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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324822

ABSTRACT

Background: Optimal fluid management in patients with COVID-19 has not been reported. This retrospective, multicenter study investigated the impact of intravenous infusion volume in the early stage of COVID-19 on clinical outcomes. Methods 127 patients from two tertiary hospitals were separated into the “conservative” and “liberal” groups based on average daily intravenous infusion volume within the first seven days after admission. Basic information, demographic and epidemiological characteristics, laboratory findings, treatments, and outcome measures were retrieved from medical records. The disease progression and prognosis were analyzed and compared. Results The average daily intravenous infusion volume within 7 days was 500 (150–700) ml/day in the conservative-strategy group (n = 87), and 1100 (1000–1288) ml/day in the liberal-strategy group (n = 40) ( p  < 0.001). There were no statistical differences in median age, male-to-female ratio, epidemiology, laboratory findings on admission, comorbidities, and average daily urine output within the seven days ( p  > 0.05). The final K + in the liberal group was slightly higher than that at admission, and the final hematocrit level in the conservative group had a significant difference than that at admission ( p  < 0.05). The mean (± SD) duration of hospitalization was 22.41 ± 11.99 days in the conservative group and 25.28 ± 12.08 days in the liberal group ( p  = 0.120). However, compared to the liberal group, conservative group had statistically lower rates of disease progression (9.3% vs 37.5%, p  < 0.001), mechanical ventilation (2.3% vs 27.5%, p  < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (2.3% vs 15.0%, p  = 0.012). Conclusions Although there appeared to be no significant difference in the duration of hospitalization between using conservative and liberal fluid management strategies, the former was associated with lower rates of disease progression, mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality without increased nonpulmonary-organ dysfunction. These results support the importance of implementing conservative intravenous fluid infusion in the early stage of COVID-19.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 667623, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337648

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a major threat to global health. Regional differences in epidemiological and clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of patients have not yet been investigated. This study was conducted to investigate these differences amongCOVID-19 patients in Hubei Province, China. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study analyzed data on 289 COVID-19 patients from designated hospitals in three regions:Urban (Wuhan Union West Hospital), Suburban areas of Wuhan (Hannan Hospital) and Enshi city, between February 8 and 20, 2020. The final date of follow-up was December 14th, 2020. The outcomes were case fatality rate and epidemiological and clinical data. Results: Urban Wuhan experienced a significantly higher case fatality rate (21.5%) than suburban Wuhan (5.23%) and rural area of Enshi (3.51%). Urban Wuhan had a higher proportion of patients on mechanical ventilation (24.05%) than suburban Wuhan (0%) and rural Enshi (3.57%). Treatment with glucocorticoids was equivalent in urban and suburban Wuhan (46.84 and 45.75%, respectively) and higher than Enshi (25.00%). Urban Wuhan had a higher proportion of patients with abnormal tests including liver function and serum electrolytes and a higher rate of pneumonia (p < 0.01 for all). Urban Wuhan also had a higher incidence of respiratory failure, heart disease, liver disease and shock, compared with the other two regions (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings revealed that there are regional differences in COVID-19. These findings provide novel insights into the distribution of appropriate resources for the prevention, control and treatment of COVID-19 for the global community.

3.
Front Psychol ; 12: 641167, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332136

ABSTRACT

The building of cabin hospitals in Wuhan has been proven to be clinically successful in curing mild-symptom COVID-19 patients shortly after the outbreak of COVID-19 in late 2019. At the same time, the psychological effect of patients being treated in cabin hospitals and the features of the psychological status of the whole society remained ambiguous. This study adopted a self-administrated questionnaire to investigate the stress, depression, and anxiety status of patients in cabin hospitals (n = 212) and healthy participants outside of Hubei province (n = 221) in a population level from February 29 to March 01, 2020. The research measured participants' stress response, depression level, and anxiety level as well as their social support system and their resilience level. Results indicated that in this sudden outbreak of an unknown pandemic, all people (whether or not infected) showed a generally high level of stress, depression, and anxiety, regardless of age, gender, education level, and employment. It also showed that people with a lower level of psychological resilience and social support reported more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Moreover, the research also found a positive effect of cabin hospitals on the psychological recovery of COVID-19 patients. Stress response of patients increased after entering into cabin hospitals, while after 3-4 weeks' treatment, patients showed a decrease in their depression and anxiety levels. This research advances the understanding of COVID-19 and gives suggestions to optimize the design and the allocation of resources in cabin hospitals and better deal with the unknown pandemics in the future.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 273, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219881

ABSTRACT

Frontline healthcare nurses devoted themselves to deal with the outbreak of COVID-19, saving many lives. However, they are under incredible unknown psychological pressures with a considerable risk of infection. In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to survey 593 frontline nurses in Wuhan City and non-Hubei provinces for psychological responses from March 1 to March 10, 2020. Compared with nurses outside Hubei Province, those working in Wuhan were more likely to feel physically and mentally exhausted. Their probable depression and anxiety were significantly higher than those of nurses outside Hubei province (31.2%, 18.3% vs. 13.8%, 5.9%). Correspondingly, the depressive symptoms were more often reported in the Wuhan group (70.8% vs. 41.4%). Although Wuhan received wishes, concerns, and abundant psychological and material resources from all of the world, the survey-based study found that frontline nurses in Wuhan still had higher depression and anxiety with less social support compared with nurses from non-Hubei provinces. Unexpectedly, only 4.0% of nurses have sought psychological assistance. These findings suggested that the short-term psychological impact of frontline nurses in Wuhan during the COVID-19 outbreak was extremely high compared with nurses outside Hubei Province. This research enlightened the efficient integration of psychological resources, the optimization of the nurse emergency psychological assistance system, and the mental health care of medical staff during the outbreak of epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Patient Care , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 59(1): 89-100, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139384

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a significant global event in the history of infectious diseases. The SARS-CoV-2 appears to have originated from bats but is now easily transmissible among humans, primarily through droplet or direct contact. Clinical features of COVID-19 include high fever, cough, and fatigue which may progress to ARDS. Respiratory failure can occur rapidly after this. The primary laboratory findings include lymphopenia and eosinopenia. Elevated D-dimer, procalcitonin, and CRP levels may correlate with disease severity. Imaging findings include ground-glass opacities and patchy consolidation on CT scan. Mortality is higher in patients with hypertension, cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and COPD. Elderly patients are more susceptible to severe disease and death, while children seem to have lower rates of infection and lower mortality. Diagnostic criteria and the identification of persons under investigation have evolved as more data has emerged. However, the approach to diagnosis is still very variable from region to region, country to country, and even among different hospitals in the same city. The importance of a clinical pathway to implement the most effective and relevant diagnostic strategy is of critical importance to establish the control of this virus that is responsible for more and more deaths each day.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Critical Pathways , Early Diagnosis , Evidence-Based Practice , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Medical History Taking , Pandemics , Patient Isolation , Quarantine , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Int Rev Immunol ; 41(2): 217-230, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093424

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) erupted in Hubei Province of China in December 2019 and has become a pandemic. Severe COVID-19 patients who suffer from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ dysfunction have high mortality. Several studies have shown that this is closely related to the cytokine release syndrome (CRS), often loosely referred to as cytokine storm. IL-6 is one of the key factors and its level is positively correlated with the severity of the disease. The molecular mechanisms for CRS in COVID-19 are related to the effects of the S-protein and N-protein of the virus and its ability to trigger NF-κB activation by disabling the inhibitory component IκB. This leads to activation of immune cells and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Other mechanisms related to IL-6 include its interaction with GM-CSF and interferon responses. The pivotal role of IL-6 makes it a target for therapeutic agents and studies on tocilizumab are already ongoing. Other possible targets of treating CRS in COVID-19 include IL-1ß and TNF-α. Recently, reports of a CRS like illness called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) in children have surfaced, with a variable presentation which in some cases resembles Kawasaki disease. It is likely that the immunological derangement and cytokine release occurring in COVID-19 cases is variable, or on a spectrum, that can potentially be governed by genetic factors. Currently, there are no approved biological modulators for the treatment of COVID-19, but the urgency of the pandemic has led to numerous clinical trials worldwide. Ultimately, there is great promise that an anti-inflammatory modulator targeting a cytokine storm effect may prove to be very beneficial in reducing morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
7.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(6): 1245-1252, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030727

ABSTRACT

At present, it has been noticed that some patients recovered from COVID-19 present a recurrent positive RNA test of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) after being discharged from hospitals. The purpose of the current study was to characterize the clinical features of re-hospitalized patients with recurrent SARS-CoV-2 positive results. From January 12 to April 1 of 2020, our retrospective study was conducted in China. The exposure history, baseline data, laboratory findings, therapeutic schedule, and clinical endpoints of the patients were collected. All the patients were followed until April 10, 2020. Among all COVID-19 patients included in the current study, there were 14 re-hospitalized patients due to recurrent positive tests of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Fever (11 [78.6%]), cough (10 [71.4%]), and fatigue (7 [50.0%]) were the most common symptoms on the patient's first admission, and less symptoms were found on their second admission. The average duration from the onset of symptoms to admission to hospital was found to be 8.4 days for the first admission and 2.6 days for the second admission (P = 0.002). The average time from the detection of RNA (+) to hospitalization was 1.9 days for the first admission and 2.6 days for the second admission (P = 0.479), and the average time from RNA (+) to RNA (-) was 11.1 days for the first admission and 6.3 days for the second admission (P = 0.030). Moreover, the total time in hospital was 18.6 days for the first admission and 8.0 days for the second admission (P = 0.000). It may be necessary to increase the isolation observation time and RT-PCR tests should be timely performed on multiple samples as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Patient Readmission , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , China , Cough/virology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4387

ABSTRACT

A review. From Dec. 2019, the outbreak of a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 hit Hubei Province of China. It causes severe acute respiratory syndrome in some patients and notable number of cases died of multiple organ failures. The disease was named by World Health Organization as 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on Feburary 11, 2020. The novel coronavirus is mainly spread by respiratory droplets and close contact. It is highly infectious and has been found in many countries and regions around the world. So far, no specific vaccine and specific drugs against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed for clin. use. This article reviews the virol. characteristics, clin. symptoms, infection mechanism, epidemiol., research progress and clin. effect of COVID-19. It could provide new insights for clin. prevention of COVID-19.

10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(11): 1372-1379, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975792

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The global death toll from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) virus as of May 12, 2020, exceeds 286,000. The risk factors for death were attributed to advanced age and comorbidities but have not been accurately defined.Objectives: To report the clinical features of 85 fatal cases of COVID-19 in two hospitals in Wuhan.Methods: Medical records were collected of 85 fatal cases of COVID-19 between January 9, 2020, and February 15, 2020. Information recorded included medical history, exposure history, comorbidities, symptoms, signs, laboratory findings, computed tomographic scans, and clinical management.Measurements and Main Results: The median age of the patients was 65.8 years, and 72.9% were male. Common symptoms were fever (78 [91.8%]), shortness of breath (50 [58.8%]), fatigue (50 [58.8%]), and dyspnea (60 [70.6%]). Hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease were the most common comorbidities. Notably, 81.2% of patients had very low eosinophil counts on admission. Complications included respiratory failure (80 [94.1%]), shock (69 [81.2%]), acute respiratory distress syndrome (63 [74.1%]), and arrhythmia (51 [60%]), among others. Most patients received antibiotic (77 [90.6%]), antiviral (78 [91.8%]), and glucocorticoid (65 [76.5%]) treatments. A total of 38 (44.7%) and 33 (38.8%) patients received intravenous immunoglobulin and IFN-α2b, respectively.Conclusions: In this depictive study of 85 fatal cases of COVID-19, most cases were males aged over 50 years with noncommunicable chronic diseases. The majority of the patients died of multiple organ failure. Early onset of shortness of breath may be used as an observational symptom for COVID-19 exacerbations. Eosinophilopenia may indicate a poor prognosis. A combination of antimicrobial drugs did not offer considerable benefit to the outcome of this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
14.
Med. J. Chin. Peoples Liberation Army ; 3(45): 260-264, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-378729

ABSTRACT

From December 2019, the outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hits Hubei Province of China. It causes severe acute respiratory syndrome in some patients and notable number of cases died of multiple organ failures. SARS-CoV-2 mainly spread by respiratory droplets and close contact. It is highly infectious and has been found in many countries and regions around the world. So far, no specific vaccine and specific drugs against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed for clinical use. This article reviews the virological characteristics, clinical symptoms, infection mechanism, epidemiology, research progress and clinical effect of COVID-19. It could provide new insights for clinical prevention of COVID-19.

15.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(5): 766-773, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-143091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019, various digestive symptoms have been frequently reported in patients infected with the virus. In this study, we aimed to further investigate the prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with digestive symptoms. METHODS: In this descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study, we enrolled confirmed patients with COVID-19 who presented to 3 hospitals from January 18, 2020, to February 28, 2020. All patients were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and were analyzed for clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and treatment. Data were followed up until March 18, 2020. RESULTS: In the present study, 204 patients with COVID-19 and full laboratory, imaging, and historical data were analyzed. The average age was 52.9 years (SD ± 16), including 107 men and 97 women. Although most patients presented to the hospital with fever or respiratory symptoms, we found that 103 patients (50.5%) reported a digestive symptom, including lack of appetite (81 [78.6%] cases), diarrhea (35 [34%] cases), vomiting (4 [3.9%] cases), and abdominal pain (2 [1.9%] cases). If lack of appetite is excluded from the analysis (because it is less specific for the gastrointestinal tract), there were 38 total cases (18.6%) where patients presented with a gastrointestinal-specific symptom, including diarrhea, vomiting, or abdominal pain. Patients with digestive symptoms had a significantly longer time from onset to admission than patients without digestive symptoms (9.0 days vs 7.3 days). In 6 cases, there were digestive symptoms, but no respiratory symptoms. As the severity of the disease increased, digestive symptoms became more pronounced. Patients with digestive symptoms had higher mean liver enzyme levels, lower monocyte count, longer prothrombin time, and received more antimicrobial treatment than those without digestive symptoms. DISCUSSION: We found that digestive symptoms are common in patients with COVID-19. Moreover, these patients have a longer time from onset to admission, evidence of longer coagulation, and higher liver enzyme levels. Clinicians should recognize that digestive symptoms, such as diarrhea, are commonly among the presenting features of COVID-19 and that the index of suspicion may need to be raised earlier in at-risk patients presenting with digestive symptoms. However, further large sample studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prevalence , Treatment Outcome
16.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(6): 915-930, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72377

ABSTRACT

With more than 1,800,000 cases and 110,000 deaths globally, COVID-19 is one of worst infectious disease outbreaks in history. This paper provides a critical review of the available evidence regarding the lessons learned from the Chinese experience with COVID-19 prevention and management. The steps that have led to a near disappearance of new cases in China included rapid sequencing of the virus to establish testing kits, which allowed tracking of infected persons in and out of Wuhan. In addition, aggressive quarantine measures included the complete isolation of Wuhan and then later Hubei Province and the rest of the country, as well as closure of all schools and nonessential businesses. Other measures included the rapid construction of two new hospitals and the establishment of "Fangcang" shelter hospitals. In the absence of a vaccine, the management of COVID-19 included antivirals, high-flow oxygen, mechanical ventilation, corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, interferons, intravenous immunoglobulin, and convalescent plasma infusions. These measures appeared to provide only moderate success. Although some measures have been supported by weak descriptive data, their effectiveness is still unclear pending well controlled clinical trials. In the end, it was the enforcement of drastic quarantine measures that stopped SARS-CoV-2 from spreading. The earlier the implementation, the less likely resources will be depleted. The most critical factors in stopping a pandemic are early recognition of infected individuals, carriers, and contacts and early implementation of quarantine measures with an organised, proactive, and unified strategy at a national level. Delays result in significantly higher death tolls.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Patient Care Management , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Autoimmun ; 109: 102434, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-4387

ABSTRACT

The 2019-nCoV is officially called SARS-CoV-2 and the disease is named COVID-19. This viral epidemic in China has led to the deaths of over 1800 people, mostly elderly or those with an underlying chronic disease or immunosuppressed state. This is the third serious Coronavirus outbreak in less than 20 years, following SARS in 2002-2003 and MERS in 2012. While human strains of Coronavirus are associated with about 15% of cases of the common cold, the SARS-CoV-2 may present with varying degrees of severity, from flu-like symptoms to death. It is currently believed that this deadly Coronavirus strain originated from wild animals at the Huanan market in Wuhan, a city in Hubei province. Bats, snakes and pangolins have been cited as potential carriers based on the sequence homology of CoV isolated from these animals and the viral nucleic acids of the virus isolated from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Extreme quarantine measures, including sealing off large cities, closing borders and confining people to their homes, were instituted in January 2020 to prevent spread of the virus, but by that time much of the damage had been done, as human-human transmission became evident. While these quarantine measures are necessary and have prevented a historical disaster along the lines of the Spanish flu, earlier recognition and earlier implementation of quarantine measures may have been even more effective. Lessons learned from SARS resulted in faster determination of the nucleic acid sequence and a more robust quarantine strategy. However, it is clear that finding an effective antiviral and developing a vaccine are still significant challenges. The costs of the epidemic are not limited to medical aspects, as the virus has led to significant sociological, psychological and economic effects globally. Unfortunately, emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has led to numerous reports of Asians being subjected to racist behavior and hate crimes across the world.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/history , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genome, Viral , History, 21st Century , Humans , Information Dissemination , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pyroptosis , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology
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