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Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(12): 1789-1794, 2022 Dec 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201079


Objective: To investigate a SARS-CoV-2 epidemic reported in Rongcheng City, Weihai, Shandong Province. Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive patients and their close contacts were investigated, and the whole genome sequencing and genetic evolution analysis of 9 variant viruses were carried out. An infection source investigation and analysis were carried out from two sources of home and abroad, and three aspects of human, material and environment. Results: A total of 15 asymptomatic infections were reported in this epidemic, including 13 cases as employees of workshop of aquatic products processing company, with an infection rate of 21.67% (13/60). Two cases were infected people's neighbors in the same village (conjugal relation). The first six positive persons were processing workers engaged in the first process of removing squid viscera in the workshop of the company. The nucleic acid Ct value of the first time were concentrated between 15 and 29, suggesting that the virus load was high, which was suspected to be caused by one-time homologous exposure. The whole genome sequence of 9 SARS-CoV-2 strains was highly homologous, belonging to VOC/Gamma (Lineage P.1.15). No highly homologous sequences were found from previous native and imported cases in China. It was highly homologous with the six virus sequences sampled from May 5 to 26, 2021 uploaded by Chile. The infection source investigation showed that the company had used the squid raw materials captured in the ocean near Chile and Argentina from May to June 2021 over the last 14 days. Many samples of raw materials, products and their outer packages in the inventory were tested positive for nucleic acid. Conclusion: This epidemic is the first local epidemic caused by the VOC/Gamma of SARS-CoV-2 in China. It is speculated that the VOC/Gamma, which was prevalent in South America from May to June 2021, could be imported into China through frozen squid.

COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 305, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808339


BACKGROUND: Measles caused by measles virus (MeV) is a highly contagious viral disease which has also been associated with complications including pneumonia, myocarditis, encephalitis, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The current study isolated 33 strains belonging to 2 groups, outbreak and sporadic strains, in 13 cities of Shandong province, China from 2013 to 2019. Comparison of genetic characterization among 15 outbreak strains and 18 sporadic strains was performed by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the C-terminal region of N protein gene (N-450). RESULTS: All 33 stains belonged to genotype H1. The outbreak strains and sporadic strains distributed crossly in phylogenetic tree. Sequences alignment revealed some interesting G to A transversion which changed the amino acids on genomic sites 1317, 1422, and 1543. The nucleotide and amino acid similarities among outbreak isolates were 98-100% (0-10 nucleotide variations) and 97.7-100%, respectively; They were 97.3-100% and 96.6-100%, respectively for sporadic isolates. Evolutionary genetics analysis revealed that the mean evolution rates of outbreak and sporadic isolates were 1.26 N 10- 3 and 1.48 N 10- 3 substitutions per site per year separately, which were similar with corresponding data before 2012. Local transmission analysis suggested that there were three transmission chains in this study, two of them originated from Japan. Outbreak cases and sporadic cases emerged alternatively and were reciprocal causation on the transmission chains. CONCLUSIONS: Our study investigated the phylogeny and evolutional genetics of MeV during a 7-year surveillance, and compared epidemic and genetic characteristics of outbreak strains and sporadic strains. These results underscore the importance of evolutionary study alongside with sporadic cases in discovering and tracing possible outbreaks, especially in the stage of measles elimination.

Measles , Amino Acids/genetics , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Genotype , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles virus/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology , Nucleotides , Phylogeny