Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 23
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334259

ABSTRACT

We found four striking differences in the COVID-19 case fatality rate (CFR) or the ratio of symptomatic COVID-19 cases versus asymptomatic infections. These striking differences all suggest that the risk for China to move away from its zero-COVID policy shall depend on China’s control measures. The CFR of COVID-19 in China can remain less than one tenth of influenza, namely that COVID-19 can be “tiny influenza”in China, if COVID-19 cases shall be well isolated in well disinfected environments (e.g., staying at well-disinfected home) with good maintenance treatment, to minimize their co-infections and maintain their body functions. Otherwise, the CFR of COVID-19 in China can be several times higher than influenza, namely that COVID-19 can be “giant influenza”in China. This analysis is also important to mitigate COVID-19 worldwide.

2.
Cells ; 11(4)2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715130

ABSTRACT

Mitophagy, which is able to selectively clear excess or damaged mitochondria, plays a vital role in the quality control of mitochondria and the maintenance of normal mitochondrial functions in eukaryotic cells. Mitophagy is involved in many physiological and pathological processes, including apoptosis, innate immunity, inflammation, cell differentiation, signal transduction, and metabolism. Viral infections cause physical dysfunction and thus pose a significant threat to public health. An accumulating body of evidence reveals that some viruses hijack mitophagy to enable immune escape and self-replication. In this review, we systematically summarize the pathway of mitophagy initiation and discuss the functions and mechanisms of mitophagy in infection with classical swine fever virus and other specific viruses, with the aim of providing a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of related diseases.


Subject(s)
Mitophagy , Virus Diseases , Animals , Apoptosis , Immunity, Innate , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitophagy/physiology , Swine , Virus Diseases/metabolism
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322750

ABSTRACT

Background: Little is known about the relationship between health-related behavior and psychological status of pregnant women during the COVID-19 outbreak. We aimed to describe the health-related behavior changes and psychological status of Chinese pregnant women, and to explore the relationship between pregnant women’s characteristics, health-related behavior and different psychological status following the peak of COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: : We conducted an online survey through social media (WeChat) from March 14 to April 7. A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate Chinese pregnant women’s health-related behavior changes. Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Perceived Stress Scale were used to assess anxiety, depression and stress among pregnant women. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare health-related behavior changes before and during the COVID-19 outbreak and Spearman’s rank correlation analysis or logistic regression analysis were used to explore the relationships between variables. Results: : A total of 113 pregnant women were included in this study. Most pregnant women wore masks (98.2%), changed location or tried to stay away from those who seem to have a cold or fever (99.1%) and washed hands more often than before (96.5%). Pregnant women washed hands with soap or hand sanitizer more often and went out less often than before the outbreak. There were 41.6% pregnant women who didn’t have antenatal visits or weren’t on time for antenatal visits. Majority (77.9%) pregnant women sought help when feeling panic or anxiety, whereas few turned to psychological workers. The rates of pregnant women with anxiety, depression and health risk stress were 64.6%, 58.4% and 54.9%, respectively. Analysis of relationship between variables showed that household income, gestational age, pregnancy complications, knowledge about COVID-19 and maternal and child protection, perception of the likelihood of infection, the frequency of going out, prenatal check-up behavior, help-seeking behavior were significantly associated or correlated with psychological status. Conclusions: : Attention should be paid to the mental health of pregnant women with specific health-related behaviors changes. Screening for mental health problems and psychological interventions among pregnant women are needed.

4.
PLoS Med ; 19(2): e1003928, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital network-based methods may enhance peer distribution of HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits, but interventions that can optimize this approach are needed. We aimed to assess whether monetary incentives and peer referral could improve a secondary distribution program for HIVST among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between October 21, 2019 and September 14, 2020, a 3-arm randomized controlled, single-blinded trial was conducted online among 309 individuals (defined as index participants) who were assigned male at birth, aged 18 years or older, ever had male-to-male sex, willing to order HIVST kits online, and consented to take surveys online. We randomly assigned index participants into one of the 3 arms: (1) standard secondary distribution (control) group (n = 102); (2) secondary distribution with monetary incentives (SD-M) group (n = 103); and (3) secondary distribution with monetary incentives plus peer referral (SD-M-PR) group (n = 104). Index participants in 3 groups were encouraged to order HIVST kits online and distribute to members within their social networks. Members who received kits directly from index participants or through peer referral links from index MSM were defined as alters. Index participants in the 2 intervention groups could receive a fixed incentive ($3 USD) online for the verified test result uploaded to the digital platform by each unique alter. Index participants in the SD-M-PR group could additionally have a personalized peer referral link for alters to order kits online. Both index participants and alters needed to pay a refundable deposit ($15 USD) for ordering a kit. All index participants were assigned an online 3-month follow-up survey after ordering kits. The primary outcomes were the mean number of alters motivated by index participants in each arm and the mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants in each arm. These were assessed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression to determine the group differences in the mean number of alters and the mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants. Analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. We also conducted an economic evaluation using microcosting from a health provider perspective with a 3-month time horizon. The mean number of unique tested alters motivated by index participants was 0.57 ± 0.96 (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) in the control group, compared with 0.98 ± 1.38 in the SD-M group (mean difference [MD] = 0.41),and 1.78 ± 2.05 in the SD-M-PR group (MD = 1.21). The mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants was 0.16 ± 0.39 (mean ± SD) in the control group, compared with 0.41 ± 0.73 in the SD-M group (MD = 0.25) and 0.57 ± 0.91 in the SD-M-PR group (MD = 0.41), respectively. Results indicated that index participants in intervention arms were more likely to motivate unique tested alters (control versus SD-M: incidence rate ratio [IRR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.82 to 4.89, p-value < 0.001; control versus SD-M-PR: IRR = 3.26, 95% CI = 2.29 to 4.63, p-value < 0.001) and newly tested alters (control versus SD-M: IRR = 4.22, 95% CI = 1.93 to 9.23, p-value < 0.001; control versus SD-M-PR: IRR = 3.49, 95% CI = 1.92 to 6.37, p-value < 0.001) to conduct HIVST. The proportion of newly tested testers among alters was 28% in the control group, 42% in the SD-M group, and 32% in the SD-M-PR group. A total of 18 testers (3 index participants and 15 alters) tested as HIV positive, and the HIV reactive rates for alters were similar between the 3 groups. The total costs were $19,485.97 for 794 testers, including 450 index participants and 344 alter testers. Overall, the average cost per tester was $24.54, and the average cost per alter tester was $56.65. Monetary incentives alone (SD-M group) were more cost-effective than monetary incentives with peer referral (SD-M-PR group) on average in terms of alters tested and newly tested alters, despite SD-M-PR having larger effects. Compared to the control group, the cost for one more alter tester in the SD-M group was $14.90 and $16.61 in the SD-M-PR group. For newly tested alters, the cost of one more alter in the SD-M group was $24.65 and $49.07 in the SD-M-PR group. No study-related adverse events were reported during the study. Limitations include the digital network approach might neglect individuals who lack internet access. CONCLUSIONS: Monetary incentives alone and the combined intervention of monetary incentives and peer referral can promote the secondary distribution of HIVST among MSM. Monetary incentives can also expand HIV testing by encouraging first-time testing through secondary distribution by MSM. This social network-based digital approach can be expanded to other public health research, especially in the era of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) ChiCTR1900025433.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Testing/instrumentation , Homosexuality, Male , Reimbursement, Incentive , Self-Testing , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , China , Costs and Cost Analysis , HIV Testing/economics , HIV Testing/methods , Humans , Male
6.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1279-1281, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373126

ABSTRACT

Wuhan, China was the first city to discover COVID-19. With the government's macro-control and the active cooperation of the public, the spread of COVID-19 has been effectively controlled. In order to understand the additional impact of these measures on the prevalence of common influenza, we have collected flu test data from the Pediatric Clinic of Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from September to December 2020, and compared them with the same period in 2018 and 2019. It is found that compared with the same period in 2018 and 2019, the rate of children's influenza activity in 2020 has significantly decreased, which indicates that the protective measures against COVID-19 have effectively reduced the level of influenza activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 682693, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344320

ABSTRACT

In this paper, time-series and cross-country data spanning from January 2020 to December 2020 are adopted to empirically investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on exports and imports in China, Japan, and South Korea. In the models, industrial production, trade openness, government response (including monetary and fiscal intervention), and the pandemic impact of major trade partners are controlled. In addition, the three countries, China, Japan, and South Korea, are also estimated separately in consideration of the cross-country disparity. The results show that domestic epidemics in China, Japan, and South Korea have a non-significant (statistically significant) effect on imports, but are negatively correlated with exports in Japan; epidemics in major trading partners are negatively correlated with imports in Japan and positively correlated with exports in China and South Korea; and government intervention is positively correlated with imports in China and positively correlated with exports in China, Japan, and South Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 3123-3128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatic immune diseases were more likely to develop severe or critical COVID-19. We aimed to determine whether rheumatoid factor antibodies were present in COVID patients and the level and type of rheumatoid factor antibodies produced in COVID-19 patients were related to the degree of the patient's condition. The study also aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of rheumatoid factor antibodies in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Sera collected from 129 patients with COVID-19 were tested for rheumatoid factor antibodies by ELISA. Five patients were tracked for several months to monitor dynamic changes of these antibodies. RESULTS: Rheumatoid-associated autoantibodies were detected in 20.16% of patients (26/129) following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In addition, IgM-RF was primarily present in critically ill patients, while IgA-RF was mainly present in mild patients. Five patients were able to track for several months to monitor dynamic changes of these antibodies. Rheumatoid factor antibodies peaks in the later phase of the disease and last for longer time. Anti-Jo-1 antibody was found in one of the five patients. CONCLUSION: This was the case series report that rheumatoid-associated autoantibodies are present in patients with COVID-19. The clinical significance of these antibodies was not fully understood and needed further characterization. These autoantibodies are related to the severity of the patient's disease and exist for a long time in the patient's body, while their impact on the patient's health is unknown.

9.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277526

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The specific chest X-ray (CXR) abnormalities in pediatric COVID19 and their relation to clinical outcomes remain to be defined. Addressing this gap is important given the age-related differences in the clinical and imaging features of COVID-19 and the challenge of differentiating SARS-CoV-2 infections from other types of viral lower respiratory infections (LRTIs) in young children. Methods: We conducted a single-center crosssectional study that included a sample of children, adolescents, and young adults (0-25 years) who had a (+) PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 and a CXR. We also included a random sample of young children (0-2 years, n=68) diagnosed with PCR-confirmed viral LRTI during 2018-2019 to compare CXR features with those seen in pediatric COVID-19. Results: A total of 422 pediatric COVID19 cases were identified during the study period. We enrolled 104 individuals with (+) PCR for SARS-CoV-2 and available CXR and sub-divided them according to age groups including young children (0-2 years, n=27), school-age children (3-10 years, n= 27), adolescents (11-18 years, n=41) and young adults (19-25 years, n=9). Overall, 52 (50%) of pediatric patients with COVID-19 were hospitalized and 26 (25%) required admission to PICU. The most common imaging abnormality identified was the presence of ground-glass opacifications (GGO)/focal consolidations (36%). The presence of GGO/consolidation was affected by age being more common among young adults (44%). Individuals requiring hospitalization or ICU admission had significantly more GGO/opacities in CXR (p<0.05). Typical lung imaging features of viral respiratory infections in the pediatric population such as increased perihilar markings and hyperinflation were more common in non-COVID-19 viral LRTI cases than in SARS-CoV-2 infection in young children (p<0.05) Conclusions: Chest X-ray imaging is a useful non-invasive tool to evaluate lung compromise in pediatric COVID-19 cases. The severity of GGO/consolidations is predictive of clinically relevant outcomes (e.g. hospitalization). Hyperinflation/perihilar markings could potentially aid in distinguishing COVID-19 from other types of viral LRTI in young children.

10.
Chemical Engineering Journal ; : 130320, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1230393

ABSTRACT

Human exposure risks to airborne pollutants, bacteria and viruses in confined spaces have attracted tremendous attention. It is a challenge to degrade these harmful materials over a single device by electrical method other than conventional thermal method. We fabricated an air cleaning device based on a conductive Ag-Co3O4 coating with Ag nanoparticles on a glass fibre cloth (GFC). The device possessed good flexibility and high permeability of the GFC. Powered by low-voltages (< 20 V), the device exhibited a 3-fold formaldehyde conversion in its conventional thermal counterpart, and energy savings of > 90% were achieved. The electrically treated device completely killed Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus within a few minutes at a low surface temperature of < 50 °C. The excellent efficiency of the devices was attributed to the confinement of electric power to the coating. The device can serve as a flexible filter for air cleaners or conditioners to ensure that human health is maintained amid the pandemic.

11.
Journal of Third Military Medical University ; 42(18):1830-1835, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1016461

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate mental health status of first-line healthcare workers in designated hospitals for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan.

12.
Journal of Third Military Medical University ; 42(16):1613-1618, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-961936

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among individuals isolated during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and provide suggestions for psychological self-regulation and interventions for these individuals. Method: Self-rating Anxiety Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index and Chinese Perceived Stress Scale were used to survey 2 322 individuals who were isolated in quarantine facilities or in home quarantine for COVID-19 from January 31 to February 27, 2020.

13.
J Ophthalmol ; 2020: 4835630, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852762

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19 is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which is highly contagious, has a long incubation period, and can be detected in patients' tears and conjunctival secretions. In this study, we describe our experience regarding the necessary protective measures that need to be taken during ophthalmic examination and treatment. The authors reviewed the clinical work arrangements during the epidemic situation at the Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University in China and analyzed the prevention and control measures that were applied during the laser corneal refractive surgery process. The comprehensive protection protocol, which was established throughout the entire process, included both horizontal (medical staff-patient, medical staff-medical staff, and patient-patient) and vertical (preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative transmission assessment) approach and was mainly focused on strengthening the protection against potential aerosol transmission that may occur during intraocular pressure measurements and laser ablation. The described and proposed protocol, along with the further guidelines followed by the medical personnel, proved to be efficacious and contributed significantly to the control of the COVID-19 outbreak and the protection of both the patients and the medical staff.

14.
Cell Discov ; 6: 10, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851266

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of clusters of viral pneumonia due to a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) happened in Wuhan, Hubei Province in China in December 2019. Since the outbreak, several groups reported estimated R 0 of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and generated valuable prediction for the early phase of this outbreak. After implementation of strict prevention and control measures in China, new estimation is needed. An infectious disease dynamics SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, and Removed) model was applied to estimate the epidemic trend in Wuhan, China under two assumptions of R t . In the first assumption, R t was assumed to maintain over 1. The estimated number of infections would continue to increase throughout February without any indication of dropping with R t = 1.9, 2.6, or 3.1. The number of infections would reach 11,044, 70,258, and 227,989, respectively, by 29 February 2020. In the second assumption, R t was assumed to gradually decrease at different phases from high level of transmission (R t = 3.1, 2.6, and 1.9) to below 1 (R t = 0.9 or 0.5) owing to increasingly implemented public health intervention. Several phases were divided by the dates when various levels of prevention and control measures were taken in effect in Wuhan. The estimated number of infections would reach the peak in late February, which is 58,077-84,520 or 55,869-81,393. Whether or not the peak of the number of infections would occur in February 2020 may be an important index for evaluating the sufficiency of the current measures taken in China. Regardless of the occurrence of the peak, the currently strict measures in Wuhan should be continuously implemented and necessary strict public health measures should be applied in other locations in China with high number of COVID-19 cases, in order to reduce R t to an ideal level and control the infection.

15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 141, 2020 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846796

ABSTRACT

In the past five months, success in control the national epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been witnessed in China. The implementation of public health measures accounts for the success which include different interventions in the early or later stages of the outbreak. It is clear that although not all measures were universally effective worldwide, their achievements have been significant. More solidarity is needed to deal with this global pandemic with more learning and understanding. Understanding which of the public health interventions implemented in China were effective may provide ideas for international epidemic control.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health/standards , SARS-CoV-2
17.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-493

ABSTRACT

Background: An outbreak of clusters of viral pneumonia due to 2019 novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) happened in Wuhan, Hubeprovince in China in December 2019. Si

18.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 858, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782042

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to examine how the emotion regulation strategy, cognitive reappraisal, affects the association between perceived stress and anxiety symptoms in COVID-19 isolated people. Data for this cross-sectional study come from a community-based online survey of COVID-19 isolated people (N = 328), who are not infected with the 2019-nCoV virus. We applied correlation and moderating effect for data analysis and found that cognitive reappraisal negatively moderated the relationship between perceived stress and anxiety symptoms. These results give us a new perspective on understanding the relationship between anxiety symptoms and perceived stress by clarifying the protective function of cognitive reappraisal. It buffers the induced negative emotion when COVID-19 isolated people perceive overpressure, and thus instigates future research into targeted clinical interventions, which aim to cultivate cognitive reappraisal skills for those isolated people in the face of stressful events or crisis events.

19.
Front Med ; 14(5): 613-622, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401814

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a life-threatening pandemic. The epidemic trends in different countries vary considerably due to different policy-making and resources mobilization. We calculated basic reproduction number (R0) and the time-varying estimate of the effective reproductive number (Rt) of COVID-19 by using the maximum likelihood method and the sequential Bayesian method, respectively. European and North American countries possessed higher R0 and unsteady Rt fluctuations, whereas some heavily affected Asian countries showed relatively low R0 and declining Rt now. The numbers of patients in Africa and Latin America are still low, but the potential risk of huge outbreaks cannot be ignored. Three scenarios were then simulated, generating distinct outcomes by using SEIR (susceptible, exposed, infectious, and removed) model. First, evidence-based prompt responses yield lower transmission rate followed by decreasing Rt. Second, implementation of effective control policies at a relatively late stage, in spite of huge casualties at early phase, can still achieve containment and mitigation. Third, wisely taking advantage of the time-window for developing countries in Africa and Latin America to adopt adequate measures can save more people's life. Our mathematical modeling provides evidence for international communities to develop sound design of containment and mitigation policies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Likelihood Functions , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting/methods , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/trends , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Adjustment , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Front Med ; 14(2): 199-209, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-51748

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 was first reported in Wuhan in December 2019 and gradually spread to other areas in China. After implementation of prevention and control measures, the estimation of the epidemic trend is needed. A phase- and region-adjusted SEIR model was applied for modeling and predicting the number of cases in Wuhan, Hubei Province and regions outside Hubei Province in China. The estimated number of infections could reach its peak in late February 2020 in Wuhan and Hubei Province, which is 55 303-84 520 and 83 944-129 312, respectively, while the epidemic peaks in regions outside Hubei Province in China could appear on February 13, 2020 with the estimated 13 035-19 108 cases. According to the estimation, the outbreak would abate in March and April all over China. Current estimation provided evidence for planned work resumption under stringent prevention and control in China to further support the fight against the epidemic. Nevertheless, there is still possibility of the second outbreak brought by the work resumption and population migration, especially from Hubei Province and high intensity cities outside Hubei Province. Strict prevention and control measures still need to be considered in the regions with high intensity of epidemic and densely-populated cities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epidemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Statistics as Topic
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL