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1.
Nat Med ; 29(6): 1563-1577, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242944

ABSTRACT

Single-cell technologies have transformed our understanding of human tissues. Yet, studies typically capture only a limited number of donors and disagree on cell type definitions. Integrating many single-cell datasets can address these limitations of individual studies and capture the variability present in the population. Here we present the integrated Human Lung Cell Atlas (HLCA), combining 49 datasets of the human respiratory system into a single atlas spanning over 2.4 million cells from 486 individuals. The HLCA presents a consensus cell type re-annotation with matching marker genes, including annotations of rare and previously undescribed cell types. Leveraging the number and diversity of individuals in the HLCA, we identify gene modules that are associated with demographic covariates such as age, sex and body mass index, as well as gene modules changing expression along the proximal-to-distal axis of the bronchial tree. Mapping new data to the HLCA enables rapid data annotation and interpretation. Using the HLCA as a reference for the study of disease, we identify shared cell states across multiple lung diseases, including SPP1+ profibrotic monocyte-derived macrophages in COVID-19, pulmonary fibrosis and lung carcinoma. Overall, the HLCA serves as an example for the development and use of large-scale, cross-dataset organ atlases within the Human Cell Atlas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Lung , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Macrophages
2.
Bioorg Chem ; 138: 106592, 2023 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311750

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is the end-stage change of a large class of lung diseases characterized by the proliferation of fibroblasts and the accumulation of a large amount of extracellular matrix, accompanied by inflammatory damage and tissue structure destruction, which also shows the normal alveolar tissue is damaged and then abnormally repaired resulting in structural abnormalities (scarring). Pulmonary fibrosis has a serious impact on the respiratory function of the human body, and the clinical manifestation is progressive dyspnea. The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis-related diseases is increasing year by year, and no curative drugs have appeared so far. Nevertheless, research on pulmonary fibrosis have also increased in recent years, but there are no breakthrough results. Pathological changes of pulmonary fibrosis appear in the lungs of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that have not yet ended, and whether to improve the condition of patients with COVID-19 by means of the anti-fibrosis therapy, which are the questions we need to address now. This review systematically sheds light on the current state of research on fibrosis from multiple perspectives, hoping to provide some references for design and optimization of subsequent drugs and the selection of anti-fibrosis treatment plans and strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Lung , Fibrosis , Fibroblasts
3.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 4763953, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270119

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The clinical and imaging features of asymptomatic carriers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and symptomatic COVID-19 patients. Methods: The clinical and chest computed tomography imaging data of 47 asymptomatic carriers and 36 symptomatic COVID-19 patients were derived. All patients underwent 4-6 CT scans over a period of 2-5 days. Results: The bulk of asymptomatic carriers who developed symptoms and most of the COVID-19 patients were older than 18 years of age with a decreased lymphocyte count, abnormal hepatic and renal function, and increased D-dimer and C-reactive protein. In the early stage, the pulmonary lesion involved mostly 1-2 lobes at the peripheral area in asymptomatic carriers but more than three lobes at both the central and peripheral areas in COVID-19 patients. In the progression stage, the lesion of asymptomatic carriers extended from the peripheral to the central area, and no significant difference was found in the lesion range compared with the symptomatic control group. In early improvement stage, the lesion was rapidly absorbed, and lesions were located primarily at the peripheral area in asymptomatic carriers; contrastingly, lesions were primarily located at both the central and peripheral areas in symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic carriers reflected a significantly shorter duration from disease onset to peak progression stage compared with the symptomatic. Conclusions: Asymptomatic carriers are a potential source of transmission and may become symptomatic COVID-19 patients despite indicating less severe pulmonary damage, earlier improvement, and better prognosis. Early isolation and intervention can eliminate such carriers as potential sources of transmission and improve their prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , C-Reactive Protein
4.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets ; 23(9): 669-681, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287240

ABSTRACT

The corresponding mRNA vaccines Comirnaty (BNT162b2) and Spikevax (mRNA-1273) have been authorized for emergency use since the COVID-19 outbreak. Most clinical researches have also discovered that the mRNA vaccine is a revolutionary strategy for preventing and treating numerous diseases, including cancers. Unlike viral vectors or DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines cause the body to directly produce proteins following injection. Delivery vectors and mRNAs that encode tumor antigens or immunomodulatory molecules work together to trigger an anti-tumor response. Before mRNA vaccines may be employed in clinical trials, a number of challenges need to be resolved. These include establishing effective and safe delivery systems, generating successful mRNA vaccines against diverse types of cancers, and proposing improved combination therapy. Therefore, we need to improve vaccine-specific recognition and develop mRNA delivery mechanisms. This review summarizes the complete mRNA vaccines' elemental composition and discusses recent research progress and future direction for mRNA tumor vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , mRNA Vaccines , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/therapy
5.
Clin Respir J ; 17(4): 270-276, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding of the early immune response in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) breakthrough infections is limited. METHODS: Ninety-eight patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) breakthrough infections were divided into two groups, with intervals from receiving the second dose of inactivated vaccine to the onset of illness <60 or ≥60 days. RESULTS: The median lymphocyte count and the median anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) titers were higher in the <60-day interval group compared with the corresponding medians in the ≥60-day interval group (p = 0.005, p = 0.001, and p = 0.001, respectively). The median interleukin-6 (IL-6) level in the <60-day interval group was significantly lower than the median IL-6 level in the ≥60-day interval group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the different anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG and IgM antibody titers among patients with different intervals from receiving the second dose of inactivated vaccine to the onset of illness.


Subject(s)
Breakthrough Infections , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Interleukin-6 , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoglobulin M , Immunoglobulin G
6.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 149, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate whether prone position can reduce the risk of patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 who progress to severe or critical illness. METHODS: The prone position group was treated in prone position on the day of admission in addition to conventional treatment. Indicators such as saturation of pulse oximetry (SpO2), heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and prone position-related adverse events were recorded before prone ventilation, 5 min after prone position and 30 min after prone position. Meanwhile, the cases of severe and critical patients, the percentage of transformation and the final clinical outcome of this group were analyzed. Conversion rates and mortality were calculated for patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 retrieved from the database who received only conventional care without combined prone positioning as control group. RESULTS: (1) A total of 34 patients were included in prone position group. There were significant differences in SpO2 between the first 4 days after admission and the day of discharge (F = 3.17, P < 0.001). (2) The main complications were back and neck muscle soreness (55.9%), followed by abdominal distension (8.9%). (3) In control group, a total of 4873 cases of mild and moderate patients were included from 19 literatures, with an average deterioration rate of 22.7% and mortality rate of 1.7%. (4) In prone position group, there were no severe or critical transformation cases and also no death cases. The prone position group had a significantly lower deterioration rate when compared with the control group (χ2 = 9.962, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Prone position improves SpO2 in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. It can also reduce the percentage of mild or moderate patients progressing to severe or critical patients. The application of prone position is a simple, feasible, safe and effective treatment method in such patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Patient Positioning/methods , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies
7.
EC Microbiol ; 18(4): 1-12, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990183

ABSTRACT

Brilacidin (PMX-30063), a non-peptide defensin-mimetic small molecule, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 viral infection but the anti-viral mechanism is not defined. Here we determined its effect on the specific step of the viral life cycle. Brilacidin blocked SARS-CoV-2 infection but had no effect after viral entry. Brilacidin inhibited pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viruses expressing spike proteins from the P.1 Brazil strain and the B.1.1.7 UK strain. Brilacidin affected viral attachment in hACE2-dependent and independent manners depending on the concentrations. The inhibitory effect on viral entry was not mediated through blocking the binding of either the spike receptor-binding domain or the spike S1 protein to hACE2 proteins. Taken together, brilacidin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection by blocking viral entry and is active against SARS-CoV-2 variants.

8.
Theranostics ; 12(1): 324-339, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512992

ABSTRACT

Background: Macrophage infiltration around lipotoxic tubular epithelial cells (TECs) is a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, how these two types of cells communicate remains obscure. We previously demonstrated that LRG1 was elevated in the process of kidney injury. Here, we demonstrated that macrophage-derived, LRG1-enriched extracellular vesicles (EVs) exacerbated DN. Methods: We induced an experimental T2DM mouse model with a HFD diet for four months. Renal primary epithelial cells and macrophage-derived EVs were isolated from T2D mice by differential ultracentrifugation. To investigate whether lipotoxic TEC-derived EV (EVe) activate macrophages, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were incubated with EVe. To investigate whether activated macrophage-derived EVs (EVm) induce lipotoxic TEC apoptosis, EVm were cocultured with primary renal tubular epithelial cells. Subsequently, we evaluated the effect of LRG1 in EVe by investigating the apoptosis mechanism. Results: We demonstrated that incubation of primary TECs of DN or HK-2 mTECs with lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC) increased the release of EVe. Interestingly, TEC-derived EVe activated an inflammatory phenotype in macrophages and induced the release of macrophage-derived EVm. Furthermore, EVm could induce apoptosis in TECs injured by LPC. Importantly, we found that leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1)-enriched EVe activated macrophages via a TGFßR1-dependent process and that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-enriched EVm induced apoptosis in injured TECs via a death receptor 5 (DR5)-dependent process. Conclusion: Our findings indicated a novel cell communication mechanism between tubular epithelial cells and macrophages in DN, which could be a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Communication , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
9.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289025

ABSTRACT

Innate immunity during acute infection plays a critical role in the disease severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and is likely to contribute to COVID-19 disease outcomes. Defensins are highly abundant innate immune factors in neutrophils and epithelial cells, including intestinal Paneth cells, and exhibit antimicrobial and immune-modulatory activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of human α- and ß-defensins and RC101, a θ-defensin analog, on SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) 1-3, human defensin (HD) 5 and RC101 exhibited potent antiviral activity against pseudotyped viruses expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. HNP4 and HD6 had weak anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, whereas human ß-defensins (HBD2, HBD5 and HBD6) had no effect. HNP1, HD5 and RC101 also inhibited infection by replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 viruses and SARS-CoV-2 variants. Pretreatment of cells with HNP1, HD5 or RC101 provided some protection against viral infection. These defensins did not have an effect when provided post-infection, indicating their effect was directed towards viral entry. Indeed, HNP1 inhibited viral fusion but not the binding of the spike receptor-binding domain to hACE2. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect of defensins was influenced by the structure of the peptides, as linear unstructured forms of HNP1 and HD5 lost their antiviral function. Pro-HD5, the precursor of HD5, did not block infection by SARS-CoV-2. High virus titers overcame the effect of low levels of HNP1, indicating that defensins act on the virion. HNP1, HD5 and RC101 also blocked viral infection of intestinal and lung epithelial cells. The protective effects of defensins reported here suggest that they may be useful additives to the antivirus arsenal and should be thoroughly studied.


Subject(s)
Defensins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , A549 Cells , Caco-2 Cells , Defensins/classification , Epithelial Cells/virology , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244140

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), enters cells through attachment to the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) via the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the surface/spike (S) protein. Several pseudotyped viruses expressing SARS-CoV-2 S proteins are available, but many of these can only infect hACE2-overexpressing cell lines. Here, we report the use of a simple, two-plasmid, pseudotyped virus system comprising a SARS-CoV-2 spike-expressing plasmid and an HIV vector with or without vpr to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 entry event in various cell lines. When an HIV vector without vpr was used, pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viruses produced in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) were able to infect only engineered hACE2-overexpressing cell lines, whereas viruses produced under serum-free conditions were able to infect a broader range of cells, including cells without hACE2 overexpression. When an HIV vector containing vpr was used, pseudotyped viruses were able to infect a broad spectrum of cell types regardless of whether viruses were produced in the presence or absence of FBS. Infection sensitivities of various cell types did not correlate with mRNA abundance of hACE2, TMPRSS2, or TMPRSS4. Pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viruses and replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 virus were equally sensitive to neutralization by an anti-spike RBD antibody in cells with high abundance of hACE2. However, the anti-spike RBD antibody did not block pseudotyped viral entry into cell lines with low abundance of hACE2. We further found that CD147 was involved in viral entry in A549 cells with low abundance of hACE2. Thus, our assay is useful for drug and antibody screening as well as for investigating cellular receptors, including hACE2, CD147, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO (AXL), for the SARS-CoV-2 entry event in various cell lines.


Subject(s)
HIV/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line , Genetic Vectors , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Plasmids , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Transfection , vpr Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/metabolism
11.
Pathogens ; 10(3)2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125497

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is detectable in saliva from asymptomatic individuals, suggesting a potential benefit from the use of mouth rinses to suppress viral load and reduce virus spread. Published studies on the reduction of SARS-CoV-2-induced cytotoxic effects by mouth rinses do not exclude antiseptic mouth rinse-associated cytotoxicity. Here, we determined the effect of commercially available mouth rinses and antiseptic povidone-iodine on the infectivity of replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 viruses and of pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viruses. We first determined the effect of mouth rinses on cell viability to ensure that antiviral activity was not a consequence of mouth rinse-induced cytotoxicity. Colgate Peroxyl (hydrogen peroxide) exhibited the most cytotoxicity, followed by povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), and Listerine (essential oils and alcohol). The potent antiviral activities of Colgate Peroxyl mouth rinse and povidone-iodine were the consequence of rinse-mediated cellular damage when the products were present during infection. The potency of CHG was greater when the product was not washed off after virus attachment, suggesting that the prolonged effect of mouth rinses on cells impacts the antiviral outcome. To minimalize mouth rinse-associated cytotoxicity, mouth rinse was largely removed from treated viruses by centrifugation prior to infection of cells. A 5% (v/v) dilution of Colgate Peroxyl or povidone-iodine completely blocked viral infectivity. A similar 5% (v/v) dilution of Listerine or CHG had a moderate suppressive effect on the virus, but a 50% (v/v) dilution of Listerine or CHG blocked viral infectivity completely. Mouth rinses inactivated the virus without prolonged incubation. The new infectivity assay, with limited impacts of mouth rinse-associated cytotoxicity, showed the differential effects of mouth rinses on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our results indicate that mouth rinses can significantly reduce virus infectivity, suggesting a potential benefit for reducing SARS-CoV-2 spread.

12.
Fundamental Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1051638

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to establish a prognostic nomogram to stratify high-risk patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) who progressed from the nonsevere condition on admission to severe during hospitalization. This multicenter retrospective study included patients with nonsevere COVID-19 on admission from Jan 10, 2020 to Feb 7, 2020. In the training cohort, independent risk factors associated with disease progression were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. The prognostic nomogram was established and then validated externally using C-index. The study included 351 patients (293 and 58 in the training and validation cohorts, respectively), with 27 (9.2%) and 5 (8.6%) patients progressed, respectively. In the training cohort, older age (OR 1.036, 95% CI 1.000-1.073), more lobes involved on chest CT (OR 1.841, 95% CI 1.117-3.035), comorbidity present (OR 2.478, 95% CI 1.020-6.018), and lower lymphocyte count (OR 0.081, 95% CI 0.019-0.349) were identified as independent risk factors. The prognostic nomogram was established in the training cohort with satisfied external prognostic performance (C-index 0.906, 95% CI 0.806-1.000). In conclusion, older age, comorbidity present, more lobes involved on chest CT, and lower lymphocyte count are independent risk factors associated with disease progression during hospitalization for patients with nonsevere COVID-19.

13.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e20961, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the past few months, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused extensive economic and social damage. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19-related measures on partner relationships and sexual and reproductive health in China. METHODS: From May 1 to 5, 2020, 3500 young Chinese individuals were recruited through WeChat or Weibo to participate in a survey to obtain information on sexual and reproductive health (eg, sexual desire, frequency of sexual intercourse, sexual satisfaction, etc). The questionnaire also collected demographic data (eg, age, race, education, current financial status, sexual orientation, relationship status, etc). RESULTS: In total, 967 participants were included in the sexual health analysis. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and related containment measures, 22% of participants (n=212) reported a decrease in sexual desire; 41% (n=396) experienced a decrease in the sexual intercourse frequency; 30% (n=291) reported an increase in the frequency of masturbation; 20% (n=192) reported a decrease in alcohol consumption before or during sexual activities, and 31% (n=298) reported a deterioration in partner relationships during the pandemic. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the following influenced partner relationships: accommodations during the pandemic (P=.046; odds ratio [OR] 0.59; 95% CI 0.30-0.86); exclusive relationship status (yes or no) (P<.001; OR 0.44; 95 % CI 0.27-0.73); sexual desire (P=.02; OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.38-2.97); and sexual satisfaction (P<.001; OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.54-2.50). COVID-19 also caused disruptions in reproductive health services such as prenatal and postnatal care, childbirth and abortion services, contraception availability, and the management of sexually transmitted infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that many young people have wide-ranging issues affecting their sexual and reproductive health due to the COVID-19 pandemic and related containment measures. Strategies and guidelines are needed to safeguard the sexual and reproductive health of young people during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Reproductive Health/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Health/statistics & numerical data , Abortion, Induced/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Odds Ratio , Perinatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Sexual Partners/psychology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/therapy , Social Isolation , Young Adult
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