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1.
J Infect Dis ; 221(11): 1762-1769, 2020 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan and has since rapidly spread throughout China. We aimed to clarify the characteristics and clinical significance of peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration in COVID-19. METHODS: The levels of peripheral lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry in 60 hospitalized COVID-19 patients before and after treatment, and their association with clinical characteristics and treatment efficacy was analyzed. RESULTS: Total lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells decreased in COVID-19 patients, and severe cases had a lower level than mild cases. The subsets showed a significant association with inflammatory status in COVID-19, especially CD8+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ ratio. After treatment, 37 patients (67%) showed clinical response, with an increase in CD8+ T cells and B cells. No significant change in any subset was detected in nonresponsive cases. In multivariate analysis, posttreatment decrease in CD8+ T cells and B cells and increase in CD4+/CD8+ ratio were indicated as independent predictors of poor efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration was associated with clinical characteristics and treatment efficacy of COVID-19. CD8+ T cells tended to be an independent predictor for COVID-19 severity and treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Lymphocyte Subsets , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
2.
Cancer Discov ; 10(6): 783-791, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-631598

ABSTRACT

The novel COVID-19 outbreak has affected more than 200 countries and territories as of March 2020. Given that patients with cancer are generally more vulnerable to infections, systematic analysis of diverse cohorts of patients with cancer affected by COVID-19 is needed. We performed a multicenter study including 105 patients with cancer and 536 age-matched noncancer patients confirmed with COVID-19. Our results showed COVID-19 patients with cancer had higher risks in all severe outcomes. Patients with hematologic cancer, lung cancer, or with metastatic cancer (stage IV) had the highest frequency of severe events. Patients with nonmetastatic cancer experienced similar frequencies of severe conditions to those observed in patients without cancer. Patients who received surgery had higher risks of having severe events, whereas patients who underwent only radiotherapy did not demonstrate significant differences in severe events when compared with patients without cancer. These findings indicate that patients with cancer appear more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. SIGNIFICANCE: Because this is the first large cohort study on this topic, our report will provide much-needed information that will benefit patients with cancer globally. As such, we believe it is extremely important that our study be disseminated widely to alert clinicians and patients.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 747.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Neoplasms , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 82, 2020 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to the outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan. The virus is highly infectious. Patients with cancer might be susceptible to the viral infection because of the immunosuppressive state cause by therapies on tumors. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the clinical features of four cancer patients who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 in late January of 2020 in our hospital. Cases 1 and 3 were diagnosed as mild and common type of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and survived from the viral infection. They acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection during their staying in hospital under radiotherapy and surgery of the tumors. Cases 2 and 4 suffered from severe type of COVID-19, and Case 2 was dead owning to the advanced age, uncontrolled chronic B cell lymphocytic leukemia and many other underlying diseases. The immunosuppressive state induced by liver transplantation and anti-rejection therapy might contribute to the severity of COVID-19 in Case 4, who suffered from hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma. However, Case 4 was recovered from COVID-19 after a combination therapy against virus, bacteria and fungi, and also respiratory support. Nearly all patients showed a decrease in lymphocytes including total CD3+ T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells after infection of the virus. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COVID-19 might be influenced by immune system state and underlying diseases in cancer patients. And the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients is challenged by the immunosuppressive state of these patients under chemotherapy or surgery.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Radiography, Thoracic
4.
Int J Surg ; 79: 120-124, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-412451

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused great public concern worldwide due to its high rates of infectivity and pathogenicity. The Chinese government responded in a timely manner, alleviated the dilemma, achieved a huge victory and lockdown has now been lifted in Wuhan. However, the outbreak has occurred in more than 200 other countries. Globally, as of 9:56 am CEST on 19 May 2020, there have been 4,696,849 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 315,131 deaths, reported to Word Health Organization (WHO). The spread of COVID-19 overwhelmed the healthcare systems of many countries and even crashed the fragile healthcare systems of some. Although the situation in each country is different, health workers play a critical role in the fight against COVID-19. In this review, we highlight the status of health worker infections in China and other countries, especially the causes of infection in China and the standardised protocol to protect health workers from the perspective of an anaesthesiologist, in the hope of providing references to reduce medical infections and contain the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Asymptomatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1175-1179, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-361278

ABSTRACT

Different primers/probes sets have been developed all over the world for the nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2 by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) as a standard method. In our recent study, we explored the feasibility of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for clinical SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection compared with qRT-PCR using the same primer/probe sets issued by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) targeting viral ORF1ab or N gene, which showed that ddPCR could largely minimize the false negatives reports resulted by qRT-PCR [Suo T, Liu X, Feng J, et al. ddPCR: a more sensitive and accurate tool for SARS-CoV-2 detection in low viral load specimens. medRxiv [Internet]. 2020;2020.02.29.20029439. Available from: https://medrxiv.org/content/early/2020/03/06/2020.02.29.20029439.abstract]. Here, we further stringently compared the performance of qRT-PCR and ddPCR for 8 primer/probe sets with the same clinical samples and conditions. Results showed that none of 8 primer/probe sets used in qRT-PCR could significantly distinguish true negatives and positives with low viral load (10-4 dilution). Moreover, false positive reports of qRT-PCR with UCDC-N1, N2 and CCDC-N primers/probes sets were observed. In contrast, ddPCR showed significantly better performance in general for low viral load samples compared to qRT-PCR. Remarkably, the background readouts of ddPCR are relatively lower, which could efficiently reduce the production of false positive reports.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA Primers , DNA Probes , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1259-1268, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342833

ABSTRACT

Quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) is widely used as the gold standard for clinical detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, due to the low viral load specimens and the limitations of RT-PCR, significant numbers of false negative reports are inevitable, which results in failure to timely diagnose, cut off transmission, and assess discharge criteria. To improve this situation, an optimized droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used for detection of SARS-CoV-2, which showed that the limit of detection of ddPCR is significantly lower than that of RT-PCR. We further explored the feasibility of ddPCR to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA from 77 patients, and compared with RT-PCR in terms of the diagnostic accuracy based on the results of follow-up survey. 26 patients of COVID-19 with negative RT-PCR reports were reported as positive by ddPCR. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and accuracy were improved from 40% (95% CI: 27-55%), 100% (95% CI: 54-100%), 100%, 16% (95% CI: 13-19%), 0.6 (95% CI: 0.48-0.75) and 47% (95% CI: 33-60%) for RT-PCR to 94% (95% CI: 83-99%), 100% (95% CI: 48-100%), 100%, 63% (95% CI: 36-83%), 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02-0.18), and 95% (95% CI: 84-99%) for ddPCR, respectively. Moreover, 6/14 (42.9%) convalescents were detected as positive by ddPCR at 5-12 days post discharge. Overall, ddPCR shows superiority for clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to reduce the false negative reports, which could be a powerful complement to the RT-PCR.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Load/methods
8.
Infect. Preven. Prac. ; 3(2)20200901.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-276710

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in China, attracted a large number of medical staff to help in the city's hospitals and this put them at a high risk of infection. We describe twenty medical staff who were diagnosed with COVID-19 within one week in the department of surgery in a Wuhan hospital. Epidemiological investigation of these cases identified misdiagnosed patients (source of infection), an inappropriate clinical meeting and working without wearing face masks to be the causes of the outbreaks. This report emphasizes the importance of wearing a facemask and applying other standard infection control precautions to protect medical personnel from infection with the virus.

9.
Am J Transplant ; 20(7): 1916-1921, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-210165

ABSTRACT

Over 1 000 000 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been confirmed since the worldwide outbreak began. Not enough data on infected solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are available, especially data about the management of immunosuppressants. We report two cases of COVID-19 in two transplant recipients, with different treatments and prognoses. The first patient received liver transplantation due to hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma and was confirmed to have COVID-19 9 days later. Following a treatment regimen consisting of discontinued immunosuppressant use and low-dose methylprednisolone-based therapy, the patient developed acute rejection but eventually recovered. The other patient had undergone a renal transplant from a living-related donor 17 years ago, and was admitted to the hospital because of persistent fever. This patient was also diagnosed with COVID-19. His treatment regimen consisted of reduced immunosuppressant use. No signs of rejection were observed during the regimen. In the end, the patient successfully recovered from COVID-19. These effectively treated cases can provide a basis for immunosuppressant management of COVID-19-positive SOT recipients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Organ Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Transplant Recipients , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/surgery , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Transplantation , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(5)2020 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-198371

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and has affected more than 1 270 000 people worldwide. The numbers of reported cases continue to rise and threaten global health. Transmissions among family members are frequently observed, although the route of transmission is partially known. Here we report three cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection within one family. Sequencing of the S gene of the viral genome showed 100% identity among samples, suggesting that the same strain caused the infection. Following treatment with oseltamivir and short-term methylprednisolone combined with symptomatic management, all three patients recovered within 3 weeks, as evidenced by the disappearance of their symptoms, clearance of pulmonary infiltrates and consecutive negative molecular diagnostic test findings. Our observations suggest the importance of preventing family transmission and the efficacy of current integrated treatment for mild/moderate pneumonia in COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Family Health , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
11.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; : 1-4, 2020 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186673
13.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; : 1-4, 2020 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133651

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To assess the role of essential organ-based comorbidities in the prognosis of COVID-19 patients.Methods: All consecutive patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from 11 January to 16 March 2020 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study.Results: A total of 212 COVID-19 patients were included. COVID-19 patients with heart, liver and kidneycomorbidity, compared to patients without related comorbidities, were more likely to have cardiac injuries [9.1%(3/33) vs 2.2%(4/179), P = 0.043], liver injuries [13.0%(3/23) vs 3.2%(6/189), P = 0.027], kidney injury [54.5%(6/11) vs 2.0%(4/201), P < 0.001], and higher risk of mortality [Heart-comorbidity: 6.1%(2/33) vs 0.6%(1/179), P = 0.014; Liver-comorbidity: 8.7%(2/23) vs 0.5%(1/189), P = 0.002; Kidney-comorbidity: 27.3%(3/11) vs 1.0%(2/201), P < 0.001. Mortality was higher in patients with more severe Grade of organ injuries [Heart-injury: P = 0.044; Liver-injury: P = 0.020; Kidney-injury: P = 0.030].Conclusion: Male, older, co-existing of heart, liver, and kidney comorbidities, especially those with severe Grade organ injuries, had a poor prognosis after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(8): 1930-1933, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116498

ABSTRACT

We found that all 5 asymptomatic household contacts of a Wuhan, China, physician with coronavirus disease had severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 detected by PCR. The index patient and 2 contacts also had abnormal chest computed tomography scans. Asymptomatic infected household contacts of healthcare workers with coronavirus disease might be underrecognized.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Child , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Family Characteristics , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Mod Pathol ; 33(6): 1007-1014, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-67631

ABSTRACT

Data on pathologic changes of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are scarce. To gain knowledge about the pathology that may contribute to disease progression and fatality, we performed postmortem needle core biopsies of lung, liver, and heart in four patients who died of COVID-19 pneumonia. The patients' ages ranged from 59 to 81, including three males and one female. Each patient had at least one underlying disease, including immunocompromised status (chronic lymphocytic leukemia and renal transplantation) or other conditions (cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes). Time from disease onset to death ranged from 15 to 52 days. All patients had elevated white blood cell counts, with significant rise toward the end, and all had lymphocytopenia except for the patient with leukemia. Histologically, the main findings are in the lungs, including injury to the alveolar epithelial cells, hyaline membrane formation, and hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes, all components of diffuse alveolar damage. Consolidation by fibroblastic proliferation with extracellular matrix and fibrin forming clusters in airspaces is evident. In one patient, the consolidation consists of abundant intra-alveolar neutrophilic infiltration, consistent with superimposed bacterial bronchopneumonia. The liver exhibits mild lobular infiltration by small lymphocytes, and centrilobular sinusoidal dilation. Patchy necrosis is also seen. The heart shows only focal mild fibrosis and mild myocardial hypertrophy, changes likely related to the underlying conditions. In conclusion, the postmortem examinations show advanced diffuse alveolar damage, as well as superimposed bacterial pneumonia in some patients. Changes in the liver and heart are likely secondary or related to the underlying diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Fibrosis , Humans , Hypertrophy , Immunohistochemistry , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/pathology , Leukocyte Count , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lymphopenia/pathology , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Radiography , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 2020 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan city and spread rapidly throughout China and the world. In this study, we aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of older patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective investigation of hospitalized older patients with confirmed COVID-19 at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from January 1, 2020, to February 10, 2020. RESULTS: In total, 203 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, with a median age of 54 years (interquartile range, 41-68; range, 20-91 years). Men accounted for 108 (53.2%) of the cases, and 55 patients (27.1%) were >65 years of age. Among patients who were 65 years and older, the mortality rate was 34.5% (19/55), which was significantly higher than that of younger patients at 4.7% (7/148). Common symptoms of older patients with COVID-19 included fever (94.5%; n=52), dry cough (69.1%; n=38), and chest distress (63.6%; n=35). Compared with young patients, older patients had more laboratory abnormalities and comorbidities. Through a multivariate analysis of the causes of death in older patients, we found that males, comorbidities, time from disease onset to hospitalization, abnormal kidney function, and elevated procalcitonin levels were all significantly associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: In the recent outbreak of COVID-19, our local hospital in Wuhan found that patients aged 65 and older had greater initial comorbidities, more severe symptoms, and were more likely to experience multi-organ involvement and death, as compared with younger patients.

20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 761-770, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-29222

ABSTRACT

Circulating in China and 158 other countries and areas, the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has caused devastating mortality and posed a great threat to public health. However, efforts to identify effectively supportive therapeutic drugs and treatments has been hampered by our limited understanding of host immune response for this fatal disease. To characterize the transcriptional signatures of host inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 (HCoV-19) infection, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of the RNAs isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) specimens of COVID-19 patients. Our results reveal distinct host inflammatory cytokine profiles to SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients, and highlight the association between COVID-19 pathogenesis and excessive cytokine release such as CCL2/MCP-1, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL3/MIP-1A, and CCL4/MIP1B. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 induced activation of apoptosis and P53 signalling pathway in lymphocytes may be the cause of patients' lymphopenia. The transcriptome dataset of COVID-19 patients would be a valuable resource for clinical guidance on anti-inflammatory medication and understanding the molecular mechansims of host response.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Chemokines/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Cytokines/analysis , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Transcriptome , Apoptosis , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Lymphopenia , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA-Seq , Signal Transduction , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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