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1.
Metals ; 12(4):533, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810022

ABSTRACT

The spent automobile catalysts (SAC) is the major secondary source of palladium and the production of SAC is increasing rapidly over years. The price of palladium keeps rising over the years, which demonstrates its preciousness and urgent industrial demand. Recovering palladium from the spent automobile catalysts benefits a lot from economic and environmental protection aspects. This review aims to provide some new considerations of recovering palladium from the spent automotive catalysts by summarizing and discussing both hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical methods. The processes of pretreatment, leaching/extraction, and separation/recovery of palladium from the spent catalysts are introduced, and related reaction mechanisms and process flows are given, especially detailed for hydrometallurgical methods. Hydrometallurgical methods such as chloride leaching with oxidants possess a high selectivity of palladium and low consumption of energy, and are cost-effective and flexible for different volume feeds compared with pyrometallurgical methods. The recovery ratios of palladium and other platinum-group metals should be the focus of competition since their prices have been rapidly increased over the years, and hence more efficient extractants with high selectivity of palladium even in the complexed leachate should be proposed in the future.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324287

ABSTRACT

Background: Public health emergencies are serious social problems, threatening people's lives, causing considerable economic losses, and related to all mankind life and health and safety. Nurses are essential in the fight against the public health emergency, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nursing graduates are considered as backup health care providers for licensed nurses, the coping abilities and crisis management of nursing students at present deserve attention all around the world. Methods: : 2035 graduating nursing graduates were invited to participate in mobile phone app-based survey from Feb 6 to 20, 2020. The demographic items, psychological and behavioral responses, and the coping abilities were conducted. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the independent factors to nursing graduates’ coping abilities under COVID-19. Results: : 1992 submitted were valid. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Confidence to overcome difficulties, Optimism, Active coping, Help seeking and Practice hospital as designated treatment unit were independently associated with the positive coping of graduates. Fear of COVID-19, Optimism, Avoidance, Help seeking and Severity of epidemic around were independently associated with the negative coping of graduates.

4.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 1886-1892, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680475

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) arose, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This disease rapidly became a public health event of international concern. In addition to the most typical symptoms of dyspnea, numerous patients with COVID-19 exhibited systemic symptoms, such as cardiovascular disease, liver and kidney failure, and disorders in coagulation. At present, clinical data indicates that numerous patients who are critically ill die from multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS). Moreover, the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells causing severe pathology and progressive organ failure is precisely mediated by the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protein. This plays a role in maintaining both fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, ensuring the stability of the internal environment. Therefore, the present review aimed to investigate the pathogenesis of MODS caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the current clinical data and previous studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e219, 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537265

ABSTRACT

As the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues around the world, understanding the transmission characteristics of COVID-19 is vital for prevention and control. We conducted the first study aiming to estimate and compare the relative risk of secondary attack rates (SARs) of COVID-19 in different contact environments. Until 26 July 2021, epidemiological studies and cluster epidemic reports of COVID-19 were retrieved from SCI, Embase, PubMed, CNKI, Wanfang and CBM in English and Chinese, respectively. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated in pairwise comparisons of SARs between different contact environments using the frequentist NMA framework, and the ranking of risks in these environments was calculated using the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). Subgroup analysis was performed by regions. Thirty-two studies with 68 260 participants were identified. Compared with meal or gathering, transportation (RR 10.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-77.85), medical care (RR 11.68, 95% CI 1.58-86.61) and work or study places (RR 10.15, 95% CI 1.40-73.38) had lower risk ratios for SARs. Overall, the SUCRA rankings from the highest to the lowest were household (95.3%), meal or gathering (81.4%), public places (58.9%), daily conversation (50.1%), transportation (30.8%), medical care (18.2%) and work or study places (15.3%). Household SARs were significantly higher than other environments in the subgroup of mainland China and sensitive analysis without small sample studies (<100). In light of the risks, stratified personal protection and public health measures need to be in place accordingly, so as close contacts categorising and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Humans , Incidence , Network Meta-Analysis , Pandemics
6.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131615, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systematic evaluations of the cumulative effects and mortality displacement of ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution on deaths are lacking. We aimed to discern the cumulative effect profile of PM exposure, and investigate the presence of mortality displacement in a large-scale population. METHODS: We conducted a time-series analysis with different exposure-lag models on 13 cities in Jiangsu, China, to estimate the effects of PM pollution on non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality (2015-2019). Over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive models were integrated with distributed lag models to estimate cumulative exposure effects, and assess mortality displacement. RESULTS: Pooled cumulative effect estimates with lags of 0-7 and 0-14 days were substantially larger than those with single-day and 2-day moving average lags. For each 10 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5 concentration with a cumulative lag of 0-7 days, we estimated an increase of 0.50 % (95 % CI: 0.29, 0.72), 0.63 % (95 % CI: 0.38, 0.88), and 0.50 % (95 % CI: 0.01, 1.01) in pooled estimates of non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. Both PM10 and PM2.5 were associated with significant increases in non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality with a cumulative lag of 0-14 days. We observed mortality displacement within 30 days for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that risk assessment based on single-day or 2-day moving average lag structures may underestimate the adverse effects of PM pollution. The cumulative effects of PM exposure on non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality can last up to 14 days. Evidence of mortality displacement for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths was found.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Cardiovascular Diseases , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mortality , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity
7.
BMC Nurs ; 20(1): 167, 2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health emergencies are serious social problems, threatening people's lives, causing considerable economic losses, and related to all mankind life and health and safety. Nurses are essential in the fight against the public health emergency, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). clinic nursing students are considered as backup health care providers for licensed nurses, the coping abilities and crisis management of nursing students at present deserve attention all around the world. METHODS: 2035 clinic nursing students were invited to participate in mobile phone app-based survey from Feb 6 to 20, 2020. The demographic items, psychological and behavioral responses, and the coping abilities were conducted. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the independent factors to clinic nursing students' coping abilities under COVID-19. RESULTS: 1992 submitted were valid. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Confidence to overcome difficulties, Optimism, Active coping, Help seeking and Practice hospital as designated treatment unit were independently associated with the positive coping of clinic nursing students. Fear of COVID-19, Optimism, Avoidance, Help seeking and Severity of epidemic around were independently associated with the negative coping of clinic nursing students. CONCLUSION: Under COVID-19, nursing students' coping level is superior to the Chinese norm, which is also affected by many factors. As the most direct backup resources of professional nurses, the way clinic nursing students respond to public health emergencies and its influencing factors deserve attention.

8.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 180: 109041, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401412

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We aimed to investigate the role of Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and glucose fluctuation in the prognosis of COVID-19 patients stratified by pre-existing diabetes. METHODS: The associations of FPG and glucose fluctuation indexes with prognosis of COVID-19 in 2,642 patients were investigated by multivariate Cox regression analysis. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; the secondary outcome was disease progression. The longitudinal changes of FPG over time were analyzed by the latent growth curve model in COVID-19 patients stratified by diabetes and severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: We found FPG as an independent prognostic factor of overall survival after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes and severity of COVID-19 at admission (HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.25, P = 1.02 × 10-3). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG) and largest amplitude of glycemic excursions (LAGE) were also independent risk factors of COVID-19 progression (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). The growth trajectory of FPG over the first 3 days of hospitalization was steeper in patients with critical COVID-19 in comparison to moderate patients. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia and glucose fluctuation were adverse prognostic factors of COVID-19 regardless of pre-existing diabetes. This stresses the importance of glycemic control in addition to other therapeutic management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Fasting , Glucose , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Structural Health Monitoring ; : 14759217211011582, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1223732

ABSTRACT

Long-span suspension bridges are susceptible to wind loads due to their lightweight, low stiffness, and small structural damping. Recently, two large-span suspension bridges in China that closed for several months due to COVID-2019 experienced large-scale and continuous vortex-induced vibration shortly after reopening to traffic, and the traffic was closed again for safety consideration, which has aroused widespread concerns in society. To provide a reference for owners and related decision-making departments whether to restore the traffic, this article intends to explore the impact mechanism of traffic loads on the dynamic behavior of suspension bridges. First, two mechanical models for suspension bridges considering traffic loads and structural damping are proposed in this article. Then, based on the extended dynamic stiffness method, the explicit expressions of modal damping ratio in the two models are derived for the first time. Subsequently, Wittrick?Williams algorithm is employed to solve the frequency equation to obtain the modal frequency of the structure that considers the effect of traffic loads. A numerical case is studied to inspect the influence of traffic loads on the structural dynamic characteristics. Moreover, field monitoring data of accelerations of a suspension bridge are utilized to demonstrate the reasonability and accuracy of the approach proposed. Analysis shows that the theoretical results are consistent well with the measured ones, which indicates the traffic loads will affect the dynamic characteristics of the suspension bridge, thus reducing the modal frequency and increasing the modal damping ratio. Besides, the measured results further explain that the contribution of traffic loads to the structural damping is significant, which has a positive effect on preventing and eliminating vortex-induced vibration response. Some interesting and enlightening conclusions are also obtained in this article.

11.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 760-765, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196398

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 emerged in China in December 2019 and then rapidly spread worldwide. Why COVID-19 patients with the same clinical condition have different outcomes remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the differences in the phenotype and functions of major populations of immune cells between COVID-19 patients with same severity but different outcomes. Four common type adult inpatients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 from Beijing YouAn Hospital, Capital Medical University were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups based on whether or not COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-negative conversion occurred within 3 weeks. Peripheral blood samples were collected to compare the differences in the phenotype and functions of major populations of immune cells between the two groups of patients. The result shows that the proportions of CD3+ CD8+ CD38+ HLA-DR+ CD27- effector T killer cells generally declined, whereas that of CD3+ CD4+ CD8+ double-positive T cells (DPTs) increased in the persistently PCR-positive patients. In summary, considering the imbalance between effector T killer cells/CD3+CD4+CD8+ DPTs was a possible key factor for PCR-negative conversion in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Variation, Individual , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Gene Expression , HLA-DR Antigens/genetics , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Killer T-Cells/virology , Phenotype , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2052-2060, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization characterizes novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as a pandemic. Here, we investigated the clinical, cytokine levels; T-cell proportion; and related gene expression occurring in patients with COVID-19 on admission and after initial treatment. METHODS: Eleven patients diagnosed with COVID-19 with similar initial treatment regimens were enrolled in the hospital. Plasma cytokine, peripheral T cell proportions, and microfluidic quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses for gene expression were conducted. RESULTS: Five patients with mild and 6 with severe disease were included. Cough and fever were the primary symptoms in the 11 COVID-19 cases. Older age, higher neutrophil count, and higher C-reactive protein levels were found in severe cases. IL-10 level significantly varied with disease progression and treatment. Decreased T-cell proportions were observed in patients with COVID-19, especially in severe cases, and all were returned to normal in patients with mild disease after initial treatment, but only CD4+ T cells returned to normal in severe cases. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) increased with the disease progression, and decreased after initial treatment. All downregulated DEGs in severe cases mainly involved Th17-cell differentiation, cytokine-mediated signaling pathways, and T-cell activation. After initial treatment in severe cases, MAP2K7 and SOS1 were upregulated relative to that on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that a decreased T-cell proportion with downregulated gene expression related to T-cell activation and differentiation occurred in patients with severe COVID-19, which may help to provide effective treatment strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Computational Biology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/metabolism , MAP Kinase Kinase 7/metabolism , Male , Microfluidics , Middle Aged , SOS1 Protein/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Th17 Cells/metabolism
13.
Cancer Sci ; 112(6): 2522-2532, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138103

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus has spread rapidly around the world. Cancer patients seem to be more susceptible to infection and disease deterioration, but the factors affecting the deterioration remain unclear. We aimed to develop an individualized model for prediction of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) deterioration in cancer patients. The clinical data of 276 cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in 33 designated hospitals of Hubei, China from December 21, 2019 to March 18, 2020, were collected and randomly divided into a training and a validation cohort by a ratio of 2:1. Cox stepwise regression analysis was carried out to select prognostic factors. The prediction model was developed in the training cohort. The predictive accuracy of the model was quantified by C-index and time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (t-AUC). Internal validation was assessed by the validation cohort. Risk stratification based on the model was carried out. Decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the model. We found age, cancer type, computed tomography baseline image features (ground glass opacity and consolidation), laboratory findings (lymphocyte count, serum levels of C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, urea, and d-dimer) were significantly associated with symptomatic deterioration. The C-index of the model was 0.755 in the training cohort and 0.779 in the validation cohort. The t-AUC values were above 0.7 within 8 weeks both in the training and validation cohorts. Patients were divided into two risk groups based on the nomogram: low-risk (total points ≤ 9.98) and high-risk (total points > 9.98) group. The Kaplan-Meier deterioration-free survival of COVID-19 curves presented significant discrimination between the two risk groups in both training and validation cohorts. The model indicated good clinical applicability by DCA curves. This study presents an individualized nomogram model to individually predict the possibility of symptomatic deterioration of COVID-19 in patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/virology , Nomograms , Aged , Area Under Curve , China , Decision Support Techniques , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/mortality , Precision Medicine , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
14.
J Tissue Eng ; 12: 2041731420985299, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133534

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has aggravated a preexisting epidemic: the opioid crisis. Much literature has shown that the circumstances imposed by COVID-19, such as social distancing regulations, medical and financial instability, and increased mental health issues, have been detrimental to those with opioid use disorder (OUD). In addition, unexpected neurological sequelae in COVID-19 patients suggest that COVID-19 compromises neuroimmunity, induces hypoxia, and causes respiratory depression, provoking similar effects as those caused by opioid exposure. Combined conditions of COVID-19 and OUD could lead to exacerbated complications. With limited human in vivo options to study these complications, we suggest that iPSC-derived brain organoid models may serve as a useful platform to investigate the physiological connection between COVID-19 and OUD. This mini-review highlights the advances of brain organoids in other neuropsychiatric and infectious diseases and suggests their potential utility for investigating OUD and COVID-19, respectively.

15.
Journal of Economics and Business ; : 105991, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1051751

ABSTRACT

In a survey of 1,182 company executives in China, state-owned enterprises (SOEs) reported less business reductions under COVID-19. This paper examines if SOEs’ superior performance was resulted from government support rather than innate ability of coping with the pandemic. We construct a proxy for firm-level government support using firm's human resources (HR) action taken during the outbreak with firm's 2019 China revenue share as an instrument for the HR action variable. After controlling for the proxy for firm-level government support as well as other observed firm characteristics, we find SOEs in the sample performing significantly worse in the pandemic period.

16.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(24): 1631, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045261

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already become a pandemic wherein the infection's timely diagnosis has proven beneficial to patient treatment and disease control. Nucleic acid detection has been the primary laboratory diagnostic method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. To ensure laboratory staff safety and quality nucleic acid testing, the Chinese Society of Laboratory Medicine formulated this consensus, based on the Chinese National Recommendations and previous literature for nucleic acid detection. A working group comprises 34 hospital professionals experience with real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 drafted guidance statements during online discussions. A modified Delphi methodology was used in forming a consensus among a wider group of hospital professionals with SARS-CoV-2 detection experience. Guidance statements were developed for four categories: (I) specimen type, priority, collecting, transportation and receiving; (II) nucleic acid isolation and amplification; (III) quality control; (IV) biosafety management and decontamination. The modified Delphi voting process included a total of 29 guidance statements and final agreement. Consensus was reached after two rounds of voting. Recommendations were established for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 using real time PCR testing based on evidence and group consensus. The manuscript was evaluated against The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation Instrument (AGREE II) and was developed to aid medical laboratory staff in the detection of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) of SARS-CoV-2.

17.
Cancer ; 127(3): 437-448, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding the association between recent oncologic treatment and mortality in patients with cancer who are infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The objective of the current study was to determine whether recent oncologic treatment is associated with a higher risk of death among patients with carcinoma who are hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: Data regarding 248 consecutive patients with carcinoma who were hospitalized with COVID-19 were collected retrospectively from 33 hospitals in Hubei Province, China, from January 1, 2020, to March 25, 2020. The follow-up cutoff date was July 22, 2020. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify variables associated with a higher risk of death. RESULTS: Of the 248 patients enrolled, the median age was 63 years and 128 patients (52%) were male. On admission, 147 patients (59%) did not undergo recent oncologic treatment, whereas 32 patients (13%), 25 patients (10%), 12 patients (5%), and 10 patients (4%), respectively, underwent chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapy, and radiotherapy. At the time of last follow-up, 51 patients (21%) were critically ill during hospitalization, 40 of whom had died. Compared with patients without receipt of recent oncologic treatment, the mortality rate of patients who recently received oncologic treatment was significantly higher (24.8% vs 10.2%; hazard ratio, 2.010 [95% CI, 1.079-3.747; P = .027]). After controlling for confounders, recent receipt of chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR], 7.495; 95% CI, 1.398-34.187 [P = .015]), surgery (OR, 8.239; 95% CI, 1.637-41.955 [P = .012]), and radiotherapy (OR, 15.213; 95% CI, 2.091-110.691 [P = .007]) were identified as independently associated with a higher risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study demonstrated a possible association between recent receipt of oncologic treatment and a higher risk of death among patients with carcinoma who are hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Carcinoma/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma/mortality , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
18.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4441

ABSTRACT

A review on suggestions on the prevention and control of new coronavirus pneumonia in different populations

19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 607849, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993381

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which has been identified to be caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China and spread across the world. Higher plasma levels of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-2, IL-7, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were found in patients with COVID-19, which implies the occurrence of a cytokine storm and its association with disease severity. Extracorporeal blood purification has been proven to effectively remove the released inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we report on a patient with COVID-19 who benefited from hemoadsorption.

20.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2768-2776, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935147

ABSTRACT

Critical cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are associated with a high risk of mortality. It remains unclear why patients with the same critical condition have different outcomes. We aimed to explore relevant factors that may affect the prognosis of critical COVID-19 patients. Six critical COVID-19 inpatients were included in our study. The six patients were divided into two groups based on whether they had a good or poor prognosis. We collected peripheral blood samples at admission and the time point of exacerbation to compare differences in the phenotypes and functions of major populations of immune cells between the groups. On admission, compared to patients with poor prognoses, those with good prognoses had significantly higher counts of monocytes (P < .05), macrophages (P < .05), higher frequency of CD3+ CD4+ CD45RO+ CXCR3+ subsets (P < .05), higher frequency of CD14+ CD11C+ HLA-DR+ subset of dendritic cells (P < .05), and a lower count of neutrophils (P < .05). At the time point of exacerbation, the proportions of naïve CD4+ T cells (P < .05), Tregs, and Th2 cells in the poor prognosis group were relatively higher than those in the good prognosis group, and CD4+ memory T cells were relatively lower (P < .05). According to our results, the poor prognosis group showed a worse immune response than the good prognosis group at the time of admission and at exacerbation. Dysregulation of the immune response affects the outcome of critical COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , China , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Phenotype , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
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