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1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(7): 1038-1043, 2022 Jul 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1940573

ABSTRACT

As 2019-nCoV vaccine is widely used in the adult population, children and adolescents have gradually become an important susceptible population to 2019-nCoV due to their low coverage of the vaccine and high contact degree. Understanding the characteristics of 2019-nCoV infection in minors is vital. This paper summarized the progress in the research of 2019-nCoV in minors by using the data from the retrieval of recently published literature. Furthermore, the key characteristics of 2019-nCoV infection in minors, including the susceptibility, transmissibility, prognosis and immune response were analyzed and the progress in child and adolescent vaccine development was introduced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adolescent Development , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
2.
European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):124, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928084

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: COVID-19 pandemic is affecting triage of strokes in emergency. We aimed to find whether COVID-19 delayed the reperfusion treatment in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Methods: The Shanghai Stroke Service System (4S) is a regional network that prospectively registries AIS patients within 7 days. Data with COVID- 19 negetive was extracted from January 2018 to December 2020. Compared to quality measures in 2018-2019, the performance during COVID- 19 outbreak (mainly during 1st quarter of 2020) and post were analyzed. The primary outcome was door to needle time (DTN). The secondary outcomes included the rate of reperfusion treatment and hospitalization cost. Results: Our study included 69,258 patients from 64 stroke centers. During 1st quarter 2018 to 4th quarter 2019, there was an overall downward trend of DTN (P trend=0.006). However, during 1st and 2nd quarters 2020, there was a significant delay of DTN. After outbreak in China, the average DTN plus mandatory COVID-19 PCR test dropped back to <60 minutes. The drop of reperfusion rate was also associated to COVID-19 outbreak (57.92% pre vs 51.74% during, P<0.001), while improved after, compared to those of previous(57.92% pre vs 62.32% post, P<0.001). The cost was slightly declined in 1st quarter 2020 (-$125 USD), which reflected changes in reperfusion rates. Conclusions: In 2020, COVID-19 pandemic prolonged the DTN during COVID-19 outbreak but improved after in Shanghai. Although the prevention protocol and PCR test are still in place, acute stroke care in Shanghai has back to normal post pandemic. (Figure Presented).

3.
2021 International Conference on Computer Application and Information Security, ICCAIS 2021 ; 12260, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1923089

ABSTRACT

In this paper, a monitoring system based on thermopile array sensors is designed for real-time refreshing of thermograms in a web interface. To address the problem of inconspicuous heat map of the main target caused by the interference of the detection environment and the small temperature difference between the target to be measured and the background, a dynamic color mapping processing scheme is proposed to make the heat map of the main target displayed more clearly by continuously adjusting the contrast between the main target and the background color. The experimental results show that the method can achieve dynamic refreshing of the thermogram through a multi-device browser, the correlation of measurement data is greater than 85% compared to handheld thermometers, and the effective transmission distance is about 30m in open range, which can effectively enhance the portability and safety of staff during COVID-19 temperature screening. © The Authors.

4.
14th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design, CCD 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 ; 13312 LNCS:510-519, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919663

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders has increased dramatically in the last two years due to the global COVID-19 epidemic, which leads to a shortage of traditional mental health care resources. To address these issues, we propose to use the digital, immersive, and private features of virtual reality technology to assist in the treatment of mental illness. We designed and completed a garden scene for virtual reality horticultural therapy based on the basic principles of traditional horticultural therapy. In order to study the effectiveness of the gardening scenario, we recruited 30 subjects to explore the effectiveness of mood regulation. A survey of a PANAS scale was conducted before and after the garden scene, and a user experience scale was presented to the subjects after the experiment. The ANOVA results showed that there were significant differences between anxious, distressed and self-loathing before and after the experiment. This demonstrates that virtual reality horticulture therapy has a mood-improving effect. In future works, we will improve the design of VR gardening scenarios and conduct more in-depth research on virtual reality horticulture therapy. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

5.
Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research ; 27(5):473-488, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1915406

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has struck the global travel industry, and local tourism provides a choice. However, little research has explored this market. Our study filled that research gap by incorporating three critical variables that COVID-19 brings, namely, travel anxiety, constrained travel choice, and community citizenship behavior, to extend the model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). This study surveyed 403 residents in Hong Kong and asked them to evaluate their attitudes toward and intentions to participate in local tourism during the COVID-19 pandemic and predict their local tourism after COVID-19. Results suggested that constrained travel choices and community citizenship behaviors would, directly and indirectly, affect residents' attitudes and intentions. Travel anxiety influenced perceived behavioral control, although that variable did not directly affect participants' attitudes and intentions. This study has managerial implications for planning and promoting local tourism in the extended future.

6.
Journal of Xiangya Medicine ; 5, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1904070
7.
Journal of Public Health and Emergency ; 6, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1893539

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is spread mainly through respiratory droplets. With the development of COVID-19 worldwide, international airports are facing unprecedented imported risks, becoming the forefront of overseas epidemic prevention. The transmission mechanism of the disease is easy to implement due to the general human susceptibility. Despite the ongoing development of COVID-19 vaccines, the public health community still needs to establish nonpharmaceutical interventions to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in the population, especially among individuals in close contact with confirmed cases. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, relevant authorities in China have taken active prevention and control measures, strictly tracked down and isolated those involved, and effectively contained the spread of the epidemic. Medical workers have played an important role in epidemic prevention and control. Medical workers are putting their lives and health at risk because of a lack of knowledge about COVID-19. This review summarizes the work of preventing cross-infection in the transport of high-risk groups by ambulance in primary hospitals in Jiangsu province during the COVID-19 outbreak. Through standardized management, the cross infection caused by ambulance has been effectively prevented. Therefore, during the COVID-19 outbreak, establishing a safe disinfection management system, strengthening the disinfection management of ambulance transport, and training personnel in personal protection, work requirements and emergency response skills can effectively prevent the spread of the COVID-19. © 2022 Journal of Innovation Management. All rights reserved.

8.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; 53(11):3557-3563, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884661

ABSTRACT

Shufeng Jiedu Capsules are composed of eight traditional Chinese medicines, including Huzhang (Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix), Lianqiao (Forsythiae Fructus), Baijiangcao (Herba Patriniae), Chaihu (Bupleuri Radix), etc. Shufeng Jiedu Capsules has exactly effects such as dispelling wind and clearing heat, removing toxin and relieving sore-throat, which had been used in treatment of respiratory infectious diseases with symptom like fever, intolerating wind in clinic for a long time. Shufeng Jiedu Capsules are the recommended drugs for the "Influenza Diagnosis and Treatment Plan" (2020 version)issued by National Health Commission and "Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia in COVID-19"(version 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). Pharmacological mechanism and clinical application of Shufeng Jiedu Capsules weresummarized in this paper, in order to summarize characteristic and the post-marketing research path of Shufeng Jiedu Capsules, and provide ideas for more post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine products.

9.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(6): 539-544, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879501

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the clinical characteristics of children with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection imported from Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted to collect the data including clinical manifestations, outcomes and vaccination of 107 children with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection imported from Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to be admitted to the designated referral hospital in Shanghai from February to March 2022. According to the occurrence of clinical symptoms, the cases were divided into asymptomatic group and symptomatic group. According to the age of diagnosis, the cases were divided into <3 years group, 3-<6 years group and 6-<18 years group, and the clinical manifestations in different age group were analyzed with t-test and Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Besides, to analyze the effectiveness of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection in different age group, the cases aged 3-<18 years were also subdivided into unvaccinated group, 1-dose group and 2-dose group, and the relative risk (RR) was used to demonstrate the effectiveness. Results: Among the 107 cases, 66 were male and 41 were female, with infection age of 10 (5, 14) years. There were 29 cases in the asymptomatic group, and 78 cases in the symptomatic group, and no significant difference in the age of infection was observed between the 2 groups (11 (6, 14) vs. 10 (5, 14) years, Z=0.49, P>0.05). And there were no severe cases in symptomatic group. The length of hospitalization was (18±6) days, and was longer in symptomatic group than that in asymptomatic group ((19±6) vs. (16±7) d, t=0.17, P=0.030). Eight-two cases (76.6%) had a history of epidemiological exposure and, among whom, 81 cases (75.7%) were associated with household transmission. Among symptomatic group, 57 cases (73.1%) had fever and 20 cases (25.6%) had cough. Of the 74 cases undergoing chest CT examination, 17 cases (23.0%) showed mild abnormalities. Of the 83 cases who received the lab tests, 23 cases (27.7%) had white blood cell counts<4×109/L, 3 cases (3.6%) had C-reaction protein >8.0 mg/L, and 6 cases (7.2%) had slightly elevated aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase. Among the 92 children aged 3-<18 years, 31 cases were unvaccinated, 34 cases received 1 dose, and 27 cases received 2 doses. The interval between the last vaccination and infection was 2.2 (0.6, 6.0) months; the interval between the last vaccination and infection in the 2-dose group was longer than that in 1-dose group (6.0 (4.5, 7.3) vs. 0.7 (0.3,2.0) months, Z=3.59, P<0.001).The risk of symptomatic infection was reduced by 45% (RR=0.55, 95% CI 0.35-0.87) with two-dose vaccination compared to non-vaccination in cases aged 3-<18 years. All these cases recovered completely. Conclusions: Children infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron are usually mild or asymptomatic. Household transmission is the main pattern of infection with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron in children. Two-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in children aged 3-<18 years can provide partial protection against disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
10.
Frontiers in Political Science ; 4, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1862651

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic was accompanied by an infodemic, which has now become a global concern. Despite the relatively timely and extensive guidelines regarding COVID-19 prevention and treatment, effective and standardized solutions for managing this infodemic are still lacking. In light of the ubiquity of social media in China, various algorithms have been applied to new media platforms to help combat COVID-19, particularly, misinformation and disinformation. Inspired by the model of ‘blocking the spread of the virus, treating the infected population, and improving immunity’ for the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examines three dominant forms of algorithms—collaborative filtering recommendation, content-based recommendation, and knowledge-based recommendation—and proposes a theoretical model called Block, Push, and Intervene (BPI). This model calls for the timely blocking of misinformation and disinformation, precisely delivering authentic information to people affected by the infodemic and intervening in some potential issues in advance. Based on the BPI framework, we conducted semi-structured interviews with relevant staffs in charge of Bytedance, Tencent, Sina Weibo, Baidu, and The National Internet Information Office's Center for Reporting Illegal and Adverse Information, to summarize the patterns of algorithms used against the infodemic. Additionally, an online panel survey is used to analyze public perceptions of the severity of the infodemic on each platform. By evaluating the cross-validated results of the survey sample and semi-structured interviews on the role of algorithms against infodemic, this study contributes both to the understanding of the working details and practices surrounding information epidemics in the context of China, as well as to the systematic research on the unique use of information technology in the midst of public health crises. Copyright © 2022 Wang and Xu.

11.
2022 zh Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, zh EA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846565

ABSTRACT

Location-based advertising (LBA), such as billboards and signage, has long been a direct-to-consumer advertising staple. As locative media such as Location-Based Games (LBG) begins to rise in prominence, digital LDA becomes increasingly appealing. In this paper, we explore the impacts of LBA on small businesses in the LBG Pokémon GO, a lacuna in the literature. We gather participant experience through a collection of 35 semi-structured interviews with businesses leveraging Niantic's sponsored location LBA. These testimonies indicate (1) participant businesses found LBG advertising to be satisfactory, (2) LBG advertising improves brand recognizability for local commerce, and (3) local community is an important factor for success in LBG advertising. These findings indicate future patterns for integrating local businesses into LBG like Pokémon GO, suggesting potential for LBG advertising to assist local businesses. © 2022 ACM.

12.
Chinese General Practice ; 25(11):1383-1386 and 1392, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1835846

ABSTRACT

Background: For a period of time, the outbreak of the COVID-19 outbreak in many urban villages in our country had caused concern. The dense and complex population structure of urban villages, with their inter-regional mobility, posed a challenge to the prevention and control of the epidemic. Objective: Urban village areasare more prone to regional outbreaks of infectious diseases because of their spatial environment, demographic characteristics, cross-regional mobility and the characteristics of residents' medical treatment behavior. The purpose of this study was tounderstand the characteristics of the COVID-19 epidemic situation in urban villages and the current situation and difficulties of primary care institutions in carrying out COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control measures, in order to provide references for primary care institutions to deal with normalized prevention and control, social dynamic clearing work and future infectious disease prevention and control. Methods: By using public opinion analysis, literature retrieval, online interviews with epidemic prevention and control personnel and experts in urban village, the epidemic situation, prevention and control status of urban village were summarized, and the existing weak links and important loopholes were analyzed. Results: Based on the relevant information, a total of six points of concern were extracted: (1) The number of mapping and screening objects was large, which was the focus and difficulty of epidemic prevention and control work in urban villages.(2) There was not strict closed-loop management lead to virus carriers who were not timely controlled, which caused a risk of spreading the epidemic.(3) The prevention and control of nosocomial infection in primary care institutions was not in place.(4)There were loopholes in the inspection of close contacts in the principle of territorial management;close contacts who did not live and work in the same administrative area but only screened in their living places, which may lead to the spread of the epidemic in workplaces where secondary close contacts may be at risk of infection were not screened in a timely manner.(5) Overload had become the norm, highlighting the large gap in primary health care manpower.(6) During the normalization of epidemic prevention and control, residents were paralyzed and careless, and the phenomenon of not wearing masks in public places and crowd gathering was common. Health education still needs to be strengthened and emphasized that residents were the first responsible for their own health. Conclusion: Primary care providers played an important role in the prevention and control of COVID-19 in urban village by undertaking community management, outpatient treatment, public health services, health education, vaccination, quarantine hotel stationing, joint prevention and control, etc. It was recommended that additional fever sentinel clinics be set up for early detection and isolation to avoid further spread of the epidemic, rental houses be requisitioned to meet the demand for isolated medical observation, primary care institutions be strengthened for hospitalization and prevention, green relief channels be opened to protect special groups from medical treatment, volunteers be organized to reinforce primary care institutions, and health education emphasized that residents were the first to be responsible for maintaining their own health and raised personal awareness of the risk of COVID-19 prevention and control. Copyright © 2022 by the Chinese General Practice.

13.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334871

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) exhibit enhanced transmission and immune escape, reducing the efficacy and effectiveness of the two FDA-approved mRNA vaccines. Here, we explored various strategies to develop novel mRNAs vaccines to achieve safer and wider coverage of VOCs. Firstly, we constructed a cohort of mRNAs that feature a furin cleavage mutation in the spike (S) protein of predominant VOCs, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2). Not present in the mRNA vaccines currently in use, the mutation abolished the cleavage between the S1 and S2 subunits, potentially enhancing the safety profile of the immunogen. Secondly, we systematically evaluated the induction of neutralizing antibodies (nAb) in vaccinated mice, and discovered that individual VOC mRNAs elicited strong neutralizing activity in a VOC-specific manner. Thirdly, the IgG produced in mice immunized with Beta-Furin and Washington (WA)-Furin mRNAs showed potent cross-reactivity with other VOCs, which was further corroborated by challenging vaccinated mice with the live virus of VOCs. However, neither WA-Furin nor Beta-Furin mRNA elicited strong neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant. Hence, we further developed an Omicron-specific mRNA vaccine that restored protection against the original and the sublineages of Omicron variant. Finally, to broaden the protection spectrum of the new Omicron mRNA vaccine, we tested the concept of bivalent immunogen. Instead of just fusing two RBDs head-to-tail, we for the first time constructed an mRNA-based chimeric immunogen by introducing the RBD of Delta variant into the entire S antigen of Omicron. The resultant chimeric mRNA was capable of inducing potent and broadly acting nAb against Omicron (both BA.1 and BA.2) and Delta, which paves the way to develop new vaccine candidate to target emerging variants in the future.

14.
27th International Conference on Database Systems for Advanced Applications, DASFAA 2022 ; 13247 LNCS:263-271, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826245

ABSTRACT

In this work, we focus on ive summarization methods for assisting medical researchers in effectively managing information. Particularly, we introduce a COVID-19-related summarization dataset (COVID-SUM) and propose a novel Keyword-aware Attention ive Summarization (KAAS) model. The KAAS model consists of two encoders and one decoder. As for the encoders, one is a standard article encoder built on transformer layers, while the other one is a hierarchical keyword encoder that first encodes the words in a keyword using BiLSTM, and then passes the keyword representations to a transformer layer to connect the keywords in an example. Additionally, a decoder with keyword-focused attention is utilized to further direct the decoding process to generate comprehensive summaries of the scientific articles. We benchmark several summarization methods on the new COVID-SUM dataset and release this dataset in the hope to promote advances to summarization in the COVID-19 medical area (https://github.com/ccip-author/COVID-SUM/releases ). Furthermore, we evaluate the KAAS on COVID-SUM, ArXiv, and PubMed datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that KAAS outperforms several state-of-the-art models on these datasets. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

15.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dementia-like cognitive impairment is an increasingly reported complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this complication remain unclear. A better understanding of causative processes by which COVID-19 may lead to cognitive impairment is essential for developing preventive interventions. METHODS: In this study, we conducted a network-based, multimodal genomics comparison of COVID-19 and neurologic complications. We constructed the SARS-CoV-2 virus-host interactome from protein-protein interaction assay and CRISPR-Cas9 based genetic assay results, and compared network-based relationships therein with those of known neurological manifestations using network proximity measures. We also investigated the transcriptomic profiles (including single-cell/nuclei RNA-sequencing) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) marker genes from patients infected with COVID-19, as well as the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors in the brains of AD patients not infected with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: We found significant network-based relationships between COVID-19 and neuroinflammation and brain microvascular injury pathways and processes which are implicated in AD. We also detected aberrant expression of AD biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of patients with COVID-19. While transcriptomic analyses showed relatively low expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors in human brain, neuroinflammatory changes were pronounced. In addition, single-nucleus transcriptomic analyses showed that expression of SARS-CoV-2 host factors ( BSG and FURIN ) and antiviral defense genes ( LY6E , IFITM2 , IFITM3 , and IFNAR1 ) was significantly elevated in brain endothelial cells of AD patients and healthy controls relative to neurons and other cell types, suggesting a possible role for brain microvascular injury in COVID-19-mediated cognitive impairment. Notably, individuals with the AD risk allele APOE E4/E4 displayed reduced levels of antiviral defense genes compared to APOE E3/E3 individuals. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest significant mechanistic overlap between AD and COVID-19, strongly centered on neuroinflammation and microvascular injury. These results help improve our understanding of COVID-19-associated neurological manifestations and provide guidance for future development of preventive or treatment interventions.

16.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333630

ABSTRACT

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) encoded by DNA genomes have been identified across host and pathogen species as parts of the transcriptome. Accumulating evidences indicate that circRNAs play critical roles in autoimmune diseases and viral pathogenesis. Here we report that RNA viruses of the Betacoronavirus genus of Coronaviridae , SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, encode a novel type of circRNAs. Through de novo circRNA analyses of publicly available coronavirus-infection related deep RNA-Sequencing data, we identified 351, 224 and 2,764 circRNAs derived from SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, respectively, and characterized two major back-splice events shared by these viruses. Coronavirus-derived circRNAs are more abundant and longer compared to host genome-derived circRNAs. Using a systematic strategy to amplify and identify back-splice junction sequences, we experimentally identified over 100 viral circRNAs from SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero E6 cells. This collection of circRNAs provided the first line of evidence for the abundance and diversity of coronavirus-derived circRNAs and suggested possible mechanisms driving circRNA biogenesis from RNA genomes. Our findings highlight circRNAs as an important component of the coronavirus transcriptome. SUMMARY: We report for the first time that abundant and diverse circRNAs are generated by SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and represent a novel type of circRNAs that differ from circRNAs encoded by DNA genomes.

17.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected 586,000 patients in the U.S. However, the COVDI-19 daily incidence and deaths in the U.S. are poorly understood. Internet search interest was found highly correlated with COVID-19 daily incidence in China, but not yet applied to the U.S. Therefore, we examined the association of search interest with COVID-19 daily incidence and deaths in the U.S. METHODS: We extracted the COVDI-19 daily incidence and death data in the U.S. from two population-based datasets. The search interest of COVID-19 related terms was obtained using Google Trends. Pearson correlation test and general linear model were used to examine correlations and predict future trends, respectively. RESULTS: There were 555,245 new cases and 22,019 deaths of COVID-19 reported in the U.S. from March 1 to April 12, 2020. The search interest of COVID, COVID pneumonia, and COVID heart were correlated with COVDI-19 daily incidence with about 12-day of delay (Pearson r=0.978, 0.978 and 0.979, respectively) and deaths with 19-day of delay (Pearson r=0.963, 0.958 and 0.970, respectively). The COVID-19 daily incidence and deaths appeared to both peak on April 10. The 4-day follow-up with prospectively collected data showed moderate to good accuracies for predicting new cases (Pearson r=-0.641 to -0.833) and poor to good acuracies for daily new deaths (Pearson r=0.365 to 0.935). CONCLUSIONS: Search terms related to COVID-19 are highly correlated with the trends in COVID-19 daily incidence and deaths in the U.S. The prediction-models based on the search interest trend reached moderate to good accuracies.

18.
Mol. Cell. Biol. ; 42(1):19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1790368

ABSTRACT

A subset of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, particularly the aged and those with comorbidities, develop the most severe form of the disease, characterized by acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS), coincident with experiencing a "cytokine storm." Here, we demonstrate that cytokines which activate the NF-kappa B pathway can induce activin A. Patients with elevated activin A, activin B, and FLRG at hospital admission were associated with the most severe outcomes of COVID-19, including the requirement for mechanical ventilation, and all-cause mortality. A prior study showed that activin A could decrease viral load, which indicated there might be a risk to giving COVID-19 patients an inhibitor of activin. To evaluate this, the role for activin A was examined in a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, via blockade of activin A signaling. The hamster model demonstrated that use of an anti-activin A antibody did not worsen the disease and there was no evidence for increase in lung viral load and pathology. The study indicates blockade of activin signaling may be beneficial in treating COVID-19 patients experiencing ARDS.

19.
Journal of International Money and Finance ; 125, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1787562

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the economic and epidemiological externalities of containment policies in an open-economy setting with firm entry and exit, SIR virus transmission, and a production network. Motivated by empirical evidence that non-pharmaceutical intervention policies (such as workplace closure or social distancing) are substitutes for medication-related policies (healthcare facilities and vaccine development), we incorporated four types of containment policies into our model. We find the workplace closure policy is the most effective in pandemic management, and social distance is a beggar-thy-neighbor strategy. Furthermore, we evaluate the efficacy of existing policy combinations and compare them to the optimal policy choice in the cooperative and Nash equilibrium, and a “prepare-for-worst” situation. Inter-country policy collaboration allows each country to specialize in different policies while also improving overall welfare. Real-world policies differ from optimum policies in the cooperative and Nash equilibrium, but they are closer to the second-best policies in the “prepare-for-worst” scenario, in which the U.S. policies cannot be predicted. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

20.
J Aerosol Sci ; 163: 105995, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768234

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, WHO and CDC suggest people stay 1 m and 1.8 m away from others, respectively. Keeping social distance can avoid close contact and mitigate infection spread. Many researchers suspect that suggested distances are not enough because aerosols can spread up to 7-8 m away. Despite the debate on social distance, these social distances rely on unobstructed respiratory activities such as coughing and sneezing. Differently, in this work, we focused on the most common but less studied aerosol spread from an obstructed cough. The flow dynamics of a cough jet blocked by the backrest and gasper jet in a cabin environment was characterized by the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. It was proved that the backrest and the gasper jet can prevent the front passenger from droplet spray in public transportation where maintaining social distance was difficult. A model was developed to describe the cough jet trajectory due to the gasper jet, which matched well with PIV results. It was found that buoyancy and inside droplets almost do not affect the short-range cough jet trajectory. Infection control measures were suggested for public transportation, including using backrest/gasper jet, installing localized exhaust, and surface cleaning of the backrest.

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