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1.
Adaptive Behavior ; 30(2):163-184, 2020.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1784982

ABSTRACT

In this article, an adaptive consensus model that considers individual disappointment emotion is proposed for emergency multi-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems with hesitant fuzzy linguistic information. Subsequently, it is applied to choose the optimal emergency alternative(s) for the prevention and control of COVID-19 on a college campus. The main innovations and contributions of this article are as follows: (a) Individual modified perceived utility (MPU) based on disappointment theory is integrated into the determination of attribute weights and construction of consensus reaching process (CRP). (b) The MPU-based individual contribution degree and the MPU-based soft group consensus degree are developed. (c) The new emergency CRP mechanism not only considers the rewards and penalties of expert weights but also regards the adaptive updating of attribute weights. Compared with the existing emergency MAGDM models in a hesitant fuzzy linguistic environment, the proposed consensus model has some advantages in improving consensus efficiency and simulating uncertain psychological behavior.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331506

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in millions of deaths and affected socioeconomic structure worldwide and the search for new antivirals and treatments are still ongoing. In the search for new drug target and to increase our understanding of the disease, we used large scale immunofluorescence to explore the host cell response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among the 602 host proteins studied in this host response screen, changes in abundance and subcellular localization were observed for 97 proteins, with 45 proteins showing increased abundance and 10 reduced abundances. 20 proteins displayed changed localization upon infection and an additional 22 proteins displayed altered abundance and localization, together contributing to diverse reshuffling of the host cell protein landscape. We then selected existing and approved small-molecule drugs (n =123) against our identified host response proteins and identified 3 compounds - elesclomol, crizotinib and rimcazole, that significantly reduced antiviral activity. Our study introduces a novel, targeted and systematic approach based on host protein profiling, to identify new targets for drug repurposing. The dataset of ∼75,000 immunofluorescence images from this study are published as a resource available for further studies.

3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-326520

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has exposed an urgent need for effective contact tracing solutions through mobile phone applications to prevent the infection from spreading further. However, due to the nature of contact tracing, public concern on privacy issues has been a bottleneck to the existing solutions, which is significantly affecting the uptake of contact tracing applications across the globe. In this paper, we present a blockchain-enabled privacy-preserving contact tracing scheme: BeepTrace, where we propose to adopt blockchain bridging the user/patient and the authorized solvers to desensitize the user ID and location information. Compared with recently proposed contract tracing solutions, our approach shows higher security and privacy with the additional advantages of being battery friendly and globally accessible. Results show viability in terms of the required resource at both server and mobile phone perspectives. Through breaking the privacy concerns of the public, the proposed BeepTrace solution can provide a timely framework for authorities, companies, software developers and researchers to fast develop and deploy effective digital contact tracing applications, to conquer COVID-19 pandemic soon. Meanwhile, the open initiative of BeepTrace allows worldwide collaborations, integrate existing tracing and positioning solutions with the help of blockchain technology.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324299

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has exposed an urgent need for effective contact tracing solutions through mobile phone applications to prevent the infection from spreading further. However, due to the nature of contact tracing, public concern on privacy issues has been a bottleneck to the existing solutions, which is significantly affecting the uptake of contact tracing applications across the globe. In this paper, we present a blockchain-enabled privacy-preserving contact tracing scheme: BeepTrace, where we propose to adopt blockchain bridging the user/patient and the authorized solvers to desensitize the user ID and location information. Compared with recently proposed contract tracing solutions, our approach shows higher security and privacy with the additional advantages of being battery friendly and globally accessible. Results show viability in terms of the required resource at both server and mobile phone perspectives. Through breaking the privacy concerns of the public, the proposed BeepTrace solution can provide a timely framework for authorities, companies, software developers and researchers to fast develop and deploy effective digital contact tracing applications, to conquer COVID-19 pandemic soon. Meanwhile, the open initiative of BeepTrace allows worldwide collaborations, integrate existing tracing and positioning solutions with the help of blockchain technology.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311946

ABSTRACT

The infected and fatal cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) keep increasing around the world, to explore the infection routes and pathogenesis of 2019-nCoV could be meaningful for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Previous studies showed that the oral cavity is at potentially high risk of 2019-nCoV infection. The ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV was reported could express on oral epithelium and salivary glands, and 2019-nCoV could be detected in patients’saliva. Recently, the amblygeustia were found to widely exist in the COVID-19 patients. To explore the potential mechanism of amblygeustia, we performed further analysis via independent in-house single-cell profiles. Our results showed that ACE2 was inclined to express in taste cells, which indicated that 2019-nCoV may invade into taste cells at the early stage of COVID-19, and lead to the amblygeustia of patients. Above findings about the 2019-nCoV and COVID-19 in oral cavity are valuable and enlightening for future epidemic prevention strategy.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315702

ABSTRACT

Background: Although the existing cases of COVID-19 in China have been reducing since late February 2020, the confirmed cases are surging abroad. Improving public knowledge regarding COVID-19 is critical to control the epidemic. The study aimed to determine the China’s public knowledge of COVID-19 and attitude towards the control measures. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 hours, from 29 February 2020, 22:30 to 2 March 2020, 22:30, based on a self-administered web-based questionnaire. The survey was conducted on the WeChat network. Exponential non-discriminative snowball sampling were applied. The questionnaire was voluntarily submitted by WeChat users. The questionnaire covered the basic demographic information, public knowledge about epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, psychological state, and attitude towards overall control measures. The primary outcome was the Chinese public knowledge regarding COVID-19 and the attitude towards the control measures and secondary outcome was psychological state of the public during this epidemic. Results: The study included 10,905 participants and 10,399 valid questionnaires were included for analysis. Participants with tertiary education, younger age and healthcare workers had better overall knowledge compared with other participants (all P<0.05). About 91.9% of the participants believed in person-to-person transmission and 39.1% believed in animal-to-person transmission. No significant correlation between anxiety and regional number of existing cases was found, while participants in Hubei were more anxious than those in other regions. In general, 74.1% of participants acknowledged the effectiveness of overall control measures and it was negatively correlated with regional number of existing cases (r=-0.492, P=0.007). Conclusions: In conclusion, the survey revealed that Chinese public had overall good knowledge regarding COVID-19 except for those indeterminate knowledge. With the dynamic change of global epidemic situation and more researches, further study would be conducted to explore the change of public knowledge and attitude about COVID-19 in the future.

7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 199: 113868, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561218

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination efficacy depends on serum levels of the neutralizing antibodies (NAs) specific to the receptor-binding domain of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. Therefore, a high-throughput rapid assay capable of measuring the total SARS-CoV-2 NA level is urgently needed for COVID-19 serodiagnosis, convalescent plasma therapy, vaccine development, and assessment. Here, we developed a novel nanoplasmonic immunosorbent assay (NanoPISA) platform for one-step rapid quantification of SARS-CoV-2 NAs in clinical serum samples for high-throughput evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness. The NanoPISA platform enhanced by the use of nanoporous hollow gold nanoparticle coupling was able to detect SARS-CoV-2 NAs with a limit of detection of 0.2 pM within 15 min without washing steps. The one-step NanoPISA for SARS-CoV-2 NA detection in clinical specimens yielded good results, comparable with those obtained in the gold-standard seroneutralization test and the surrogate virus-neutralizing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Collectively, the one-step NanoPISA might be a rapid and high-throughput NA-quantification platform for evaluating the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Gold , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher ; : 4, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1491484
10.
Wireless Blockchain ; : 225-243, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1487431

ABSTRACT

Summary In light of the fast-spreading number of COVID-19 cases worldwide, contact tracing proved to be an effective measure to slow down the infection rate and mitigate the casualties caused by this virus. However, because of several concerns in terms of privacy, as well as security, several countries and their population around the globe are reluctant to adopt contact tracing solutions to contain the spread of the virus. Because of its distributed, public, and auditable nature, blockchain can be a groundbreaking solution contact tracing, given that it would provide a privacy-oriented contact tracing solution. Therefore, in this chapter, we discuss and compare the two alternatives proposed by the BeepTrace framework, active and passive, and also present some initial results based on an early implementation of it. As it can be seen, by utilizing blockchain together with contact tracing, user privacy, security, and decentralization can be guaranteed, giving back the trust needed for these applications to work.

11.
Journal of Physics Communications ; 5(10), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1462255

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, two drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), have received renewed attention. Using the density functional theory method in the CASTEP and DMol3 packages, we calculated both molecules’ infrared spectra and the partial phonon density of states of the hydroxyl group to identify the origin of the differences between the two spectra. Some characteristic vibrational modes of the hydroxyl group in HCQ were analysed individually. We also compared their Fukui functions and found that the oxygen atom in HCQ possesses electrophilic properties. This finding may be related to the large difference in toxicity between these two drugs. The method herein presents a new pathway to investigate organic molecules from the view of physics.

12.
Cell Rep ; 37(1): 109793, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415261

ABSTRACT

The mortality risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has been linked to the cytokine storm caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Understanding the inflammatory responses shared between COVID-19 and other infectious diseases that feature cytokine storms may therefore help in developing improved therapeutic strategies. Here, we use integrative analysis of single-cell transcriptomes to characterize the inflammatory signatures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with COVID-19, sepsis, and HIV infection. We identify ten hyperinflammatory cell subtypes in which monocytes are the main contributors to the transcriptional differences in these infections. Monocytes from COVID-19 patients share hyperinflammatory signatures with HIV infection and immunosuppressive signatures with sepsis. Finally, we construct a "three-stage" model of heterogeneity among COVID-19 patients, related to the hyperinflammatory and immunosuppressive signatures in monocytes. Our study thus reveals cellular and molecular insights about inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and provides therapeutic guidance to improve treatments for subsets of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sepsis/blood , Transcriptome , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Data Analysis , Datasets as Topic , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis
13.
Remote Sensing ; 13(17):3492, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1390735

ABSTRACT

In recent years, as China’s peaking carbon dioxide emissions and air pollution control projects have converged, scholars have begun to focus on the synergistic mechanisms of greenhouse gas and pollution gas reduction. In 2020, the unprecedented coronavirus pandemic, which led to severe nationwide blockade measures, unexpectedly provided a valuable opportunity to study the synergistic reduction in greenhouse gases and polluting gases. This paper uses a combination of NO2, O3, and CO2 column concentration products from different satellites and surface concentrations from ground-based stations to investigate potential correlations between these monitoring indicators in four Chinese representative cities. We found that XCO2 decreased in March to varying degrees in different cities. It was witnessed that the largest decrease in CO2, −1.12 ppm, occurred in Wuhan, i.e., the first epicenter of COVID-19. We also analyzed the effects of NO2 and O3 concentrations on changes in XCO2. First, in 2020, we used a top-down approach to obtain the conclusion that the change amplitude of NO2 concentration in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Wuhan were −24%, −18%, −4%, and −39%, respectively. Furthermore, the O3 concentration increments were 5%, 14%, 12%, and 14%. Second, we used a bottom-up approach to obtain the conclusion that the monthly averaged NO2 concentrations in Beijing, Shanghai, and Wuhan in March had the largest changes, changing to −39%, −40%, and −61%, respectively. The corresponding amounts of changes in monthly averaged O3 concentrations were −14%, −2%, and 9%. However, the largest amount of change in monthly averaged NO2 concentration in Guangzhou was found in December 2020, with a value of −40%. The change in O3 concentration was −12% in December. Finally, we analyzed the relationship of NO2 and O3 concentrations with XCO2. Moreover, the results show that the effect of NO2 concentration on XCO2 is positively correlated from the point of the satellite (R = 0.4912) and the point of the ground monitoring stations (R = 0.3928). Surprisingly, we found a positive (in satellite observations and R = 0.2391) and negative correlation (in ground monitoring stations and R = 0.3333) between XCO2 and the O3 concentrations. During the epidemic period, some scholars based on model analysis found that Wuhan’s carbon emissions decreased by 16.2% on average. Combined with satellite data, we estimate that Wuhan’s XCO2 fell by about 1.12 ppm in February. At last, the government should consider reducing XCO2 and NO2 concentration at the same time to make a synergistic reduction.

14.
Am J Emerg Med ; 50: 218-223, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of accurate prediction tools and early intervention are important for addressing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the prediction models for severe COVID-19 available to date are subject to various biases. This study aimed to construct a nomogram to provide accurate, personalized predictions of the risk of severe COVID-19. METHODS: This study was based on a large, multicenter retrospective derivation cohort and a validation cohort. The derivation cohort consisted of 496 patients from Jiangsu Province, China, between January 10, 2020, and March 15, 2020, and the validation cohort contained 105 patients from Huangshi, Hunan Province, China, between January 21, 2020, and February 29, 2020. A nomogram was developed with the selected predictors of severe COVID-19, which were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. We evaluated the discrimination of the nomogram with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the calibration of the nomogram with calibration plots and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests. RESULTS: Three predictors, namely, age, lymphocyte count, and pulmonary opacity score, were selected to develop the nomogram. The nomogram exhibited good discrimination (AUC 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-0.96 in the derivation cohort; AUC 0.85, 95% CI 0.76-0.93 in the validation cohort) and satisfactory agreement. CONCLUSIONS: The nomogram was a reliable tool for assessing the probability of severe COVID-19 and may facilitate clinicians stratifying patients and providing early and optimal therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nomograms , Adult , COVID-19/blood , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(33): 45344-45352, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188153

ABSTRACT

To control the spread of COVID-19, China has imposed national lockdown policies to restrict the movement of its population since the Chinese New Year of January 2020. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the changes of pollution sources in Shanghai during the COVID-19 lockdown; a high-resolution emission inventory of typical pollution sources including stationary source, mobile source, and oil and gas storage and transportation source was established based on pollution source data from January to February 2020. The results show that the total emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were 9520.2, 37,978.6, 2796.7, and 7236.9 tons, respectively, during the study period. Affected by the COVID-19 lockdown, the mobile source experienced the largest decline. The car mileage and oil sales decreased by about 80% during the COVID-19 lockdown (P3) when compared with those during the pre-Spring Festival (P1). The number of aircraft activity decreased by approximately 50%. The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on industries such as iron and steel and petrochemicals was less significant, while the greater impact was on coatings, chemicals, rubber, and plastic. The emissions of SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and VOCs decreased by 11%, 39%, 37%, and 47%, respectively, during P3 when compared with those during P1. The results show that the measures to control the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic made a significant contribution to emission reductions. This study may provide a reference for other countries to assess the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on emissions and help establish regulatory actions to improve air quality.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 471, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the number of existing cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China has been decreasing since late February 2020, the number of confirmed cases abroad is surging. Improving public knowledge of COVID-19 is critical to controlling the pandemic. This study aimed to determine China's public knowledge of COVID-19 and the attitudes towards control measures. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted over 48 h from 22:30 29 February 2020 to 22:30 2 March 2020 based on a self-administered web-based questionnaire. The survey was conducted on the WeChat network. Exponential non-discriminative snowball sampling was applied. The questionnaire was voluntarily completed by WeChat users. The questionnaire covered basic demographic information, public knowledge of the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, psychological state, and attitudes towards the overall control measures. The primary outcome was the China's public knowledge of COVID-19 and the attitudes towards control measures and secondary outcome was the psychological state of the public during this pandemic. RESULTS: The study included 10,905 participants and 10,399 valid questionnaires were included for analysis. Participants with tertiary education, younger participants and healthcare workers had better overall knowledge than other participants (all P < 0.05). Approximately 91.9% of the participants believed in person-to-person transmission and 39.1% believed in animal-to-person transmission. No significant correlation between anxiety and the number of regional existing confirmed cases was found, while participants in Hubei were more anxious than those in other regions. In general, 74.1% of the participants acknowledged the effectiveness of the overall control measures, and the percentage of participants with agreement with the overall control measures was negatively correlated with the number of regional existing confirmed cases (r = - 0.492, P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the survey revealed that the Chinese public had overall good knowledge of COVID-19 except for those indeterminate knowledges. With dynamic changes in the global pandemic situation and more research, further studies should be conducted to explore changes in public knowledge and attitudes towards COVID-19 in the future. The media could be used in a strict and regular manner to publicize knowledge of such pandemics to halt their spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(6): 1415-1422, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110663

ABSTRACT

Objective: SARS-CoV-2 (originally named COVID-2019) pneumonia is currently prevalent worldwide. The number of cases has increased rapidly but the auscultatory characteristics of affected patients and how to use it to predict who is most likely to survive or die are not available. This study aims to describe the auscultatory characteristics and its clinical relativity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia by using a wireless stethoscope. Material and methods: A cross-sectional, observational, single-center case series of 30 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at Leishenshan Hospital in Wuhan, China, were enrolled from March 9 to April 5, 2020. Clinical, laboratory, radiological, treatment data and lung auscultation were collected and analyzed. Lung auscultation was acquired by a wireless electronic stethoscope. Auscultatory characteristics of the moderate, severe, and critically ill patients were compared. Results: Kinds of crackles including fine crackles and wheezing were heard and recorded in these patients. Velcro crackles were heard in most critically ill patients (6/10). Besides, patients with Velcro crackles were all dead (6/6). There was no positive lung auscultatory finding in the moderate group and little positive lung auscultatory findings (4/10) in the severe group. Conclusion: Velcro crackles can be auscultated by this newly designed electronic wireless stethoscope in most critically ill patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and predicts a poor prognosis. Moderate and severe patients without positive auscultatory findings may have a better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Auscultation/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/virology , Wireless Technology , Aged , Case-Control Studies , China , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stethoscopes
18.
Cell ; 184(7): 1895-1913.e19, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062273

ABSTRACT

A dysfunctional immune response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is a recurrent theme impacting symptoms and mortality, yet a detailed understanding of pertinent immune cells is not complete. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing to 284 samples from 196 COVID-19 patients and controls and created a comprehensive immune landscape with 1.46 million cells. The large dataset enabled us to identify that different peripheral immune subtype changes are associated with distinct clinical features, including age, sex, severity, and disease stages of COVID-19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was found in diverse epithelial and immune cell types, accompanied by dramatic transcriptomic changes within virus-positive cells. Systemic upregulation of S100A8/A9, mainly by megakaryocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood, may contribute to the cytokine storms frequently observed in severe patients. Our data provide a rich resource for understanding the pathogenesis of and developing effective therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Megakaryocytes/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , China , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome/immunology , Young Adult
19.
Chin J Integr Med ; 27(1): 3-6, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059813

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 pandemic has caused hundreds of thousands deaths and millions of infections and continued spreading violently. Although researchers are racing to find or develop effective drugs or vaccines, no drugs from modern medical system have been proven effective and the high mutant rates of the virus may lead it resistant to whatever drugs or vaccines developed following modern drug development procedure. Current evidence has demonstrated impressive healing effects of several Chinese medicines (CMs) for Covid-19, which urges us to reflect on the role of CM in the era of modern medicine. Undoubtedly, CM could be promising resources for developing drug candidates for the treatment of Covid-19 in a way similar to the development of artemisinin. But the theory that builds CM, like the emphasis of driving away exogenous pathogen (virus, etc.) by restoring self-healing capacity rather than killing the pathogen directly from the inside and the 'black-box' mode of diagnosing and treating patients, is as important, yet often ignored, an treasure as CM herbs and should be incorporated into modern medicine for future advancement and innovation of medical science.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Development/methods , Drug Development/standards , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/trends , Mutation Rate , Pandemics , Phytotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
20.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 106: 26-38, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046321

ABSTRACT

To investigate the air quality change during the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed spatiotemporal variations of six criteria pollutants in nine typical urban agglomerations in China using ground-based data and examined meteorological influences through correlation analysis and backward trajectory analysis under different responses. Concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2 and CO in urban agglomerations respectively decreased by 18%-45% (30%-62%), 17%-53% (22%-39%), 47%-64% (14%-41%), 9%-34% (0%-53%) and 16%-52% (23%-56%) during Lockdown (Post-lockdown) period relative to Pre-lockdown period. PM2.5 pollution events occurred during Lockdown in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebe (BTH) and Middle and South Liaoning (MSL), and daily O3 concentration rose to grade Ⅱ standard in Post-lockdown period. Distinct from the nationwide slump of NO2 during Lockdown period, a rebound (∼40%) in Post-lockdown period was observed in Cheng-Yu (CY), Yangtze River Middle-Reach (YRMR), Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Pearl River Delta (PRD). With slightly higher wind speed compared with 2019, the reduction of PM2.5 (51%-62%) in Post-lockdown period is more than 2019 (15%-46%) in HC (Harbin-Changchun), MSL, BTH, CP (Central Plain) and SP (Shandong-Peninsula), suggesting lockdown measures are effective to PM2.5 alleviation. Although O3 concentrations generally increased during the lockdown, its increment rate declined compared with 2019 under similar sunlight duration and temperature. Additionally, unlike HC, MSL and BTH, which suffered from additional (> 30%) air masses from surrounding areas after the lockdown, the polluted air masses reaching YRD and PRD mostly originated from the long-distance transport, highlighting the importance of joint regional governance.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing , China , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
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