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1.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(9)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043902

ABSTRACT

With rapid and non-invasive characteristics, the respiratory route of administration has drawn significant attention compared with the limitations of conventional routes. Respiratory delivery can bypass the physiological barrier to achieve local and systemic disease treatment. A scientometric analysis and review were used to analyze how respiratory delivery can contribute to local and systemic therapy. The literature data obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection database showed an increasing worldwide tendency toward respiratory delivery from 1998 to 2020. Keywords analysis suggested that nasal and pulmonary drug delivery are the leading research topics in respiratory delivery. Based on the results of scientometric analysis, the research hotspots mainly included therapy for central nervous systems (CNS) disorders (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression, glioblastoma, and epilepsy), tracheal and bronchial or lung diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, acute lung injury or respiratory distress syndrome, lung cancer, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), and systemic diseases (diabetes and COVID-19). The study of advanced preparations contained nano drug delivery systems of the respiratory route, drug delivery barriers investigation (blood-brain barrier, BBB), and chitosan-based biomaterials for respiratory delivery. These results provided researchers with future research directions related to respiratory delivery.

2.
Biomolecules ; 12(6)2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911169

ABSTRACT

The drug repurposing of known approved drugs (e.g., lopinavir/ritonavir) has failed to treat SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Therefore, it is important to generate new chemical entities against this virus. As a critical enzyme in the lifecycle of the coronavirus, the 3C-like main protease (3CLpro or Mpro) is the most attractive target for antiviral drug design. Based on a recently solved structure (PDB ID: 6LU7), we developed a novel advanced deep Q-learning network with a fragment-based drug design (ADQN-FBDD) for generating potential lead compounds targeting SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. We obtained a series of derivatives from the lead compounds based on our structure-based optimization policy (SBOP). All of the 47 lead compounds obtained directly with our AI model and related derivatives based on the SBOP are accessible in our molecular library. These compounds can be used as potential candidates by researchers to develop drugs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2054, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900600

ABSTRACT

Monitoring new mutations in SARS-CoV-2 provides crucial information for identifying diagnostic and therapeutic targets and important insights to achieve a more effective COVID-19 control strategy. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been widely used for whole genome sequencing (WGS) of SARS-CoV-2. While various NGS methods have been reported, one chief limitation has been the complexity of the workflow, limiting the scalability. Here, we overcome this limitation by designing a laboratory workflow optimized for high-throughput studies. The workflow utilizes modified ARTIC network v3 primers for SARS-CoV-2 whole genome amplification. NGS libraries were prepared by a 2-step PCR method, similar to a previously reported tailed PCR method, with further optimizations to improve amplicon balance, to minimize amplicon dropout for viral genomes harboring primer-binding site mutation(s), and to integrate robotic liquid handlers. Validation studies demonstrated that the optimized workflow can process up to 2688 samples in a single sequencing run without compromising sensitivity and accuracy and with fewer amplicon dropout events compared to the standard ARTIC protocol. We additionally report results for over 65,000 SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequences from clinical specimens collected in the United States between January and September of 2021, as part of an ongoing national genomics surveillance effort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing , Humans
4.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(5)2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860819

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected hundreds of millions of people and killed millions of them. As an RNA virus, COVID-19 is more susceptible to variation than other viruses. Many problems involved in this epidemic have made biosafety and biosecurity (hereafter collectively referred to as 'biosafety') a popular and timely topic globally. Biosafety research covers a broad and diverse range of topics, and it is important to quickly identify hotspots and trends in biosafety research through big data analysis. However, the data-driven literature on biosafety research discovery is quite scant. We developed a novel topic model based on latent Dirichlet allocation, affinity propagation clustering and the PageRank algorithm (LDAPR) to extract knowledge from biosafety research publications from 2011 to 2020. Then, we conducted hotspot and trend analysis with LDAPR and carried out further studies, including annual hot topic extraction, a 10-year keyword evolution trend analysis, topic map construction, hot region discovery and fine-grained correlation analysis of interdisciplinary research topic trends. These analyses revealed valuable information that can guide epidemic prevention work: (1) the research enthusiasm over a certain infectious disease not only is related to its epidemic characteristics but also is affected by the progress of research on other diseases, and (2) infectious diseases are not only strongly related to their corresponding microorganisms but also potentially related to other specific microorganisms. The detailed experimental results and our code are available at https://github.com/KEAML-JLU/Biosafety-analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biosecurity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Humans , Machine Learning , RNA
5.
Biomolecules ; 12(6):746, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857794

ABSTRACT

The drug repurposing of known approved drugs (e.g., lopinavir/ritonavir) has failed to treat SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Therefore, it is important to generate new chemical entities against this virus. As a critical enzyme in the lifecycle of the coronavirus, the 3C-like main protease (3CLpro or Mpro) is the most attractive target for antiviral drug design. Based on a recently solved structure (PDB ID: 6LU7), we developed a novel advanced deep Q-learning network with a fragment-based drug design (ADQN–FBDD) for generating potential lead compounds targeting SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. We obtained a series of derivatives from the lead compounds based on our structure-based optimization policy (SBOP). All of the 47 lead compounds obtained directly with our AI model and related derivatives based on the SBOP are accessible in our molecular library. These compounds can be used as potential candidates by researchers to develop drugs against SARS-CoV-2.

6.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 368, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837197

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo delineate the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) who died.DesignRetrospective case series.SettingTongji Hospital in Wuhan, China.ParticipantsAmong a cohort of 799 patients, 113 who died and 161 who recovered with a diagnosis of covid-19 were analysed. Data were collected until 28 February 2020.Main outcome measuresClinical characteristics and laboratory findings were obtained from electronic medical records with data collection forms.ResultsThe median age of deceased patients (68 years) was significantly older than recovered patients (51 years). Male sex was more predominant in deceased patients (83;73%) than in recovered patients (88;55%). Chronic hypertension and other cardiovascular comorbidities were more frequent among deceased patients (54 (48%) and 16 (14%)) than recovered patients (39 (24%) and 7 (4%)). Dyspnoea, chest tightness, and disorder of consciousness were more common in deceased patients (70 (62%), 55 (49%), and 25 (22%)) than in recovered patients (50 (31%), 48 (30%), and 1 (1%)). The median time from disease onset to death in deceased patients was 16 (interquartile range 12.0-20.0) days. Leukocytosis was present in 56 (50%) patients who died and 6 (4%) who recovered, and lymphopenia was present in 103 (91%) and 76 (47%) respectively. Concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and D-dimer were markedly higher in deceased patients than in recovered patients. Common complications observed more frequently in deceased patients included acute respiratory distress syndrome (113;100%), type I respiratory failure (18/35;51%), sepsis (113;100%), acute cardiac injury (72/94;77%), heart failure (41/83;49%), alkalosis (14/35;40%), hyperkalaemia (42;37%), acute kidney injury (28;25%), and hypoxic encephalopathy (23;20%). Patients with cardiovascular comorbidity were more likely to develop cardiac complications. Regardless of history of cardiovascular disease, acute cardiac injury and heart failure were more common in deceased patients.ConclusionSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can cause both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, leading to multi-organ dysfunction in patients at high risk. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure, sepsis, acute cardiac injury, and heart failure were the most common critical complications during exacerbation of covid-19.

7.
Am J Public Health ; 112(6): 913-922, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817598

ABSTRACT

We analyzed COVID-19 influences on the design, implementation, and validity of assessing the quality of primary health care using unannounced standardized patients (USPs) in China. Because of the pandemic, we crowdsourced our funding, removed tuberculosis from the USP case roster, adjusted common cold and asthma cases, used hybrid online-offline training for USPs, shared USPs across provinces, and strengthened ethical considerations. With those changes, we were able to conduct fieldwork despite frequent COVID-19 interruptions. Furthermore, the USP assessment tool maintained high validity in the quality checklist (criteria), USP role fidelity, checklist completion, and physician detection of USPs. Our experiences suggest that the pandemic created not only barriers but also opportunities to innovate ways to build a resilient data collection system. To build data system reliance, we recommend harnessing the power of technology for a hybrid model of remote and in-person work, learning from the sharing economy to pool strengths and optimize resources, and dedicating individual and group leadership to problem-solving and results. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(6):913-922. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306779).


Subject(s)
Acacia , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Health Care
8.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 16: 17534666221091931, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally, and many patients with severe cases have received oxygen therapy through a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). OBJECTIVES: We assessed the efficacy of HFNC for treating patients with COVID-19 and risk factors for HFNC failure. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies of HFNC in patients with COVID-19 published in English from January 1st, 2020 to August 15th, 2021. The primary aim was to assess intubation, mortality, and failure rates in COVID-19 patients supported by HFNC. Secondary aims were to compare HFNC success and failure groups and to describe the risk factors for HFNC failure. RESULTS: A total of 25 studies fulfilled selection criteria and included 2851 patients. The intubation, mortality, and failure rates were 0.44 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.51, I2 = 84%), 0.23 (95% CI: 0.19-0.29, I2 = 88%), and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.42-0.51, I2 = 56%), respectively. Compared to the success group, age, body mass index (BMI), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, D-dimer, lactate, heart rate, and respiratory rate were higher and PaO2, PaO2/FiO2, ROX index (the ratio of SpO2/FiO2 to respiratory rate), ROX index after the initiation of HFNC, and duration of HFNC were lower in the failure group (all Ps < 0.05). There were also more smokers and more comorbidities in the failure group (all Ps < 0.05). Pooled odds ratios (ORs) revealed that older age (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07, P = 0.02, I2 = 88%), a higher white blood cell (WBC) count (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.12, P = 0.02, I2 = 0%), a higher heart rate (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.15-1.76, P < 0.01, I2 = 0%), and a lower ROX index(OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.39-0.95, P = 0.03, I2 = 93%) after the initiation of HFNC were all significant risk factors for HFNC failure. CONCLUSIONS: HFNC is an effective way of providing respiratory support in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Older age, a higher WBC count, a higher heart rate, and a lower ROX index after the initiation of HFNC are associated with an increased risk of HFNC failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Cannula , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Risk Factors
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2028, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805608

ABSTRACT

Dysfunctional immune responses contribute critically to the progression of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), with macrophages as one of the main cell types involved. It is urgent to understand the interactions among permissive cells, macrophages, and the SARS-CoV-2 virus, thereby offering important insights into effective therapeutic strategies. Here, we establish a lung and macrophage co-culture system derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), modeling the host-pathogen interaction in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We find that both classically polarized macrophages (M1) and alternatively polarized macrophages (M2) have inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, M1 and non-activated (M0) macrophages, but not M2 macrophages, significantly up-regulate inflammatory factors upon viral infection. Moreover, M1 macrophages suppress the growth and enhance apoptosis of lung cells. Inhibition of viral entry using an ACE2 blocking antibody substantially enhances the activity of M2 macrophages. Our studies indicate differential immune response patterns in distinct macrophage phenotypes, which could lead to a range of COVID-19 disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Humans , Lung , Macrophages , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Curr Drug Targets ; 23(12): 1136-1154, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently rampant worldwide, resulting in unpredictable harm to humans. High blood levels of cytokines and chemokines have been marked in patients with COVID-19 infection, leading to cytokine storm syndrome. Cytokine storms are violent inflammatory immune responses that reveal the devastating effect of immune dysregulation and the critical role of an effective host immune response. METHODS: Scientometric analysis summarizes the literature on cytokine storms in recent decades and provides a valuable and timely approach to tracking the development of new trends. This review summarizes the pathogenesis and treatment of diseases associated with cytokine storms comprehensively based on scientometric analysis. RESULTS: Field distribution, knowledge structure, and research topic evolution correlated with cytokine storms are revealed, and the occurrence, development, and treatment of disease relevant to cytokine storms are illustrated. CONCLUSION: Cytokine storms can be induced by pathogens and iatrogenic causes and can also occur in the context of autoimmune diseases and monogenic diseases as well. These reveal the multidisciplinary nature of cytokine storms and remind the complexity of the pathophysiological features, clinical presentation, and management. Overall, this scientometric study provides a macroscopic presentation and further direction for researchers who focus on cytokine storms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 836558, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776040

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to examine the mediation role of satisfaction with children on the association between contact with children (CCT) and healthy aging among middle-aged and older parents in China. Methods: Data from 9,575 parents over 45 years old were obtained from the 2018 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey. A multinomial logistic regression model was applied to measure the association between contact, satisfaction, and healthy aging with potential confounders controlled. We used the Sobel-Goodman Mediation test to analyze the mediation role of satisfaction on the association between types of CCT and healthy aging. Results: Parents with contact with adult children had higher satisfaction with children [for contact weekly (satisfied/unsatisfied): relative risk ratio (RRR) = 2.44, CI = 1.92-3.10] and higher healthy aging [for contact weekly (Q5/Q1): RRR = 1.41, CI = 1.13-1.77]. Satisfaction was strongly related to healthy aging [for satisfied (Q5/Q1): RRR = 3.44, CI = 2.14-5.51], and mediated 19.05% of healthy aging for weekly contact (Sobel test z = 4.338; indirect role = 0.014, CI = 0.011-0.018; direct role = 0.061, CI = 0.029-0.094). Subgroup analysis further revealed that satisfaction with contact played a partial mediating role between monthly contact and healthy aging in female and rural groups. Conclusions: Monthly CCT is more appropriate for older parents. Satisfaction with children in older parents seems to act as a significant and partial mediator of the relationship between contact and healthy aging. The contribution of satisfaction to healthy aging could be important to be considered and promoted in women and rural older parents, independent of CCT.


Subject(s)
Healthy Aging , Aged , Child , China , Female , Humans , Mediation Analysis , Middle Aged , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Personal Satisfaction
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(11): 1953-1965, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Follow-up study of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors has rarely been reported. We aimed to investigate longitudinal changes in the characteristics of COVID-19 survivors after discharge. METHODS: A total of 594 COVID-19 survivors discharged from Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from February 10 to April 30, 2020 were included and followed up until May 17, 2021. Laboratory and radiological findings, pulmonary function tests, electrocardiogram, symptoms and signs were analyzed. RESULTS: 257 (51.2%) patients had at least one symptom at 3 months post-discharge, which decreased to 169 (40.0%) and 138 (28.4%) at 6-month and 12-month visit respectively. During follow-up period, insomnia, chest tightness, and fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms. Most laboratory parameters returned to normal, whereas increased incidence of abnormal liver and renal function and cardiovascular injury was evidenced after discharge. Fibrous stripes (213; 42.4%), pleural thickening and adhesions (188; 37.5%) and enlarged lymph nodes (120; 23.9%) were the most common radiographical findings at 3 months post-discharge. The abnormalities of pulmonary function included obstructive, restrictive, and mixed, which were 5.5%, 4.0%, 0.9% at 6 months post, and 1.9%, 4.7%, 0.2% at 12 months. Electrocardiogram abnormalities occurred in 256 (51.0%) patients at 3 months post-discharge, including arrhythmia, ST-T change and conduction block, which increased to 258 (61.1%) cases at 6-month visit and were maintained at high frequency (242;49.8%) at 12-month visit. CONCLUSIONS: Physiological, laboratory, radiological, or electrocardiogram abnormalities, particularly those related to renal, cardiovascular, and liver functions are common in patients who recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) up to 12 months post-discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aftercare , China/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317496

ABSTRACT

Background: More evidence in understanding the heterogeneity of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and in improving strategy to increase the survival from the critical patients intubated is always needed. The study aimed to comprehensively explore the features of COVID-19-associated ARDS and the features and outcomes between the early and late intubation groups. Methods: : This retrospective cohort included 65 adult COVID-19 inpatients with ARDS at two hospitals in Hubei, China. The ARDS in these patients was diagnosed according to the Berlin criteria. We defined intubation within 7 days of ARDS diagnosis as ‘early’ intubation and that performed from the eighth day as ‘late’ intubation based on literatures. The outcomes were invasive mechanical ventilation and in-hospital death. The log-binomial regression models were used to explore the risk factors and the Kaplan-Meier statistic was used to estimate the risk of mortality. Results: : The median number of days from symptom onset to ARDS diagnosis was 11.0 (IQR, 8.0–13.0). Up to 84.1% COVID-19-related ARDS patients demonstrated multiple organ injuries. The mortality rates were 41.9% and 85.7% in moderate and severe ARDS. The early intubation and the late intubation had the differences in days from symptom onset/hospital admission/ARDS diagnosis to intubation (P = 0.023, P = 0.011, P < 0.001). Compared with the early-intubation group, the late-intubation group showed less severity at admission (median oxygenation index 159.0 95% CI 134.0-203.0 vs. 133.9 95% CI 98.3-183.2), but required more aggressive therapies (ICU 80% vs. 70%, CRRT 50% vs. 10%, prone-position 50% vs. 30%, and ECMO 50% vs. 10%) and had higher risk to die at hospital (RR, 3.18;95% CI 1.98-5.12). Conclusion: The ARDS caused by COVID-19 was not typical ARDS due to prolonged onset time, multiple organ injuries, and higher mortalities. The late-intubation group showed less severity at admission but higher risk of in-hospital death than the early-intubation group.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317495

ABSTRACT

Background: The reviews on the risk factors with ARDS and the worse outcomes concluded lacking robust data of risk factors to prevent COVID-19 and identified an urgent need for large sample and high-quality research in this area, as well as the features of the ARDS. Methods: : This retrospective cohort study included 333 COVID-19 inpatients at two hospitals in Hubei of China in 2020. The COVID-19-related ARDS was diagnosed according to the Berlin criteria. The outcomes were ARDS development and the intubation or in-hospital death. The cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) models were employed to determine the significant risk factors. Results: : The median number of days from symptom onset to ARDS diagnosis was 11.0 (IQR, 8.0–13.0). Up to 84.1% COVID-19-related ARDS patients demonstrated multiple organ injuries. The mortality rates were 41.9% and 85.7% in moderate and severe ARDS. The survival patients on invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) had been intubated earlier since ARDS diagnosis than those who had not survived (5.5 median days, IQR 4.0-7.0 days versus 11.5 median days, IQR 6.0-14.0 days, P < 0.001). Males and all abnormal laboratory indices associated with the higher risk of ARDS (P<0.05) but were not linked with the risk of intubation or death (P>0.05). The sensitivity analyses found that lymphocyte count of < 1000 per mm3 at hospital admission were still significantly associated with developing ARDS when adjusting for age and male gender (HR, 4.10;95% CI, 2.40-7.10), and oxygenation index (OI) ratio < 150 were more likely to predict the intubation/death after age adjustment (HR, 2.50;95% CI, 1.17-5.30). Conclusion: The SARS-CoV-2-caused ARDS was not the typical ARDS according to Berlin criteria. The alive patients with IMV had been intubated earlier since ARDS diagnosis than those who had not survived. We identified male gender and abnormal laboratory indices associated with the ARDS but were not linked with the intubation/death. Sensitivity analysis concluded lymphocyte count of < 1000 per mm3 could predict ARDS while OI ratio less than 150 could predict intubation/death.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315710

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the long-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on cognitive function is essential for the prevention of cognitive decline in elderly population. This study aims to assess cognitive status and longitudinal decline at 6 months post-infection in elderly patients recovered from COVID-19.Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 1013 COVID-19 inpatients aged over 60 years who were discharged from three COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to March 13, 2020. In total, 262 uninfected living spouses of COVID-19 patients were selected as controls. Subjects were examined for their current cognitive status using a Chinese version of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 (TICS-40) and longitudinal cognitive decline using an Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Cognitive assessments were performed 6 months after patient discharge.Findings: COVID-19 patients had significantly lower TICS-40 scores (patients: 29.73±6.13;controls: 30.74±5.95, p=0.016) and higher IQCODE scores (patients: 3.40±0.81;controls: 3.15±0.39, p<0.001) than the controls. Severe COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores than non-severe COVID-19 patients (TICS-40: 22.98±7.12 vs. 30.46±5.53, p<0.001;IQCODE: 4.06±1.39 vs. 3.33±0.68, p<0.001) and controls (TICS-40: 22.98±7.12 vs. 30.74±5.95, p<0.001;IQCODE: 4.06±1.39 vs. 3.15±0.39, p<0.001). Severe COVID-19 patients had a higher proportion of cases with a current cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognitive decline than non-severe COVID-19 patients and controls. COVID-19 severity (OR: 8.142, 95% CI: 5.007-13.239) was associated with worse current cognitive function. Older age (OR: 1.024, 95% CI: 1.003 to 1.046), COVID-19 severity (OR: 2.277, 95% CI: 1.308 to 3.964), mechanical ventilation (OR: 5.388, 95% CI: 3.007 to 9.656), and hypertension (OR: 1.866, 95% CI: 1.376 to 2.531) were associated with an increased risk of longitudinal cognitive decline.Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with delayed cognitive decline in elderly population. COVID-19 patients with risk factors, including severe disease, older age, mechanical ventilation, and hypertension, should be intensively monitored for delayed cognitive decline. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China.Conflict of Interest: We declared no conflict of interests.Ethical Approval: The study protocols were approved by the institutional review boards of the hospitals. Verbal informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to the survey.

16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315224

ABSTRACT

Background: Public health workers at the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) and primary health care institutes (PHIs) were among the main workers who implemented prevention, control, and containment measures. However, their efforts and health status have not been well documented. We aimed to investigate the working conditions and health status of front line public health workers in China during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: : Between 18 February and 1 March 2020, we conducted an online cross-sectional survey of 2,313 CDC workers and 4,004 PHI workers in five provinces across China experiencing different scales of COVID-19 epidemic. We surveyed all participants about their work conditions, roles, burdens, perceptions, mental health, and self-rated health using a self-constructed questionnaire and standardised measurements (i.e., Patient Health Questionnaire and General Anxiety Disorder scale). To examine the independent associations between working conditions and health outcomes, we used multivariate regression models controlling for potential confounders. Results: : The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and poor self-rated health was 21.3%, 19.0%, and 9.8%, respectively, among public health workers (27.1%, 20.6%, and 15.0% among CDC workers and 17.5%, 17.9%, and 6.8% among PHI workers). The majority (71.6%) made immense efforts in both field and non-field work. Nearly 20.0% have worked all night for more than 3 days, and 45.3% had worked throughout the Chinese New Year holiday. Three risk factors and two protective factors were found to be independently associated with all three health outcomes in our final multivariate models: working all night for >3 days (multivariate odds ratio [ORm]=1.67~1.75, p <0.001), concerns about infection at work (ORm=1.46~1.89, p <0.001), perceived troubles at work (ORm=1.10~1.28, p <0.001), initiating COVID-19 prevention work after January 23 (ORm=0.78~0.82, p =0.002~0.008), and ability to persist for > 1 month at the current work intensity (ORm=0.44~0.55, p <0.001). Conclusions: : Chinese public health workers made immense efforts and personal sacrifices to control the COVID-19 epidemic and faced the risk of mental health problems. Efforts are needed to improve the working conditions and health status of public health workers and thus maintain their morale and effectiveness during the fight against COVID-19.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311346

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds: : This study examined the dynamic association between risk communication and public’s risk perception and action across the COVID-19 outbreak timeline in China. Methods: : Publicly available information on COVID-19 was collected by Parehub tool for official channels (e.g. government websites and official media), and by Zhongyun Big Data Platform for mainstream Chinese social media (e.g. TikTok, Weibo, etc.). Information was examined by its release channels, content and release time. An online survey was conducted via WeChat across 33 provinces and municipalities of China to assess changes in participants’ risk perception and action against COVID-19. Information content and release-time trajectories were examined against the public’s risk perception and actions over time. Results: : Altogether, 1,477 pieces of authorized information and 297,000 pieces of short videos on COVID-19 were retrieved from official channels and social media. Our online survey of 1,311 responds (25-60 years, 42% male) indicated that participants mainly relied on official channels to obtain information. Alongside the progress of the outbreak, there was a gradual rise in information quantity, publishing frequency, and content variation. Correspondingly, the public’s risk perception that “take it seriously" rose from 13% to 80%, 87.1% of who took “multiple actions” compared to 25.9% initially. Conclusions: : Our findings indicated that insufficient information freely-accessible at the early stages of the outbreak may nevertheless lead to the lack of risk awareness and inadequate protective actions of the public. Given the current global situation of COVID-19, the study highlights authorized, transparent, and timely two-way risk communication is vital to guide public perception and actions.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308180

ABSTRACT

Background: A few patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may progress into irreparable outcomes. Early identification of patients with serious symptoms who may develop critical illness and even death is of considerable importance for personalizing treatment and balancing medical resources. Methods: : In this retrospective study, demographic, clinical characteristics and laboratory tests from 726 patients with serious COVID-19 from Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China) were analyzed. The standards for the serious type are guided by the Chinese management guideline for COVID-19. Patients were classified into critical group (174 cases) and severe group (552 cases) based on whether the composite endpoint was reached, and the former group was divided into the survivors (47 cases) and non-survivors (127 cases). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed to investigate the risk factors associated with poor prognosis and mortality outcomes. Results: : Male patients accounted for 62.1% and 51.6% in the critical group and severe group, with a median age of 68 and 65 years, respectively. Among critical cases there was a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive lung disease (p = 0.029) and chest distress (p = 0.040) than in severe cases. In the multivariable analysis, the risk factors associated with poor prognosis in severe cases were advanced age (p = 0.002), high respiratory rate (RR) (p < 0.0001), high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (p = 0.021), high hypersensitive cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) level (p < 0.0001), and low platelet counts (p = 0.005) at admission. In the adjusted models, higher mortality outcomes in critical patients were associated with high hs-cTnI level (p = 0.037). By plotting ROC curves of different indices, hs-cTnI and LDH were found to be predictive factors for poor prognosis in patients with severe COVID-19. Conclusions: : For the risk assessment of serious COVID-19 patients on admission, advanced age, high level of RR, LDH, hs-cTnI, and low platelet counts, constitute important risk factors for poor prognosis in severe cases, and the hs-cTnI level can be helpful in predicting fatal outcomes in critically ill patients.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325164

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is a highly contagious and highly pathogenic disease caused by a novel coronavirus(SARS-CoV-2)and has become pandemic within a short period of time. The epidemic has brought not only the risk of death from infection but also unbearable psychological pressure. College students as a special group, their mental health status need to be studied during the outbreak of COVID-19.MethodsWe used the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the compulsive behavior part of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), combined with demographic information, using online questionnaires to research, and the study was conducted between February 21 and 24, 2020. A total of 2270 valid questionnaires were collected, the respondents of these questionnaires included 563 medical students and 1707 non-medical students. We separately analyzed the mental health status of medical and non-medical students during the outbreak of COVID-19.ResultsOf the 563 medical students, 20 (3.55%) students had anxiety symptoms, and 57 (10.12%) students had depressive symptoms. Gender, PMH, compulsive behavior, and regularity of daily life during the epidemic outbreak were correlated with their anxiety symptoms and age, PMH, compulsive behavior, and regularity of daily life during the epidemic outbreak were associated with their depressive symptoms. Of the 1707 non-medical students, 66 (3.87%) students had anxiety symptoms, and 180 (10.54%) students had depressive symptoms. Gender, contact history of similar infectious disease, PMH, compulsive behavior, regularity of daily life and exercise during the epidemic outbreak and concern on COVID-19 were correlated with their anxiety symptoms and contact history of similar infectious disease, PMH, compulsive behavior, regularity of daily life and exercise during the epidemic outbreak and concern on COVID-19 were associated with their depressive symptoms.ConclusionsResults indicated that gender, age, contact history of similar infectious disease, past medical history (PMH), compulsive behavior, regularity of daily life, and exercise during the epidemic outbreak are the key factors making college students anxious or depressed. The results provided a theoretical basis for relevant interventions;it is also essential for medical education and public health epidemic prevention.

20.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614002

ABSTRACT

The rate of decline in the levels of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) greatly varies among patients who recover from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, little is known about factors associated with this phenomenon. The objective of this study is to investigate early factors at admission that can influence long-term NAb levels in patients who recovered from COVID-19. A total of 306 individuals who recovered from COVID-19 at the Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China, were included in this study. The patients were classified into two groups with high (NAbhigh, n = 153) and low (NAblow, n = 153) levels of NAb, respectively based on the median NAb levels six months after discharge. The majority (300/306, 98.0%) of the COVID-19 convalescents had detected NAbs. The median NAb concentration was 63.1 (34.7, 108.9) AU/mL. Compared with the NAblow group, a larger proportion of the NAbhigh group received corticosteroids (38.8% vs. 22.4%, p = 0.002) and IVIG therapy (26.5% vs. 16.3%, p = 0.033), and presented with diabetes comorbidity (25.2% vs. 12.2%, p = 0.004); high blood urea (median (IQR): 4.8 (3.7, 6.1) vs. 3.9 (3.5, 5.4) mmol/L; p = 0.017); CRP (31.6 (4.0, 93.7) vs. 16.3 (2.7, 51.4) mg/L; p = 0.027); PCT (0.08 (0.05, 0.17) vs. 0.05 (0.03, 0.09) ng/mL; p = 0.001); SF (838.5 (378.2, 1533.4) vs. 478.5 (222.0, 1133.4) µg/L; p = 0.035); and fibrinogen (5.1 (3.8, 6.4) vs. 4.5 (3.5, 5.7) g/L; p = 0.014) levels, but low SpO2 levels (96.0 (92.0, 98.0) vs. 97.0 (94.0, 98.0)%; p = 0.009). The predictive model based on Gaussian mixture models, displayed an average accuracy of 0.7117 in one of the 8191 formulas, and ROC analysis showed an AUC value of 0.715 (0.657-0.772), and specificity and sensitivity were 72.5% and 67.3%, respectively. In conclusion, we found that several factors at admission can contribute to the high level of NAbs in patients after discharge, and constructed a predictive model for long-term NAb levels, which can provide guidance for clinical treatment and monitoring.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , China , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve
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