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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338376

ABSTRACT

Background About 3 million people die every year in USA. In order to provide a general direction and background for subsequent research and development in this field, we reviewed the studies about impact of potential factors associated with the main causes of mortality and all-cause mortality. Method Researches are selected by PubMed website for last 15 years with published language of English. The leading cause of death were published by CDC in 2020 (excluded COVID-19) including the ten natural mortalities and unnatural mortality. We summarized the potential factors associated with the mortality and sorted them by “positive/negative effect” and “long-term/short-term effect”. Result Among risk factors, the factors of depression, unhealthy diet, overweight and obesity and other similar factors increase the mortality of main leading natural causes. Among protective factors, the factors of physical activity, nut intake, chocolate consumption were associated with the reduced mortality of multiple diseases. We also found that some factors possess bidirectional influence on different diseases or even one disease. The gender of female negatively affects mortality of diabetes, but positively affects cardiovascular diseases. The majority of air pollutants are risk factors for respiratory diseases while ozone possibly reduce the mortality. Conclusion Our review summarized various factors which have positive/negative and long-term/short-term effects on the main mortality of cause-specific and all-caused mortality. Further study is required to investigate the contribution of different variable on mortality.

2.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837518

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has been a public health crisis of international concern, causing huge impact on people’s lives. As an important part of social public crisis management, how to quickly and effectively raise resources to participate in emergency relief in the era of self-media is a common challenge faced by global charitable organizations. This article attempts to use empirical evidence from Tencent charitable crowdfunding platform, the largest charitable crowdfunding platform in China, to answer this question. We consider 205 COVID-19 charitable projects and 11,177,249 donors to assess the process by which non-profit organizations raise funds through the information about project descriptions. Based on the effects of information and emotional framing, we explore the effects of the readability (i.e., complexity and understandability) and negative tone of the project description on fundraising amount. We then investigate the mediating role of forwarding times, as affective response to the text might explain forwarding times, which in turn affects money raised by increasing the visibility of the campaign. On this basis, the moderating role of recipient’s crisis involvement is tested during this process. The empirical results indicate that the complexity of the description will reduce the fundraising amount, while understandability and negative tone help to improve it. Furthermore, we found that forwarding times played an important mediating role in this process. Then the buffer effect of crisis involvement on the negative effect of complexity was validated, and its amplification on the positive effects of understandability was also verified.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334353

ABSTRACT

Background: This study explores how the services provided by different types of Chinese communities varied in their impact on the social involvement of their residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous research has shown that services in traditional Chinese communities have supported pandemic governance because of their human resource advantages. However, we argue that the services provided by intelligent communities not only adhered to COVID-19 pandemic governance but also promoted the social involvement of the residents. Methods: : Using a case study approach of the intelligent community Fang Xing and the traditional community Qili Tang, both located in Hefei city in Anhui, China, this article compares traditional and intelligent Chinese community services. We conducted 42 in-person interviews (21 residents, 10 volunteers, 11 staff members), 30 telephone interviews (10 residents, 10 volunteers, 10 staff members), and 50 online video interviews (30 residents, 10 volunteers, 10 staff members) from June to August 2020. Results: : The findings suggest that while the traditional community decreased its residents’ social involvement by restricting certain services during the pandemic, the intelligent community was able to apply COVID-19 governance measures without restricting its residents’ social involvement. In the traditional community, family members were obliged to take responsibility for daily living services and family care tasks. This community often responded slowly when providing required services compared to intelligent communities. The intelligent community contributed greatly to its residents’ social involvement in the process of pandemic governance. It offered an attractive option for residents to act as community service managers and prepared its residents for local-level pandemic governance. Conclusions: : This study provides a better understanding of the relationship between community services and residents’ social involvement in terms of the different dimensions of community services. The intelligent community model can act as a reference for international community development during health emergencies.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329659

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) exhibit enhanced transmission and immune escape, reducing the efficacy and effectiveness of the two FDA-approved mRNA vaccines currently in use. Here, we explored various strategies to develop mRNA vaccines that offer potentially safer and wider coverage of VOCs. The initial mouse vaccination results showed that the individual VOC mRNAs carrying furin cleavage mutation induced the generation of neutralizing antibody in a VOC-specific manner. Moreover, we discovered that the antibodies produced from mice immunized with Beta-Furin and Washington (WA)-Furin mRNAs cross-reacted with other VOCs. The broad spectrum of generated nAb was further confirmed when vaccinated mice were challenged with the respective live viruses. However, neither WA-Furin nor Beta-Furin mRNA elicited potent neutralizing activity against the omicron variant. Interestingly, in a mix-and-match booster experiment, omicron-Furin and WA-Furin mRNA elicited comparable protection against omicron. Finally, we tested the concept of bivalent vaccine by introducing the RBD of Delta strain into the intact S antigen of Omicron. The chimeric mRNA induces potent and broadly acting nAb against Omicron and Delta, which paves the way to develop vaccine candidate to target emerging variants in the future.

5.
Front Psychol ; 13: 814869, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731835

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has fueled anti-Asian, especially anti-Chinese sentiments worldwide, which may negatively impact diasporic Chinese youths' adjustment and prosocial development. This study examined the association between compassion, discrimination and prosocial behaviors in diasporic Chinese youths during the COVID-19 pandemic. 360 participants participated and completed the multi-country, cross-sectional, web-based survey between April 22 and May 9, 2020, the escalating stage of the pandemic. This study found compassion as prosocial behaviors' proximal predictor, while discrimination independently predicted participation in volunteering, and could potentially enhance the association between compassion and charitable giving. These findings suggest that prosociality among young people is sensitive to social context, and that racial discrimination should be considered in future prosocial studies involving young members of ethnic and racial minorities.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms, which is related to gut microbiota dysbiosis (GMD). Whether washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) is effective in COVID-19 patients suspected with GMD by restoring gut microbiota is unknown. This study is designed to explore the efficacy and safety of WMT in COVID-19 patients suspected with GMD.METHODS: COVID-19 patients suspected with GMD will be randomly divided to receive routine treatment (group A) or receive routine treatment and WMT (group B). The frequency of WMT will be once a day for three consecutive days. Nucleic acid test, imaging examination, and tests related to organ functions, homeostasis, inflammatory response, intestinal barrier function and immunity will be performed at admission, 1, and 2 weeks after treatment and on the day of discharge. The clinical efficacy and safety of WMT in COVD-19 suspected with GMD and the effects of WMT on the organ function, homeostasis, inflammatory response, intestinal barrier function and immunity of the patients will be evaluated. The primary outcome will be the clinical efficacy, as reflected by the SARS-Cov-2 infection status, gastrointestinal symptoms and the recovery of the disease. The secondary outcomes will be the effects of WMT on the organ function, homeostasis, inflammatory response, intestinal barrier function and immunity of the patients, as well as occurrence of adverse events during WMT.DISCUSSION: In the proposed protocol, WMT is expected to be efficacious and safe for the treatment of COVID-19 patients suspected with GMD, and the therapeutic effect is expected to be associated with the improvement of intestinal barrier function, inflammatory response and immunity. Findings from this study may open up a new way for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 suspected with GMD.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry – URL: http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx. Registration number: ChiCTR2000032737. Registered 9 May 2020.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311350

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) spreads rapidly throughout the world. So far, no therapeutics have yet been proven to be effective. Ribavirin was recommended for the treatment of COVID-19 because of its in vitro activity. However, evidence supporting its clinical use with good efficacy is still lacking. Methods: : A total of 208 confirmed severe or critical COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Wuhan Union West Campus between 1 February 2020 and 10 March 2020 were enrolled in the retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups based on the use of ribavirin. The primary endpoint was the time to clinical improvement. The secondary endpoints included mortality, survival time, time to throat swab SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative conversion, and hospital duration. Results: : 68 patients were treated with ribavirin while 140 not. There were no significant between-group differences in demographic characteristics, baseline laboratory test results, treatment, and distribution of ordinal scale scores at enrollment, except coexisting diseases especially cancer (ribavirin group vs no ribavirin group, P = 0.014). Treatment with ribavirin was not associated with a difference in the time to clinical improvement ( P = 0.483, HR = 0.884, 95% CI = 0.627-1.247). There were also no significant differences between-group in the number of patients with SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative conversion, mortality, survival time, and hospital duration. Conclusion: In hospitalized adult patients with severe or critical COVID-19, no significant benefit was observed with ribavirin treatment.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308310

ABSTRACT

Background: Research indicates the adverse impacts of perceived discrimination on health, and discrimination inflamed by the COVID-19 pandemic, a type of social exclusion, could affect the well-being of the Chinese diaspora. The relationship and pathways of perceived discrimination’s effect on health among the Chinese diaspora in the context of the pandemic were examined to contribute to the literature on discrimination in this population under the global public health crisis. Methods: . We analysed data from 705 individuals of Chinese descent residing in countries outside of China, who participated in a cross-sectional online survey carried out between April 22 and May 9, 2020. This study utilizes a structural equation model (SEM) to evaluate both direct and indirect effects of perceived discrimination on self-rated health (SRH) and assessed the mediating roles of psychological distress (namely, anxiety and depression) and social support from family and friends. Results: . In this online sample comprised predominantly of young adults and those of relatively high socioeconomic status, this study confirmed the positive and direct effect of perceived discrimination on poor SRH but found the indirect effect was mainly mediated by depression. The association between anxiety and SRH was not significant in this SEM, while a higher level of social support from family leads to better SRH, and the level of social support from friends negatively predicted SRH. Conclusions: . Our findings suggest discrimination negatively affected the well-being of the Chinese diaspora, and depression acted as a major mediator between the discrimination-health relationship. Therefore, interventions for reducing discrimination in order to preserve the well-being of the Chinese diaspora are necessary, and that prompt intervention to address depression may partially relieve the disease burden caused by the surge of discrimination.

9.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 5521-5530, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594474

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Despite increasing literature on the association between treatment delay and outcomes, cut-off point (1 month or median) selection in almost all studies for treatment delay is too subjective. This study explored more scientific cut-off points of treatment delay for poor treatment outcomes and death at the clinical level. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 18,100 newly confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases in Dalian, China were used in the final analysis. A 3-knotted restricted cubic spline (RCS) fitted for Cox proportional hazard regression models is used to analyse the effects of cut-off points of treatment delay on incident poor treatment outcomes. To explore the moderating effects of age, gender and diabetes, we added the interaction terms of these moderating variables and treatment delay to Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: The median time of treatment initiation was 30 days (IQR: 14-59 days). The risk of incident poor treatment outcomes increased when the time was greater than cut-off point 1 (53 days; adjusted HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.00-1.60) of treatment delay, and the risk of incident death events increased when the time was greater than cut-off point 2 (103 days; adjusted HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.00-2.44) of delay. In addition, treatment delay was associated with an increased risk of incident poor treatment outcomes and death, and older age, male sex, and diabetes may increase the risk of treatment delay for poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to identify scientific cut-off points of treatment delay for poor treatment outcomes and death, and this method of exploration should be popularized. In addition, the knowledge of tuberculosis must be spread to every adult. Moreover, the tuberculosis diagnosis level of community level health workers should be enhanced.

10.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(6): 1087-1095, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms, which are related to gut microbiota dysbiosis (GMD). Whether washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) is an effective treatment for COVID-19 patients suspected of having GMD by restoring the gut microbiota is unknown. This study is designed to explore the efficacy and safety of WMT in COVID-19 patients suspected of having GMD. METHODS: This is a randomized, multicenter, single-blind prospective study. COVID-19 patients suspected of having GMD will be randomly divided to receive routine treatment only or to receive routine treatment and WMT. The frequency of WMT will be once a day for three consecutive days. Laboratory and imaging examinations will be performed at admission, 1 and 2 weeks after treatment, and on the day of discharge. Then a telephone follow-up will be conducted at 1st week, 2nd week, and 6th month after discharge. The clinical efficacy and safety of WMT in COVD-19 patients suspected of having GMD and the effects of WMT on the organ function, homeostasis, inflammatory response, intestinal mucosal barrier function, and immunity of the patients will be evaluated. RESULTS: By following the proposed protocol, WMT is expected to be efficacious and safe for the treatment of COVID-19 patients suspected of having GMD, and the therapeutic effect is expected to be associated with improvement of the intestinal mucosal barrier function, inflammatory response, and immunity. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study may offer a new approach for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 patients suspected of having GMD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/therapy , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Dysbiosis/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/methods , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , China , Clinical Protocols , Dysbiosis/etiology , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Living Donors , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Safety , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 7259414, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533111

ABSTRACT

In this paper, based on the improved convolutional neural network, in-depth analysis of the CT image of the new coronary pneumonia, using the U-Net series of deep neural networks to semantically segment the CT image of the new coronary pneumonia, to obtain the new coronary pneumonia area as the foreground and the remaining areas as the background of the binary image, provides a basis for subsequent image diagnosis. Secondly, the target-detection framework Faster RCNN extracts features from the CT image of the new coronary pneumonia tumor, obtains a higher-level abstract representation of the data, determines the lesion location of the new coronary pneumonia tumor, and gives its bounding box in the image. By generating an adversarial network to diagnose the lesion area of the CT image of the new coronary pneumonia tumor, obtaining a complete image of the new coronary pneumonia, achieving the effect of the CT image diagnosis of the new coronary pneumonia tumor, and three-dimensionally reconstructing the complete new coronary pneumonia model, filling the current the gap in this aspect, provide a basis to produce new coronary pneumonia prosthesis and improve the accuracy of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Computational Biology , Databases, Factual , Deep Learning , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 85(2): 729-744, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic is a global crisis which results in millions of deaths and causes long-term neurological sequelae, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the interaction between COVID-19 and AD by integrating bioinformatics to find the biomarkers which lead to AD occurrence and development with COVID-19 and provide early intervention. METHODS: The differential expressed genes (DEGs) were found by GSE147507 and GSE132903, respectively. The common genes between COVID-19 and AD were identified. Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and protein-protein interactions (PPI) network analysis were carried out. Hub genes were found by cytoscape. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. NetworkAnalyst was used for the analysis of TF-gene interactions, TF-miRNA coregulatory network, and Protein-chemical Interactions. RESULTS: Forty common DEGs for AD and COVID-19 were found. GO and KEGG analysis indicated that the DEGs were enriched in the calcium signal pathway and other pathways. A PPI network was constructed, and 5 hub genes were identified (ITPR1, ITPR3, ITPKB, RAPGEF3, MFGE8). Four hub genes (ITPR1, ITPR3, ITPKB, RAPGEF3) which were considered as important factors in the development of AD that were affected by COVID-19 were shown by nomogram. Utilizing NetworkAnalyst, the interaction network of 4 hub genes and TF, miRNA, common AD risk genes, and known compounds is displayed, respectively. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients are at high risk of developing AD. Vaccination is required. Four hub genes can be considered as biomarkers for prediction and treatment of AD development caused by COVID-19. Compounds with neuroprotective effects can be used as adjuvant therapy for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
13.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue = China Environmental Science ; 41(8):3927, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1498172

ABSTRACT

Based on the meteorological forecast data from the National Meteorological Bureau, this study developed an AERMOD-based pollution forecasting model for iron and steel plants, simulated air quality impacts of a typical iron and steel plant located in Hebei Province during the controlled period(from February to March in 2020) and the uncontrolled period(from April to October in 2020) of the COVID-19 epidemic, and validated the model with real monitoring air quality data. In case of adverse wind direction, the results showed that the average contribution of SO2, NOx and PM10 from the plant to three state-controlled monitoring stations were 20.19~33.81%, 17.49~23.46% and 2.02~2.69% respectively during the controlled period, and 13.43~21.01%, 11.09~20.92% and 1.20~2.22% during the uncontrolled period. The correlation coefficients between the forecast values of SO2, NOx and PM10 emission of the plant and the real monitoring values of the three state-controlled monitoring stations were higher in the controlled period(the highest values are 0.43,0.48 and 0.29, respectively, at individual monitoring station) compared with the uncontrolled period(the highest values are 0.42,0.39 and 0.07, respectively) due to the less interference from other anthropogenic emission sources during the controlled period.

14.
Front Psychol ; 12: 741821, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450838

ABSTRACT

Background: In the face of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) outbreak, Chinese medical students worried about their future studies which might make them more susceptible to academic anxiety. Previous studies have shown that academic anxiety is an important risk factor for self-handicapping, but there are few studies to explore the relationship between the two which may be mediated or moderated by other variables. Therefore, this study investigated how Chinese medical students' academic anxiety is correlated to their self-handicapping in time of COVID-19 epidemic, and explored the moderating and mediating effects of hardiness and procrastination. Methods: In this study, 320 Chinese medical students' psychological traits were measured with Academic Anxiety Questionnaire, Self-Handicapping Scale, General Procrastination Scale and Hardiness Scale to explore the potential associations between these variables. Results: The most obvious finding to emerge from this study was that self- handicapping had a positive correlation with academic anxiety and procrastination, but had a negative correlation with hardiness; hardiness had a negative association with academic anxiety and procrastination; and academic anxiety and procrastination were positively correlated. In addition, the relationship between academic anxiety and self-handicapping of Chinese medical students was not only partially mediated by procrastination, but also moderated by hardiness. Furthermore, medical students who had lower hardiness had stronger direct effect, while the indirect effect was strong at high and low conditions of hardiness. Conclusion: In time of the COVID-19 epidemic, the academic anxiety and self-handicapping of medical students are influenced by procrastination and hardiness to a great extent. Thus, in addition to suggesting that more attention should be paid to the academic anxiety and procrastination of medical students, in the future, more attention should be paid to cultivating the hardiness of medical students and exerting its interventional role in self-handicapping.

15.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 192, 2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research indicates the adverse impacts of perceived discrimination on health, and discrimination inflamed by the COVID-19 pandemic, a type of social exclusion, could affect the well-being of the Chinese diaspora. We analyzed the relationship and pathways of perceived discrimination's effect on health among the Chinese diaspora in the context of the pandemic to contribute to the literature on discrimination in this population under the global public health crisis. METHODS: We analyzed data from 705 individuals of Chinese descent residing in countries outside of China who participated in a cross-sectional online survey between April 22 and May 9, 2020. This study utilized a structural equation model (SEM) to evaluate both direct and indirect effects of perceived discrimination on self-rated health (SRH) and to assess the mediating roles of psychological distress (namely, anxiety and depression) and social support from family and friends. RESULTS: This online sample comprised predominantly young adults and those of relatively high socioeconomic status. This study confirmed the total and direct effect of recently perceived discrimination on SRH and found the indirect effect was mainly mediated by depression. Mediating roles of anxiety and social support on the discrimination-health relationship were found insignificant in this SEM. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest discrimination negatively affected the well-being of the Chinese diaspora, and depression acted as a major mediator between the discrimination-health relationship. Therefore, interventions for reducing discrimination to preserve the well-being of the Chinese diaspora are necessary. Prompt intervention to address depression may partially relieve the disease burden caused by the surge of discrimination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Emigrants and Immigrants , Pandemics , Racism , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Racism/psychology , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
J Med Chem ; 65(4): 2905-2925, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303733

ABSTRACT

Recurring coronavirus outbreaks, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, establish a necessity to develop direct-acting antivirals that can be readily administered and are active against a broad spectrum of coronaviruses. Described in this Article are novel α-acyloxymethylketone warhead peptidomimetic compounds with a six-membered lactam glutamine mimic in P1. Compounds with potent SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease and in vitro viral replication inhibition were identified with low cytotoxicity and good plasma and glutathione stability. Compounds 15e, 15h, and 15l displayed selectivity for SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease over CatB and CatS and superior in vitro SARS-CoV-2 antiviral replication inhibition compared with the reported peptidomimetic inhibitors with other warheads. The cocrystallization of 15l with SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease confirmed the formation of a covalent adduct. α-Acyloxymethylketone compounds also exhibited antiviral activity against an alphacoronavirus and non-SARS betacoronavirus strains with similar potency and a better selectivity index than remdesivir. These findings demonstrate the potential of the substituted heteroaromatic and aliphatic α-acyloxymethylketone warheads as coronavirus inhibitors, and the described results provide a basis for further optimization.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Peptidomimetics/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Glutamine/chemistry , Glutamine/pharmacology , Humans , Ketones/chemistry , Ketones/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Peptidomimetics/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Virus Replication/drug effects
17.
Front Physiol ; 12: 651408, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211845

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been an ongoing pandemic and worldwide public health emergency, having drawn a lot of attention around the world. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is characterized by infecting angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-expressing cells, including testis-specific cells, namely, Leydig, Sertoli, and spermatogenic cells, which are closely related to male reproduction. This leads to aberrant hyperactivation of the immune system generating damage to the infected organs. An impairment in testicular function through uncontrolled immune responses alerts more attention to male infertility. Meanwhile, the recent clinical data indicate that the infection of the human testis with SARS-CoV-2 may impair male germ cell development, leading to germ cell loss and higher immune cell infiltration. In this review, we investigated the evidence of male reproductive dysfunction associated with the infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its possible immunological explanations and clinical remedies.

18.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 43(1): 64-75, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142428

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out in December 2019. Due its high morbility and mortality, it is necessary to summarize the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients to provide more theoretical basis for future treatment. In the current study, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients and explored the risk factors for the severity of illness. A total of 101 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Leishenshan Hospital (Wuhan, China) was classified into three sub-types: moderate (n = 47), severe (n = 36), and critical (n = 18); their clinical data were collected from the Electronic Medical Record. We showed that among the 101 COVID-19 patients, the median age was 62 years (IQR 51-74); 50 (49.5%) patients were accompanied by hypertension, while 25 (24.8%) and 22 (21.8%) patients suffered from diabetes and heart diseases, respectively, with complications. All patients were from Wuhan who had a definite history of exposure to the epidemic area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, diabetes, chronic liver disease, percentage of neutrophils (N%) > 75%, CRP > 4 mg/L, D-dimer > 0.55 mg/L, IL-2R > 710 U/mL, IL-8 > 62 pg/mL, and IL-10 > 9.1 pg/mL were independent variables associated with severe COVID-19. In conclusion, we have identified the independent risk factors for the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia, including older age, diabetes, chronic liver disease, higher levels of N%, CRP, D-dimer, IL-2R, IL-8, and IL-10, providing evidence for more accurate risk prediction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , China , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Neutrophils/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
19.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(6): 876-881, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091770

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) swept rapidly throughout the world. So far, no therapeutics have yet proven to be effective. Ribavirin was recommended for the treatment of COVID-19 in China because of its in vitro activity. However, evidence supporting its clinical use with good efficacy is still lacking. METHODS: A total of 208 confirmed severe COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Wuhan Union West Campus between 1 February 2020 and 10 March 2020 were enrolled in the retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups based on the use of ribavirin. The primary endpoint was the time to clinical improvement. The secondary endpoints included mortality, survival time, time to throat swab SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative conversion, and the length of hospital stay. RESULTS: 68 patients were treated with ribavirin while 140 not. There were no significant between-group differences in demographic characteristics, baseline laboratory test results, treatment, and distribution of ordinal scale scores at enrollment, except for coexisting diseases especially cancer (ribavirin group vs no ribavirin group, P = 0.01). Treatment with ribavirin was not associated with a difference in the time to clinical improvement (P = 0.48, HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.63-1.25). There were also no significant differences between-group in SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative conversion, mortality, survival time, and the length of hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19, no significant benefit was observed with ribavirin treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Ribavirin , Aged , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
20.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 33(4): 378-387, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085196

ABSTRACT

Toilet hygiene is an important preventive measure for infectious diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. This study explored public's opinions on improving toilet environment and hygiene practices in Hong Kong. A mixed-method approach was applied. We conducted 4 focus groups plus 3 individual interviews among the Hong Kong Chinese, followed by a questionnaire survey with 300 respondents recruited from various districts. Difference in response distributions between groups with different demographics was tested by Pearson χ2 test. Instead of advocating for advanced toilet facilities, respondents were mostly concerned about basic hygiene issues. Malfunctioning facilities resulting from poor toilet management, such as clogged toilets, stained facilities, and problematic flushing systems, were most cited as barriers to toilet hygiene practices. Three quarters of the survey respondents expressed concerns over worn and poorly maintained toilets, shortage of janitors, and cleansing supplies. However, respondents who were older (P < .001), less educated (P < .001), and had lower income (P = .001) were significantly more likely to find hygiene conditions in public toilets satisfactory. The findings reflected the substandard of the current provisions as a developed city in Asia. Enhanced efforts by the government to maintain basic toilet supplies and facilities is the key to improving public compliance to toilet hygiene practices.


Subject(s)
Hygiene/standards , Public Opinion , Toilet Facilities/standards , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Focus Groups , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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