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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 427, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795805

ABSTRACT

Abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in COVID-19 patients were recently reported with unclear mechanism. In this study, we retrospectively investigated a cohort of COVID-19 patients without pre-existing metabolic-related diseases, and found new-onset insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and decreased HDL-C in these patients. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 infection increased the expression of RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST), which modulated the expression of secreted metabolic factors including myeloperoxidase, apelin, and myostatin at the transcriptional level, resulting in the perturbation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, several lipids, including (±)5-HETE, (±)12-HETE, propionic acid, and isobutyric acid were identified as the potential biomarkers of COVID-19-induced metabolic dysregulation, especially in insulin resistance. Taken together, our study revealed insulin resistance as the direct cause of hyperglycemia upon COVID-19, and further illustrated the underlying mechanisms, providing potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19-induced metabolic complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hyperglycemia/blood , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 253, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human rhinovirus (HRV) is the predominant etiological agent of the common cold in children and adults. A recent study showed that the inhibitory effect of face masks on viral shedding of HRV was less prominent than that on other respiratory viruses. Considering that most Chinese people have worn face masks in public area since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019, we aimed to find out whether HRV prevailed among children in 2020 and demonstrate the details of the epidemiological features of HRV under such a special circumstance. METHODS: We summarized the incidences of various respiratory virus infections in patients who visited the Children's Hospital of Fudan University during 2018-2020, and genotyped HRV positive nasopharyngeal specimens collected from 316 inpatients and 72 outpatients that visited the hospital in 2020. RESULTS: There was a major prevalence of HRV among children in the latter half of 2020, with a clear seasonality that HRV-As prevailed in summer while HRV-Cs in autumn. HRV-As were more prone to cause severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), while HRV-Cs were closely associated with childhood wheezing. The predominant genotypes were A11, A28, A47, A82, A101, C40 and C43. Notably, A21, A82 and A101 took up larger proportions in severe cases than in non-severe cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings described a major prevalence of HRVs among children in 2020, which highlight the unique transmitting pattern of HRV and help to narrow the targets for antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Picornaviridae Infections , Adult , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Masks , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/prevention & control , Rhinovirus/genetics
3.
J Genet Genomics ; 48(9): 803-814, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720312

ABSTRACT

Children are less susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and they have manifested lower morbidity and mortality after infection, for which a multitude of mechanisms may be considered. Whether the normal development of the gut-airway microbiome in children is affected by COVID-19 has not been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection alters the upper respiratory tract and the gut microbiomes in nine children. The alteration of the microbiome is dominated by the genus Pseudomonas, and it sustains for up to 25-58 days in different individuals. Moreover, the patterns of alternation are different between the upper respiratory tract and the gut. Longitudinal investigation shows that the upper respiratory tract and the gut microbiomes are extremely variable among children during the course of COVID-19. The dysbiosis of microbiome persists in 7 of 8 children for at least 19-24 days after discharge from the hospital. Disturbed development of both the gut and the upper respiratory microbiomes and prolonged dysbiosis in these nine children imply possible long-term complications after clinical recovery from COVID-19, such as predisposition to the increased health risk in the post-COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Computational Biology/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Dysbiosis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Humans
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112718, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693903

ABSTRACT

Myocardial infarction and stroke are the leading causes of death in the world. Numerous evidence has confirmed that hypertension promotes thrombosis and induces myocardial infarction and stroke. Recent findings reveal that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are involved in the induction of myocardial infarction and stroke. Meanwhile, patients with severe COVID-19 suffer from complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke with pathological signs of NETs. Due to the extremely low amount of virus detected in the blood and remote organs (e.g., heart, brain and kidney) in a few cases, it is difficult to explain the mechanism by which the virus triggers NETosis, and there may be a different mechanism than in the lung. A large number of studies have found that the renin-angiotensin system regulates the NETosis at multiple levels in patients with COVID-19, such as endocytosis of SARS-COV-2, abnormal angiotensin II levels, neutrophil activation and procoagulant function at multiple levels, which may contribute to the formation of reticular structure and thrombosis. The treatment of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) and neutrophil recruitment and active antagonists helps to regulate blood pressure and reduce the risk of net and thrombosis. The review will explore the possible role of the angiotensin system in the formation of NETs in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Neutrophils , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin II , Animals , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Phenotype
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324309

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly recognized illness that has spread rapidly all over the world. Severe hypoxemic respiratory failure from COVID-19 will bring high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Our study aims to identify in-hospital VTE risk and bleeding risk in COVID-19 patients. Methods We retrospectively studied 138 consecutively enrolled patients with COVID-19 and identified in-hospital VTE and bleeding risk by Padua Prediction Score and Improve bleed risk assessment model. The clinical data and features were analyzed in VTE patients. Results Our findings identified that 23 (16.67%) patients with COVID-19 were at high risk for VTE according to Padua prediction score, and 9(6.52%) patients were at high risk of bleeding for VTE prophylaxis according to Improve prediction score. Fifteen critically ill patients faced double high risk from thrombosis (Padua score more than 4 points in all 15[100%] patients) and hemorrhage (Improve score more than 7 points in 9[60.0%] patients). Thrombotic events were identified in four patients (2.9%) of all COVID-19 patients. All of them were diagnosed as deep vein thrombosis by ultrasound after 3 to 18 days after admission. Three (75.0%) were critically ill patients, which means the incidence of VTE among critically ill patients was 20%. One major hemorrhage was happened in critically ill patients during VTE treatment. Conclusion Critically ill patients with COVID-19 suffered both high risk of thrombosis and bleeding risks. More effective VTE prevention strategies based on an individual assessment of bleeding risks were necessary for critically ill patients with COVID-19.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315637

ABSTRACT

Background: The multifaceted public health interventions taken during COVID-19 epidemic not only decrease the spreading of the SARS-CoV-2, but have impact on the prevalence of other viruses. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of common respiratory viruses among hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: : Respiratory specimens were obtained from children with LRTIs at children’s hospital of Fudan University for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (ADV), parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1 to 3, influenza virus A (FluA), influenza virus B (FluB), human metapneumovirus (MPV) and rhinovirus (RV). The data were analyzed and compared between the year of 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic) and 2019 (before COVID-19 pandemic). Results: : A total of 7107 patients were enrolled, including 4600 patients in 2019 and 2507 patients in 2020. Compared with 2019, we observed an unprecedented reduction of RSV, ADV, FluA, FluB, and MPV infections in 2020, despite of reopening of schools in June, 2020. However, The RV infection was significantly increased in 2020 and a sharp increase was observed especially after reopening of schools. Besides, the PIV infection showed resurgent characteristic after September of 2020. The mixed infections were significantly less frequent in 2020 compared with the year of 2019. Conclusions: : The public health interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic have great impact on the prevalence of common respiratory viruses in China. Yet, we do need to be cautious for a possible resurgence and the resurgence may not follow the usual seasonal patterns such as RV and PIV, as COVID-19 restrictions are ongoing eased.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313369

ABSTRACT

Background: Human rhinovirus (HRV) is the predominant etiological agent of the common cold in children and adults. A recent study showed that the inhibitory effect of face masks on viral shedding of HRV was less prominent than that on other respiratory viruses. Considering that most Chinese people have worn face masks in public area since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019, we aimed to find out whether HRV prevailed among children in 2020 and demonstrate the details of the epidemiological features of HRV under such a special circumstance. Methods: We summarized the incidences of various respiratory virus infections in patients who visited the Children’s Hospital of Fudan University during 2018~2020, and genotyped HRV positive nasopharyngeal specimens collected from 316 inpatients and 72 outpatients that visited the hospital in 2020. Results: There was a major prevalence of HRV among children in the latter half of 2020, with a clear seasonality that HRV-As prevailed in summer while HRV-Cs in autumn. HRV-As were more prone to cause severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), while HRV-Cs were closely associated with childhood wheezing. The predominant genotypes were A11, A28, A47, A82, A101, C40 and C43. Notably, A21, A82 and A101 took up larger proportions in severe cases than in non-severe cases. Conclusions: Our findings described a major prevalence of HRVs among children in 2020, which highlight the unique transmitting pattern of HRV and help to narrow the targets for antiviral strategies.

8.
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie ; 148:112718-112718, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1679284

ABSTRACT

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9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667139

ABSTRACT

A cross-layer non-vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in a quarantine hotel in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China in June 2021. To explore the cross-layer transmission path and influencing factors of viral aerosol, we set up different scenarios to carry out simulation experiments. The results showed that the air in the polluted room can enter the corridor by opening the door to take food and move out the garbage, then mix with the fresh air taken from the outside as part of the air supply of the central air conditioning system and re-enter into different rooms on the same floor leading to the same-layer transmission. In addition, flushing the toilet after defecation and urination will produce viral aerosol that pollutes rooms on different floors through the exhaust system and the vertical drainage pipe in the bathroom, resulting in cross-layer vertical transmission, also aggravating the transmission in different rooms on the same floor after mixing with the air of the room and entering the corridor to become part of the air supply, and meanwhile, continuing to increase the cross-layer transmission through the vertical drainage pipe. Therefore, the air conditioning and ventilation system of the quarantine hotel should be operated in full fresh air mode and close the return air; the exhaust volume of the bathroom should be greater than the fresh air volume. The exhaust pipe of the bathroom should be independently set and cannot be interconnected or connected in series. The riser of the sewage and drainage pipeline of the bathroom should maintain vertical to exhaust independently and cannot be arbitrarily changed to horizontal pipe assembly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Air Conditioning , Humans , Quarantine
10.
Clin Respir J ; 16(3): 182-189, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly recognized illness that has spread rapidly all over the world. More and more reports highlight the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in COVID-19. Our study aims to identify in-hospital VTE risk and bleeding risk in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 138 consecutively enrolled patients with COVID-19 and identified in-hospital VTE and bleeding risk by Padua Prediction Score and Improve bleed risk assessment model. The clinical data and features were analyzed in VTE patients. RESULTS: Our findings identified that 23 (16.7%) patients with COVID-19 were at high risk for VTE according to Padua prediction score and 9 (6.5%) patients were at high risk of bleeding for VTE prophylaxis according to Improve prediction score. Fifteen critically ill patients faced double high risk from thrombosis (Padua score more than 4 points in all 15 [100%] patients) and hemorrhage (Improve score more than 7 points in 9 [60.0%] patients). Thrombotic events were identified in four patients (2.9%) of all COVID-19 patients. All of them were diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis by ultrasound 3 to 18 days after admission. Three (75.0%) were critically ill patients, which means that the incidence of VTE among critically ill patients was 20%. One major hemorrhage happened in critically ill patients during VTE treatment. CONCLUSION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 suffered both a high risk of thrombosis and bleeding risks. More effective VTE prevention strategies based on an individual assessment of bleeding risks were necessary for critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 513-520, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of 14 October 2021, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than 246 million individuals and caused more than 4.9 million deaths worldwide. COVID-19 has caused significant damage to the health, economy and lives of people worldwide. Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is not as lethal as SARS coronavirus or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, its high transmissibility has had disastrous consequences for public health and health-care systems worldwide given the lack of effective treatment at present. OBJECTIVES: To clarify the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 caused lung inflammation and injury, from the molecular mechanism to lung damage and tissue repair, from research to clinical practice, and then presented clinical requirements. SOURCES: References for this review were identified through searches '(COVID-19 [Title]) OR (SARS-CoV-2 [Title])' on PubMed, and focused on the pathological damage and clinical practice of COVID-19. CONTENT: We comprehensively reviewed the process of lung inflammation and injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection, including pyroptosis of alveolar epithelial cells, cytokine storm and thrombotic inflammatory mechanisms. IMPLICATIONS: This review describes SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to SARS and explores why most people have mild inflammatory responses, even asymptomatic infections, and only a few develop severe disease. It suggests that future therapeutic strategies may be targeted antiviral therapy, the pathogenic pathways in the lung inflammatory response, and enhancing repair and regeneration in lung injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Virology ; 566: 56-59, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recombinant protein subunit vaccination is considered to be a safe, fast and reliable technique when combating emerging and re-emerging diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Typically, such subunit vaccines require the addition of adjuvants to attain adequate immunogenicity. AS01, which contains adjuvants MPL and saponin QS21, is a liposome-based vaccine adjuvant system that is one of the leading candidates. However, the adjuvant effect of AS01 in COVID-19 vaccines is not well described yet. METHODS: In this study, we utilized a mixture of AS01 as the adjuvant for an S1 protein-based COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: The adjuvanted vaccine induced robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding antibody and virus-neutralizing antibody responses. Importantly, two doses induced similar levels of IgG binding antibody and neutralizing antibody responses compared with three doses and the antibody responses weakened only slightly over time up to six weeks after immunization. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that two doses may be enough for a clinical vaccine strategy design using MPL & QS21 adjuvanted recombinant protein, especially in consideration of the limited production capacity of COVID-19 vaccine in a public health emergency.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lipid A/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saponins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Drug Combinations , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lipid A/administration & dosage , Lipid A/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Saponins/administration & dosage
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6628-6633, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544311

ABSTRACT

As the emergence of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 persists across the world, it is of importance to understand the distributional behavior of the incubation period of the variants for both medical research and public health policy-making. We collected the published individual-level data of 941 patients of the 2020-2021 winter pandemic wave in Hebei province, North China. We computed some epidemiological characteristics of the wave and estimated the distribution of the incubation period. We further assessed the covariate effects of sex, age, and living with a case with respect to the incubation period by a model. The infection-fatality rate was only 0.1%. The estimated median incubation period was at least 22 days, significantly extended from the estimates (ranging from 4 to 8.5 days) of the previous wave in mainland China and those ever reported elsewhere around the world. The proportion of asymptomatic patients was 90.6%. No significant covariate effect was found. The distribution of incubation period of the new variants showed a clear extension from their early generations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
14.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(11): e24011, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin 6 assays are useful in early detection of infections and risk stratification of critically ill patients, so an assay with a short turnaround-time and near-patient use is preferred. This study evaluated the performance of a new interleukin 6 assay, Pylon IL-6 assay, and explored its potential use in near-patient settings. METHODS: We carried out imprecision, linearity and comparison studies using serum and plasma samples according to CLSI EP guidelines. The stability of whole blood samples during storage was assessed. Furthermore, whole blood samples from pediatric patients with suspected infection were measured to evaluate the assay's diagnostic performance. RESULTS: The within-run CVs and total CVs of Pylon IL-6 assay were determined as 1.8% and 3.0% at 159.3 pg/ml and 3.5% and 4.7% at 8009.9 pg/ml, respectively. The method showed linearity between 1.5 and 42,854 pg/ml. The results of serum samples measured by Pylon assays correlated to those measured by Roche assays, as well as to those of matched whole blood samples measured by Pylon assays. IL-6 in whole blood was found stable for ~8 h at room temperature. Pylon IL-6 results of whole blood samples from 179 pediatric patients with suspected infection showed an AUC of 0.842 in diagnosis of bacterial infection. The turnaround time of Pylon IL-6 assay was only 1 h when using whole blood samples. CONCLUSION: The new assay demonstrated performance comparable to those performed on clinical laboratory instruments and can be used in near-patient settings with whole blood to reduce turnaround times.


Subject(s)
Blood Chemical Analysis , Immunoassay , Interleukin-6/blood , Blood Chemical Analysis/methods , Blood Chemical Analysis/standards , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoassay/standards , Infant , Limit of Detection , Linear Models , Male , Reproducibility of Results
15.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(20): 1584, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in foreign countries and regions, many overseas people arrive in China by air. Currently, most of the new cases of COVID-19 were imported from overseas. Here, we evaluated the predictive effect of the level of blood albumin (ALB) and serum prealbumin (PA) level in overseas-imported cases on the conversion of mild COVID-19 to moderate and its value in guiding nutritional support for these travelers. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed serum levels of ALB and PA of 193 patients with imported COVID-19 admitted to the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center at the time of admission on April 8, 2020. RESULTS: Since the first overseas-imported case was admitted to Shanghai on March 5, 2020, 195 overseas-imported cases have been treated in the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. The disease was mild or moderate. A total of 193 patients (111 males and 82 females) entered our analysis and the disease was moderate in 108 patients and mild in 85 patients. Patients were aged 6 to 66 years (mean: 28 years). There was a strong negative correlation between the proportion of moderate type and ALB (P=0.0073); thus, patients with a lower level of ALB were more likely to be diagnosed with moderate type. The correlation coefficient was close to 0 in the scatter plot, indicating that there was no linear correlation between PA and the diagnosis of moderate type (P>0.05). There was a strong negative correlation between age and ALB level (P<0.001), while length of hospital stay did not show a linear correlation with ALB or PB levels (both P>0.05). Therefore, older patients had lower levels of ALB and were more likely to develop moderate COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The serum ALB level can be an early predictive indicator for the conversion of mild COVID-19 to moderate in cases imported overseas and may guide nutritional support.

16.
Virol J ; 18(1): 159, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The multifaceted non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) taken during the COVID-19 pandemic not only decrease the spreading of the SARS-CoV-2, but have impact on the prevalence of other viruses. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of common respiratory viruses among hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Respiratory specimens were obtained from children with LRTI at Children's Hospital of Fudan University for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (ADV), parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1 to 3, influenza virus A (FluA), influenza virus B (FluB), human metapneumovirus (MPV) and rhinovirus (RV). The data were analyzed and compared between the year of 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic) and 2019 (before COVID-19 pandemic). RESULTS: A total of 7107 patients were enrolled, including 4600 patients in 2019 and 2507 patients in 2020. Compared with 2019, we observed an unprecedented reduction of RSV, ADV, FluA, FluB, and MPV infections in 2020, despite of reopening of schools in June, 2020. However, the RV infection was significantly increased in 2020 and a sharp increase was observed especially after reopening of schools. Besides, the PIV infection showed resurgent characteristic after September of 2020. The mixed infections were significantly less frequent in 2020 compared with the year of 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The NPIs during the COVID-19 pandemic have great impact on the prevalence of common respiratory viruses in China. Meanwhile, we do need to be cautious of a possible resurgence of some respiratory viruses as the COVID-19 restrictions are relaxed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Age Distribution , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Viruses/classification , Viruses/isolation & purification
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 755508, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497026

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 continues to circulate globally in 2021, while under the precise policy implementation of China's public health system, the epidemic was quickly controlled, and society and the economy have recovered. During the pandemic response, nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2 has played an indispensable role in the first line of defence. In the cases of emergency operations or patients presenting at fever clinics, nucleic acid detection is required to be performed and reported quickly. Therefore, nucleic acid point-of-care testing (POCT) technology for SARS-CoV-2 identification has emerged, and has been widely carried out at all levels of medical institutions. SARS-CoV-2 POCT has served as a complementary test to conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) batch tests, thus forming an experimental diagnosis platform that not only guarantees medical safety but also improves quality services. However, in view of the complexity of molecular diagnosis and the biosafety requirements involved, pathogen nucleic acid POCT is different from traditional blood-based physical and chemical index detection. No guidelines currently exist for POCT quality management, and there have been inconsistencies documented in practical operation. Therefore, Shanghai Society of Molecular Diagnostics, Shanghai Society of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology Division of Shanghai Society of Microbiology and Shanghai Center for Clinical Laboratory have cooperated with experts in laboratory medicine to generate the present expert consensus. Based on the current spectrum of major infectious diseases in China, the whole-process operation management of pathogen POCT, including its application scenarios, biosafety management, personnel qualification, performance verification, quality control, and result reporting, are described here. This expert consensus will aid in promoting the rational application and robust development of this technology in public health defence and hospital infection management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , China , Consensus , Humans , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Chinese Journal of International Politics ; 14(3):321-352, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1434385

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) global pandemic, Sino–US strategic rivalry has dramatically heightened to a pitch where there is a mounting discussion over whether or not China and the United States have embarked on a "new Cold War." There are three main views in this regard. The first is that China and the United States have indeed entered a new Cold War;the second is that China and the United States are heading for a new Cold War;and the third is that China and the United States will not descend into a new Cold War. Different views reflect different scholarly understandings of the essential properties of the Cold War concept. Fundamentally, the two core features of the Cold War were ideological confrontation and proxy war. Considering that current US–China strategic competition is in the technological rather than ideological domain, and that neither side has instigated any proxy war;however, the phrase "new Cold War" is inappropriate;that of "Porous Curtain" is more apt. The ever-narrowing power gap between China and the United States has undoubtedly prompted the US government's adoption of a policy of blockade and containment to curb China's rising power. However, the deep integration of the international system and historical inertia of US–China interaction preclude the US's complete isolation from China. This has resulted in bilateral relations of a more porous nature. Although the future may not be promising, competition does not necessarily lead to conflict. For this reason, managing the bilateral competitive relationship and striving towards coexistence under competition should be the key task of both countries. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Chinese Journal of International Politics is the property of Oxford University Press / USA and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

19.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(34): 711-715, 2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366005

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ON THIS TOPIC?: Aerosol transmission was one route for the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and usually occurred in confined spaces. WHAT IS ADDED BY THIS REPORT?: Aerosol transmission was found to exist between handshake buildings, i.e., buildings with extremely close proximity that formed relatively enclosed spaces. Transmission was mainly affected by the airflow layout caused by switching air conditioners on and off as well as opening and closing doors and windows. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE?: Centralized isolation and home isolation in handshake buildings creates a risk of SARS-CoV-2 aerosol transmission under certain conditions. Attention should be paid to the influence of air distribution layout on aerosol diffusion in isolation wards, and disinfection of isolation venues should be strengthened.

20.
Int J Dermatol Venereol ; 2020 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292185

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus infection has brought a great challenge in prevention and control of the national epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. During the fight against the epidemic of COVID-19, properly carrying out pre-examination and triage for patients with skin lesions and fever has been a practical problem encountered in hospitals for skin diseases as well as clinics of dermatology in general hospitals. Considering that certain skin diseases may have symptom of fever, and some of the carriers of 2019 novel coronavirus and patients with COVID-19 at their early stage may do not present any symptoms of COVID-19, to properly deal with the visitors to clinics of dermatology, the Chinese Society of Dermatology organized experts to formulate the principles and procedures for pre-examination and triage of visitors to clinics of dermatology during the epidemic of COVID-19.

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