe coagulation dysfunction; altered content of biochemical factors (such as urea, lactate dehydrogenase); elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, neutrophil-lymphocyte, platelet-lymphocyte, and derived neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios, high sensitivity C-reactive protein-prealbumin ratio (HsCPAR), systemic immune-inflammation index, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein-albumin ratio (HsCAR); and low lymphocyte-monocyte ratio, prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio. PNI, HsCAR, and HsCPAR correlated with the risk of severe disease. The nomogram combining the three parameters showed good discrimination with a C-index of 0.873 and reliable calibration. Moreover, HsCAR and HsCPAR correlated with duration of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Taken together, PNI, HsCAR, and HsCPAR may serve as accurate biomarkers for the prediction of disease severity in patients with COVID-19 upon admission/hospitalization.

6.
Chin. J. Microbiol. Immunol. ; 7(40): 489-494, 20200731.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-701952

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the value of anal swabs positive for 2019-nCoV in patients with COVID-19 and the clinical features of the patients. Methods: Throat swabs, sputum and blood samples, and anal swabs were collected from 104 patients with COVID-19 at admission to test for 2019-nCoV nucleic acid. Clinical characteristics and hematological indexes were compared between viral nucleic acid-positive and -negative groups of different sample types. Fifteen patients whose anal swabs were positive for viral nucleic acid were selected to analyze the length of time before the nucleic acid turned negative in different specimens. Results: Compared with the patients having negative anal swab test results, those having positive test results showed decreased lymphocytes, increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP), and higher incidence of severe COVID-19. The levels of HsCRP and IL-6 and the incidence of severe COVID-19 were significantly higher in patients with positive throat swab test results than in those with negative results. No significant difference in hematological indexes or the proportion of severe cases was detected between the patients with positive and negative sputum test results. Only 1.92% of the patients had positive blood test results, but all of them were severe patients. The positive rate of sputum test was the highest, which was 46.15%. Patients with positive results of both throat and anal swab test had significantly decreased lymphocytes, increased HsCRP and IL-6 levels, and higher incidence of critical COVID-19. It took longer time for patients to have negative anal swab and sputum test results. Moreover, it should be noticed that the viral nucleic acid in sputum might become positive again after it turned negative. Conclusions: Patients with positive anal swab test results had reduced lymphocytes, enhanced inflammatory response and higher incidence of severe COVID-19, suggesting that a positive anal swab test might be an indicator of severe COVID-19. Moreover, the time of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid turning negative in anal swabs was longer than that in throat swabs. The combined detection of throat swabs and anal swabs would help to predict the occurrence of severe COVID-19.

7.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13425, 2020 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670599

ABSTRACT

There is no consensus on immunosuppression management for kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Therefore, we conducted a search in English database from October 2019 to July 2020 and extracted data from cases with treatment details worldwide, and total of 41 recipients with a median age of 50 years were enrolled in this study. Most of them were males (75.8%). The most common presenting symptoms were fever (80.5%), cough (63.4%), and fatigue (41.5%). Patients were classified into three catalogs according to severity of pneumonia: 17 (41.5%) were mild, 15 (36.6%) severe, and 9 (21.9%) critical disease. Laboratory tests revealed that serum creatinine of critical patients was significantly higher than that of mild or severe patients. 68.3% received oxygen support; all patients received antiviral therapy, and 15 (36.6%) recipients were additionally treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and interferon-α. 19.5% of patients maintained immunosuppressive therapy; 36.6% suspended antimetabolite; and 43.9% only treated with corticosteroid. Six (14.6%) patients died (severe: 2, critical: 4); high creatinine with low lymphocyte count was the biggest challenge of immunosuppression management. In all, it is necessary to pay close attention to renal function and lymphocyte count in KTRs infected with COVID-19 and choose appropriate medication programs according to the specific situations.

8.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 797-806, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-11561

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus in China (SARS-CoV-2) that began in December 2019 presents a significant and urgent threat to global health. This study was conducted to provide the international community with a deeper understanding of this new infectious disease. Epidemiological, clinical features, laboratory findings, radiological characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcomes of 135 patients in northeast Chongqing were collected and analyzed in this study. A total of 135 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. The median age was 47 years (interquartile range, 36-55), and there was no significant gender difference (53.3% men). The majority of patients had contact with people from the Wuhan area. Forty-three (31.9%) patients had underlying disease, primarily hypertension (13 [9.6%]), diabetes (12 [8.9%]), cardiovascular disease (7 [5.2%]), and malignancy (4 [3.0%]). Common symptoms included fever (120 [88.9%]), cough (102 [76.5%]), and fatigue (44 [32.5%]). Chest computed tomography scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all the patients. All patients received antiviral therapy (135 [100%]) (Kaletra and interferon were both used), antibacterial therapy (59 [43.7%]), and corticosteroids (36 [26.7%]). In addition, many patients received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (124 [91.8%]). It is suggested that patients should receive Kaletra early and should be treated by a combination of Western and Chinese medicines. Compared to the mild cases, the severe ones had lower lymphocyte counts and higher plasma levels of Pt, APTT, d-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, PCT, ALB, C-reactive protein, and aspartate aminotransferase. This study demonstrates the clinic features and therapies of 135 COVID-19 patients. Kaletra and TCM played an important role in the treatment of the viral pneumonia. Further studies are required to explore the role of Kaletra and TCM in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/physiopathology , Cough/virology , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/physiopathology , Fever/virology , Humans , Interferons/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray , Treatment Outcome
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