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1.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 70, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960340

ABSTRACT

Little is known regarding why a subset of COVID-19 patients exhibited prolonged positivity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we found that patients with long viral RNA course (LC) exhibited prolonged high-level IgG antibodies and higher regulatory T (Treg) cell counts compared to those with short viral RNA course (SC) in terms of viral load. Longitudinal proteomics and metabolomics analyses of the patient sera uncovered that prolonged viral RNA shedding was associated with inhibition of the liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) pathway, substantial suppression of diverse metabolites, activation of the complement system, suppressed cell migration, and enhanced viral replication. Furthermore, a ten-molecule learning model was established which could potentially predict viral RNA shedding period. In summary, this study uncovered enhanced inflammation and suppressed adaptive immunity in COVID-19 patients with prolonged viral RNA shedding, and proposed a multi-omic classifier for viral RNA shedding prediction.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325346

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and differences in etiology, clinical manifestations, and psychological activity of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) among patients. Results We recruited 90 subjects, 30 were healthy controls, 30 were patients with moderate infection, and 30 were patients with severe/critical infections. No significant differences were noted in the sex ratio, mean age, body mass index, or blood type;however, the history of exposure of the patients with COVID-19 compared with healthy controls was noteworthy. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, as well as the levels of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A (SAA) were all increased. In terms of mental health, there were significant differences in the worry scores between severely and moderately infected patients and healthy controls. There was a significant difference in depression scores between patients with moderate infection and healthy hypertension, and there was also a significant difference in dream worry scores. Analysis of the Mini-Mental State Examination scores showed that for patients with moderate infection, the depression score was moderately and positively correlated with the dream anxiety score. For patients with severe infection, the anxiety score was positively correlated with the dream anxiety score, and the depression score was moderately and positively correlated with the dream anxiety score. Conclusion Patients with severe infection showed increased pain and sputum in the pharyngeal area compared with patients with moderate infection. Patients with blood type A may be more susceptible to COVID-19, and lymphopenia may indicate worsening of COVID-19.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324779

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds: : To determine the differences in clinical manifestations and biomarker levels of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, including common patients and severe (serious and critical) patients. Methods: A total of 89 COVID-19 patients were diagnosed and treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. We clinically classified the patients and collected data. Findings: There was a higher proportion of confirmed cases in patients with type A blood (44.8%). There were no obvious differences in number of lung lobes involved in the lesion between the patients with or without a positive nucleic acid test (p>0.05).There were obvious differences in contact history (p<0.001), duration of symptoms (p=0.004), and respiratory rate (p=0.029) between the patients with or without a positive nucleic acid test. According to the results of the nucleic acid diagnosis test, there were no obvious differences in the number of lung lobes involved in the lesion and all items of routine blood, liver, and kidney function tests between the patients with or without positive nucleic acid tests (all p>0.05). Between the common patients and severe patients, there were obvious differences in age (p=0.006), duration of symptoms (p=0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.046), lymphocyte count (p<0.0001), neutrophil count (p=0.019), albumin (p=0.002), lactate dehydrogenase (p=0.007), calcium (p<0.0001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (p=0.004), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p=0.021), international standard ratio (p=0.020), and CD3 (p=0.001), CD3+CD4 (p=0.006), and CD3+CD8 (p=0.001) levels. In patients infected with SARS-COV-2, the number of lung lobes involved in the lesion were positively correlated with lymphocytes (R=0.261, p=0.044);the body mass index (BMI) values were positively correlated with the number of lung lobes involved in the lesion (R=0.320, P=0.034);the age (R=0.391, p<0.001) and respiratory rate (R=0.352, p=0.001) were positively correlated with neutrophil count;and the age (R=0.349, p=0.001) and the number of lung lobes involved in the lesion (R=0.422, p=0.001) were positively correlated with CRP. Conclusion: Patients with blood type A may be more susceptible to SARS-COV-2. The decrease in lymphocytes may indicate the aggravation of COVID-19, whereas the number of lung lobes involved in the lesion may not be a valid criterion for COVID-19 diagnosis.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323801

ABSTRACT

Background: The initial outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has rapidly extended globally, which brought huge detrimental to the whole society. While some countries and regions are currently experiencing another outbreak of COVID-19.Methods: In this study, by using the epidemic data from January 2 to February 11, 2021 in city Shijiazhuang, an extended SEIR model was established to evaluate the effectiveness of emergency response, nucleic acid testing (NAT) and stay-at-home order for all individuals, and to simulate the impact of delayed interventions.Findings: We estimated an initial effective reproduction number (Rt) was 4·70, and the Rt value gradually decreased with the implementation of government interventions. Meanwhile, the final cumulative number of confirmed cases decreased by 99·99% (898 cases), and peak of current confirmed cases decreased by 99·99% (763 cases) compared with that without intervention. With fewer interventions, the number of infected individuals will continue to increase. Delayed interventions were simulated which would show at least 80% (1614 cases), 218% (2854 cases), 464% (5061 cases), and 879% (8787 cases) more infections can be attained for Shijiazhuang city, if the intervention was delayed by 2, 4, 6, and 8 days, respectively.Interpretation: The Shijiazhuang government has effectively controlled the spread of the epidemic by adopting a series of comprehensive non-pharmacological interventions in time.Funding Information: The study was supported by grants from the National Social Science Foundation of China (20BRK041).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315334

ABSTRACT

Molecular diagnosis is an essential means to detect pathogens. The portable nucleic acid detection chip has excellent prospects in places where medical resources are scarce, and it is also of research interest in the field of microfluidic chips. Here, the paper developed a new type of microfluidic chip for nucleic acid detection where stretching acts as the driving force. The sample entered the chip by applying capillary force. The strain valve was opened under the action of tensile force, and the spring pump generated the power to drive the fluid to flow to the detection chamber in a specific direction. The detection of COVID-19 was realized on the chip. The RT-LAMP amplification system was adopted to observe the liquid color in the detection chamber to decide whether the sample tested positive or negative qualitatively.

6.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2022: 5536266, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677412

ABSTRACT

The 31 main components of Lianhua Qingwen (LHQW) were obtained through a literature and database search; the components included glycyrrhizic acid, emodin, chlorogenic acid, isophoroside A, forsythia, menthol, luteolin, quercetin, and rutin. Sixty-eight common targets for the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) and influenza virus pneumonia (IVP) were also obtained. A "component-target-disease" network was constructed with Cytoscape 3.2.1 software, and 20 key targets, such as cyclooxygenase2 (COX2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), mitogen-activated protein kinase14 (Mapk14), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), were screened from the network. The David database was used to perform a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signal pathway enrichment analysis and gene ontology (GO) biological process enrichment. Results showed that the key targets of LHQW in the treatment of NCP and IVP mainly involved biological processes, such as immune system process intervention, cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion, toxic metabolism, cytokine activity, and regulation of the synthesis process. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that 115 signalling pathways were related to the treatment of LHQW. Amongst them, IL-17, T cell receptor, Th17 cell differentiation, TNF, toll-like receptor, MAPK, apoptosis, and seven other signalling pathways were closely related to the occurrence and development of NCP and IVP. Molecular docking showed that each component had different degrees of binding with six targets, namely, 3C-like protease (3CL), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), COX2, hemagglutinin (HA), IL-6, and neuraminidase (NA). Rutin, isoforsythiaside A, hesperidin and isochlorogenic acid B were the best components for docking with the six core targets. The first five components with the best docking results were isoforsythiaside, hesperidin, isochlorogenic acid B, forsythin E, and quercetin. In conclusion, LHQW has many components, targets, and pathways. The findings of this work can provide an important theoretical basis for determining the mechanism of LHQW in treating NCP and IVP.

7.
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals ; 155:111724, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1588128

ABSTRACT

The newly identified cell death type, pyroptosis plays crucial roles in various diseases. Most recently, mounting evidence accumulates that pyroptotic signaling is highly correlated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, understanding the induction of the pyroptotic signaling and dissecting the detail molecular control mechanisms are urgently needed. Based on recent experimental studies, a core regulatory model of the pyroptotic signaling is constructed to investigate the intricate crosstalk dynamics between the two cell death types, i.e., pyroptosis and secondary pyroptosis. The model well reproduces the experimental observations under different conditions. Sensitivity analysis determines that only the expression level of caspase-1 or GSDMD has the potential to individually change death modes. The decrease of caspase-1 or GSDMD level switches cell death from pyroptosis to secondary pyroptosis. Besides, eight biochemical reactions are identified that can efficiently switch death modes. While from the viewpoint of bifurcation analysis, the expression level of caspase-3 is further identified and twelve biochemical reactions are obtained. The coexistence of pyroptosis and secondary pyroptosis is predicted to be observed not only within the bistable range, but also within proper monostable range, presenting two potential different control mechanisms. Combined with the landscape theory, we further explore the stochastic dynamic and global stability of the pyroptotic system, accurately quantifying how each component mediates the individual occurrence probability of pyroptosis and secondary pyroptosis. Overall, this study sheds new light on the intricate crosstalk of the pyroptotic signaling and uncovers the regulatory mechanisms of various stable state transitions, providing potential clues to guide the development for prevention and treatment of pyroptosis-related diseases.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14748, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319045

ABSTRACT

Candidemia caused by Candida spp. is a serious threat in hospital settings being a major cause of acquired infection and death and a possible contributor to Covid-19 mortality. Candidemia incidence has been rising worldwide following increases in fungicide-resistant pathogens highlighting the need for more effective antifungal agents with novel modes of action. The membrane-bound enzyme alternative oxidase (AOX) promotes fungicide resistance and is absent in humans making it a desirable therapeutic target. However, the lipophilic nature of the AOX substrate (ubiquinol-10) has hindered its kinetic characterisation in physiologically-relevant conditions. Here, we present the purification and expression of recombinant AOXs from C. albicans and C. auris in a self-assembled proteoliposome (PL) system. Kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) with respect to ubiquinol-10 have been determined. The PL system has also been employed in dose-response assays with novel AOX inhibitors. Such information is critical for the future development of novel treatments for Candidemia.


Subject(s)
Candida albicans/enzymology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Liposomes/metabolism , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Fungal Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Kinetics , Mitochondrial Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics , Oxidoreductases/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidoreductases/genetics , Plant Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism
9.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 118(9): 3559-3568, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245365

ABSTRACT

Molecular diagnosis is an essential means to detect pathogens. The portable nucleic acid detection chip has excellent prospects in places where medical resources are scarce, and it is also of research interest in the field of microfluidic chips. Here, the article developed a new type of microfluidic chip for nucleic acid detection where stretching acts as the driving force. The sample entered the chip by applying capillary force. The strain valve was opened under the action of tensile force, and the spring pump generated the power to drive the fluid to flow to the detection chamber in a specific direction. The detection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was realized on the chip. The RT-LAMP amplification system was adopted to observe the liquid color in the detection chamber to decide whether the sample tested positive or negative qualitatively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acids/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Humans
10.
Front Med ; 15(3): 486-494, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122810

ABSTRACT

Tocilizumab has been reported to attenuate the "cytokine storm" in COVID-19 patients. We attempted to verify the effectiveness and safety of tocilizumab therapy in COVID-19 and identify patients most likely to benefit from this treatment. We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label multicenter trial among COVID-19 patients. The patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either tocilizumab in addition to standard care or standard care alone. The cure rate, changes of oxygen saturation and interference, and inflammation biomarkers were observed. Thirty-three patients were randomized to the tocilizumab group, and 32 patients to the control group. The cure rate in the tocilizumab group was higher than that in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (94.12% vs. 87.10%, rate difference 95% CI-7.19%-21.23%, P = 0.4133). The improvement in hypoxia for the tocilizumab group was higher from day 4 onward and statistically significant from day 12 (P = 0.0359). In moderate disease patients with bilateral pulmonary lesions, the hypoxia ameliorated earlier after tocilizumab treatment, and less patients (1/12, 8.33%) needed an increase of inhaled oxygen concentration compared with the controls (4/6, 66.67%; rate difference 95% CI-99.17% to-17.50%, P = 0.0217). No severe adverse events occurred. More mild temporary adverse events were recorded in tocilizumab recipients (20/34, 58.82%) than the controls (4/31, 12.90%). Tocilizumab can improve hypoxia without unacceptable side effect profile and significant influences on the time virus load becomes negative. For patients with bilateral pulmonary lesions and elevated IL-6 levels, tocilizumab could be recommended to improve outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
Sleep Med ; 91: 161-165, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suffering from COVID-19 is a strong psychological stressor to the patients. Even after recovery, patients are prone to a variety of mental health problems. Recently, some studies focus on the psychological situation of patients when they got COVID-19. However, no study focused on the psychological status of recovered COVID-19-infected patients in China. Our study aims to investigate sleep and mood status, and detect the influencing factors of the psychological status of the COVID-19 patients after recovery. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-five COVID-19 patients were enrolled from February to April 2020. The social demographic information of all participants was collected by a self-designed questionnaire. Insomnia and depression symptoms were evaluated through the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression (CES-D). RESULTS: The rates of insomnia and depression were 26.45% and 9.92% in the COVID-19 patients after recovery. There were significant differences in physical, mental impairment, and the need for psychological assistance between the COVID-19 recovered patients with depression and the patients without depression. In addition, age and health status may be the influencing factors for insomnia, and care about the views of others may be the influencing factor of depression (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, we found that COVID-19 recovered patients had a low rate of depression and a high rate of insomnia. We need to pay more attention to their sleep condition than mood status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Rehabilitation Centers , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Survivors
13.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(2): 267-274, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023809

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (K-A-P) about food safety and nutrition in Chinese adults who were recruited to the online survey during the epidemic of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DESIGN: Participants were recruited by an online snowball sampling method. An electronic questionnaire was sent to our colleagues, students, friends, other professionals and their referrals helped us recruit more participants. The questionnaire included socio-demographic information, the attention paid to COVID-19, K-A-P about food safety and nutrition. Multiple and logistic regression analyses were used to explore related factors of K-A-P. SUBJECTS: Totally, 2272 participants aged 24·09 ± 9·14 years, from twenty-seven provinces, autonomous districts or municipalities, with 18·3 % male and 83·4 % with a medical background. RESULTS: The total possible knowledge score was 8·0, the average score was 5·2 ± 1·6 and 4·2 % obtained 8·0. The total possible attitudes score was 8·0, the average score was 6·5 ± 1·4 and 36·1 % obtained 8·0. The total possible food safety practices score was 5·0, the average score was 3·7 ± 1·0 and 20·7 % obtained 5·0. During this public emergency, 79·4 % participants changed diet habits, including increasing vegetables, fruit and water intake and reducing sugary drinks and snacks. Gender, age, educational and professional background, disease history, the attention paid to COVID-19 and related knowledge were associated with K-A-P. CONCLUSION: There was room for the improvement of K-A-P in participants during this public health emergency and further strengthening education about food safety and nutrition is needed. Findings indicate that education should address biased or misleading information and promote nutritious food choices and safe food practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Safety , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Nutritional Status , Adolescent , Adult , China/epidemiology , Educational Status , Epidemics , Feeding Behavior , Female , Fruit , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vegetables , Young Adult
14.
Cell ; 184(3): 775-791.e14, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014394

ABSTRACT

The molecular pathology of multi-organ injuries in COVID-19 patients remains unclear, preventing effective therapeutics development. Here, we report a proteomic analysis of 144 autopsy samples from seven organs in 19 COVID-19 patients. We quantified 11,394 proteins in these samples, in which 5,336 were perturbed in the COVID-19 patients compared to controls. Our data showed that cathepsin L1, rather than ACE2, was significantly upregulated in the lung from the COVID-19 patients. Systemic hyperinflammation and dysregulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism were detected in multiple organs. We also observed dysregulation of key factors involved in hypoxia, angiogenesis, blood coagulation, and fibrosis in multiple organs from the COVID-19 patients. Evidence for testicular injuries includes reduced Leydig cells, suppressed cholesterol biosynthesis, and sperm mobility. In summary, this study depicts a multi-organ proteomic landscape of COVID-19 autopsies that furthers our understanding of the biological basis of COVID-19 pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Proteome/biosynthesis , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Autopsy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Organ Specificity
15.
Immunol Res ; 68(6): 398-404, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808082

ABSTRACT

This single-center, retrospective study aimed to explore the immune characteristics of COVID-19 and biomarkers to predict the severity of this disease. Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (n = 215) treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from January 24 to March 12, 2020, were included in the study and classified into severe and non-severe groups. Peripheral immunocyte count and cytokine statuses were compared. The correlation between immune status, cytokine levels, and disease severity was analyzed. Leukocyte numbers were normal in both groups; however, they were relatively high (7.19 × 109/L) in patients of the severe group. Leukocyte distributions differed between the two groups; the severe group had a higher percentage of neutrophils and lower percentage of lymphocytes compared with the non-severe group, and absolute lymphocyte numbers were below normal in both groups, and particularly deficient in patients in the severe group. Lymphocyte counts have negative correlation with duration of hospital period whereas neutrophil count has no significant correlation with it. Of tested cytokines, IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the severe group (P = 0.0418). Low level of lymphocyte predicts severity of COVID-19. IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the severe group, especially in some extremely severe patients. But we did not detect the significant correlation between severity of COVID-19 with IL-6 level which may be due to limited case numbers. Our observations encourage future research to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms and to improve treatment outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
Mathematical Modelling of Natural Phenomena ; 15, 2020.
Article | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-752443

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) has raged in mainland China for nearly three months resulting in a huge threat to people's health and economic development. According to the cumulative numbers of confirmed cases and deathes of SARS-COV-2 infection announced by the National Health Commission of China, we divided the human population into four subgroups including the adolescents group (0-19 yr old), the youth group (20-49 yr old), the middle-aged group (50-74 yr old) and the elderly group (over 75 yr old), and proposed a discrete age-structured SEIHRQ SARS-COV-2 transmission model. We utilized contact matrixes to describe the contact heterogeneities and correlations among different age groups. Adopting the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm, we identified the parameters of the model and fitted the confirmed cases from January 24th to March 31st. Through a more in-depth study, we showed that before January 28th (95% CI [Feb. 25th, Feb. 31st]), the effective reproduction number was greater than 1 and after that day its value was less than 1. Moreover, we estimated that the peak values of infection were 66 (95% CI [65,67]) for the adolescents, 3996 (95% CI [3957,4036]) for the young group, 14714 (95% CI [14692,14735]) for middle-aged group and 297 (95% CI [295,300]) for elderly people, respectively;the proportions of the final sizes of SARS-COV-2 infection accounted for less than 90% for each group. We found that under the current restricted control strategies, the most severe and high-risk group was middle-aged people aged between 50-74 yr old;without any prevention, the most severe and high-risk group had become the young adults aged 20-49 yr old.

18.
Talanta ; 214: 120865, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), induced by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and high mortality in neonatal piglets, resulting in significant economic losses in the pig industries. In this study, an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) based on a EuNPs-mAb fluorescent probe was developed and optimized for rapid detection of PEDV. The limit of detection (LOD) of the ICA was 0.218 µg/mL (2.725 × 103 TCID50/mL) and its linear detection range was 0.03125-8 µg/mL (3.91 × 102-105 TCID50/mL). The ICA was also validated for the detection of PEDV in swine stool samples. 60 swine stool samples from southern China were analyzed by the ICA and RT-PCR, and the results showed that the coincidence rate of the ICA to RT-PCR was 86.67%, which was significantly higher than that of AuNPs based ICA. The ICA is sensitive and specific and can achieve on-site rapid detection of swine stool samples. Therefore, the ICA has a great potential for PED diagnosis and prevention.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Europium/chemistry , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Animals , Chromatography, Affinity , Particle Size , Surface Properties , Swine
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