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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 689575, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775810

ABSTRACT

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that can weaken the body's cellular and humoral immunity and is a serious disease without specific drug management and vaccine. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics and transmissibility of HIV. Methods: Data on HIV follow-up were collected in Nanning City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous, China. An HIV transmission dynamics model was built to simulate the transmission of HIV and estimate its transmissibility by comparing the effective reproduction number (R eff ) at different stages: the rapid growth period from January 2001 to March 2005, slow growth period from April 2005 to April 2011, and the plateau from May 2011 to December 2019 of HIV in Nanning City. Results: High-risk areas of HIV prevalence in Nanning City were mainly concentrated in suburbs. Furthermore, high-risk groups were those of older age, with lower income, and lower education levels. The R eff in each stage (rapid growth, slow growth, and plateau) were 2.74, 1.62, and 1.15, respectively, which suggests the transmissibility of HIV in Nanning City has declined and prevention and control measures have achieved significant results. Conclusion: Over the past 20 years, the HIV incidence in Nanning has remained at a relatively high level, but its development trend has been curbed. Transmissibility was reduced from 2.74 to 1.15. Therefore, the prevention and treatment measures in Nanning City have achieved significant improvement.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Basic Reproduction Number , China/epidemiology , HIV , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312633

ABSTRACT

Background: With the strength intervention of China, the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had a great control effect. The measures may influence the development and progression of others infectious diseases. Method: The data of daily coronavirus virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confirmed cases from January 3, 2020 to April 30, 2020 and natural focal disease cases from January, 2005 to April, 2020 were collected from Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Jiangsu Provincial CDC). We describe and compare the data of natural focal diseases from January to April, 2020 with the same months from 2015 to 2019 in the four aspects: trend of incidence, regional, age and sex distribution. Nonparametric tests were used to analyzed to the difference between the duration from onset of illness to date of diagnosis of natural focal diseases and the same period of the previous year. Results: : The incidence of malaria in February (0.9 per 10,000,000 people), March (0.3 per 10,000,000 people) and April (0.1 per 10,000,000 people) 2020 less than the lower limit for range of February (1.6-4.5 per 10,000,000 people), March (0.8-3.3 per 10,000,000 people) and April (1.0-2.9 per 10,000,000 people) from 2015 to 2019 respectively. The incidence of brucellosis in February was 0.9 (per 10,000,000 people), less than the lower limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (1.6-4.5 per 10,000,000 people). The incidence of hemorrhagic fever (HF) in March was 1.0 (per 10,000,000 people), less than the lower limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (1.4-2.6 per 10,000,000 people). However, the incidence of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SEFT) in March was 0.3 (per 10,000,000 people), higher than the upper limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (0.0-0.1 per 10,000,000 people). Furthermore, we respectively observed the incidence with various degree of reduction in male, 20-60 years old and both rural and urban areas. Conclusions: : In Jiangsu province, the incidence of natural focal diseases decreased during the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020, especially malaria, HF and SEFT. The impact of interventions were felt most by male individuals within the age group of 20-50 years. The interventions for COVID-19 may control the epidemics of natural focal diseases.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308345

ABSTRACT

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a well-known chemotherapeutic drug for most malgnencies including breast cancer and leukemia whilst the usage of DOX is limited owing to its cardiotoxicity. The present study analyzed the effects of crocin on doxorubicin’s cardiotoxic efect in rat myocardium and searched their mechanistic interaction in the pathogenesis of DOX-induced myocardial toxicity. Forty rats were divided into four groups;(a) control (received normal saline as a dose of 1 ml/kg by ip for 15 days), (b) Crocin (received crocin as a dose of 40 mg/kg/24h by ip for 15 days), (c) DOX (received DOX as a dose of 2 mg/kg/48h by ip in six injection, cumulative dose 12 mg/kg), and (d) DOX+Crocin (received DOX as a dose of 2 mg/kg/48h by ip in six injection and crocin as a dose of 40 mg/kg/24h ip for 15 days). According to the present study, DOX administration caused significant increases in lipid indices (triglyseride, low-dencity lipoproteins and very low-dencity lipoproteins) as well as cardiac markers (Creatine kinase-muscle/brain and Cardiac Troponin I). Morever, DOX caused significant increases in oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde and total oxidant status) as well as decreases in antioxidant defense systems (glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant status). The present study also demonstrated that co-administration of crocin with DOX significantly ameliorated the lipid profile and biochemical parameters in rats receiving DOX. The results were supported by histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluations. Taken together, our results reveal that crocin might be a cardioprotective agent in DOX treated patients for cancer.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325265

ABSTRACT

Background: The optimal vaccination is an essential public health strategy to control the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study aims to simulate the optimal vaccination strategy to control the virus epidemic by developing an age-specific model based on the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, China.Methods: An age-specific mathematical model based on the data of COVID-19 cases in Wuhan City from December 2, 2019 to March 16, 2020 was developed, with two scenarios for controlling transmission and reducing severity to estimate the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategy.Findings: Before the lockdown of the Wuhan City, the highest transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 was among 14-44 years old (effective reproduction number, Reff = 4·28), followed by 14-44 to 45-64 years old (Reff = 2·61), and 14-44 to ≥ 65 years old (Reff = 1·69). We found that the first priority for controlling transmission should be to vaccinate nearly 90% individuals of 14-44 years old, followed by 90% individuals of 45-64 years old. However, the optimal vaccination strategy for reducing severity defined individuals ≥ 65 years old in vaccination priority groups, followed by 14-44 years old groups.Interpretation: The scenario analyses suggested that the optimal vaccination strategy aimed at controlling the transmission of COVID-19 might be to vaccinate about 90% of 15-44 years old individuals;while for reducing severity, the vaccination priority should focus on the older population. Furthermore, we also presented evidence about the heterogeneity of age-specific transmission and vaccination in different areas.Funding Statement: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Science and Technology Program of Fujian Province.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324421

ABSTRACT

Background: Control measures during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak may have limited the spread of infectious diseases. This study aimed to analyse the impact of COVID-19 on the spread of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in China. Methods: A mathematical model was established to fit the reported data of HFMD in six selected cities in mainland China from 2015 to 2020. The absolute difference (AD) and relative difference (RD) between the reported incidence in 2020, and simulated maximum, minimum, or median incidence of HFMD in 2015-2019 were calculated. Findings: The incidence and Reff of HFMD have decreased in six selected cities since the outbreak of COVID-19, and in the second half of 2020, the incidence and R eff of HFMD have rebounded. The results show that the total attack rate (TAR) in 2020 was lower than the maximum, minimum, and median TAR fitted in previous years in six selected cities (except Changsha city). For the maximum, median, minimum fitted TAR, the range of RD (%) is 42·20-99·20%, 36·35-98·41% 48·35-96·23% (except Changsha city) respectively. Interpretation: Based on the incidence data of six cities from 2015 to 2019, the SEIAR model demonstrated a significant effect on the incidence of HFMD. During the period of COVID-19, the incidence and R eff of HFMD decreased, the prevention and control measures taken during the period of COVID-19, such as school suspension, home quarantine, closing all kinds of leisure places, wearing masks, advocating frequent hand washing, etc., have not only effectively suppressed the spread of COVID-19 epidemic, but also have significantly contributed to the containment of HFMD transmission.Funding Statement: This study was partly supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (INV-005834).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no conflicts of interests.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320374

ABSTRACT

Background: In most countries, it is hard to effectively control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study conducted the most comprehensive evaluation of the effects of pharmacological (like vaccination, pharmacotherapy ) and non-pharmacological (like isolation, social distancing and mask-wearing) interventions taken singly or in combination for the first time globally.Methods: We estimate that across these 12 countries that are different but presentative, interventions prevented or delayed roughly millions of confirmed cases. This study constructs mathematical model, which interventions includes vaccination, pharmacotherapy, isolation, social distancing and mask-wearing , and analyses the effect of these interventions used alone and in combination.Findings: The basic reproduction number (R0) of each country mostly range from 3 to 5. In terms of the effect of single intervention, for countries such as China, South Korea, Thailand, US, South Africa and Algeria, it is preferred to recommend these countries to adopt isolation to prevent and control the second wave of COVID-19 outbreak, while for countries such as Russia, UK, Saudi Arabia, India and Brazil, wearing masks is the best choice. Especially pharmacotherapy can play a good role in Iran. When combinations with different interventions were taken, the situation was different. For US, Brazil and Algeria, the combination of “Vaccination & Isolation & Wearing mask” is recommended in these countries to prevent and control the development of COVID-19, and the combination of “Isolation & Social distancing & Wearing mask” is recommended in UK and China. For the rest, we suggest that Russia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, India, Thailand and South Africa take the intervention measures of “Vaccination & Medical treatment & Isolation & Wearing mask”, “Vaccination & Medical treatment”, “Vaccination & Social distancing & Wearing mask”, “Medical treatment & Social distancing & Wearing mask”, “Vaccination & Medical Treatment & Isolation”, “Vaccination & Medical Treatment & Wearing mask”, respectively to deal with the second wave of outbreaks that may come by the end of this year.Interpretation: Our model is operable and selective for the prevention and control of epidemic situations in various countries. These findings may help policy makers in the 180+ countries where COVID-19 has been reported around the world to identify the most effective and socioeconomically acceptable measures to prevent and control the second wave of COVID-19 epidemic, and inform if when these policies should be deployed, intensified or replaced.Funding: This study was partly supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (INV-005834), the Science and Technology Program of Fujian Province (No: 2020Y0002), the Xiamen New Coronavirus Prevention and Control Emergency Tackling Special Topic Program (No: 3502Z2020YJ03), and the Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics (SKLVD2019KF005).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315496

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes an immense disease burden. Only drugs or vaccines can eliminate the virus. Methods: We adopted our age-specific transmission model by susceptible-exposed-infectious -critically ill-asymptomatic-removed (SEICAR) model. Effects of different drug types were simulated by changing transmission rate (β), critical case fatality rate (fc), and disease duration of each age group. Evaluation indexes were based on outbreak duration(OD), cumulative number of cases(CNC), total attack rate(TAR), peak date(PD), number of peak cases(NPC), and case fatality rate(f). Findings: When without intervention, changing in β and disease duration, as the age increased, OD decreased, TAR increased, PD advanced, CCN and NPC initially increased and then decreased, while f decreased first and then increased. When disease duration and β remained unchanged, changing fc did not affect the epidemic. All age groups had 40% shorter disease duration but unchanged fc, while β was reduced by 60%, which reduced TAR of group 1 (≤14 years) from 2·35% to 0·09%;f of group 4 (≥65 years) was reduced from 1·04% to 0·05%. Interpretation: Drugs had different age-dependent effects. If a drug can control the disease duration or β of all age groups, younger people would have the fastest transmission control and seniors will have the best improvement in disease severity. Funding: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (INV-005834);the Science and Technology Program of Fujian Province (No: 2020Y0002), and the Xiamen New Coronavirus Prevention and Control Emergency Tackling Special Topic Program (No: 3502Z2020YJ03).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315495

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. This study aims to explore the relationship between key natural and social factors and the transmission of COVID-19 in China. Methods This study collected the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in 21 provinces and cities in China as of February 28, 2020. Three provinces were included in the sample: Hainan, Guizhou, and Qinghai. The 18 cities included Shanghai, Tianjin and so on. Key natural factors comprised monthly average temperatures in the January and February 2020 and spatial location as determined by longitude and latitude. Social factors were population density, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), number of medical institutions and health practitioners;as well as the per capita values for GDP, medical institutions, and health practitioners. Excel was used to collate the data and draw the temporal and spatial distribution map of the prevalence rate (PR) and the proportion of local infection (PLI). The influencing factors were analyzed by SPSS 21.0 statistical software, and the relationship between the dependent and independent variables was simulated by 11 models. Finally, we choose the exponential model according to the value of R 2 and the applicability of the model. Results The temporal and spatial distribution of the PR varies across the 21 provinces and cities identified. The PR generally decreases with distance from Hubei, except in the case of Shenzhen City, where the converse is observed. The results of the exponential model simulation show that the monthly minimum, median, and maximum average temperatures in January and February, and the latitude and population density are significant and thus will affect the PLI. The corresponding values of R 2 are 0.297, 0.322, 0.349, 0.290, 0.314, 0.339, 0.344, and 0.301. The effects of other factors were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the selected key natural and social factors, higher temperatures may decrease the transmission of COVID-19. From this analysis, it is evident that if the temperature decreases by 1℃, the average PLI increases by 0.01. Further, it was established that locations at more northern latitudes had a higher PLI, and population density showed an inverse relationship with PLI.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314877

ABSTRACT

Background: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has spread widely and led to high disease burden around the world. This study aimed to explore key parameters of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to assess the effectiveness of interventions to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A susceptible – exposed – infectious – asymptomatic – recovered (SEIAR) model was developed for the assessment. Data of symptomatic and asymptomatic infection of SARS-CoV-2 were collected to calculate the key parameters of the model in Ningbo City, China. Results: A total of 157 confirmed COVID-19 cases (including 51 imported cases and 106 secondary cases) and 30 asymptomatic infections were reported in Ningbo City. The proportion of asymptomatic has an increasing trend. The proportion of asymptomatic of elder people was lower than younger people, and the difference was statistical significant (Fisher’s Exact Test, P = 0.034). There were 22 clusters associated with 167 SARS-CoV-2 infections, among which 29 cases were asymptomatic, with a proportion of 17.37%. We found that the secondary attack rate of asymptomatic was almost the same as that of symptomatic cases, and no significance was observed (χ2 = 1.350, P = 0.245) by Kruskal-Wallis test. The effective reproduction number (Reff) was 1.43 which revealed that the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 was moderate. If the interventions were not strengthened, the duration of the outbreak would last about 16 months with a simulated attack rate of 44.15%. The total attack rate and duration of the outbreak would increase along with the increasing delay of intervention. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 had moderate transmissibility in Ningbo City, China. Asymptomatic infection has the same transmissibility as symptomatic. The integrated interventions were implemented at different stages during the outbreak, which found to be exceedingly effective in China.

10.
Epidemiology and infection ; 149, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1609638

ABSTRACT

The article aims to estimate and forecast the transmissibility of shigellosis and explore the association of meteorological factors with shigellosis. The mathematical model named Susceptible–Exposed–Symptomatic/Asymptomatic–Recovered–Water/Food (SEIARW) was used to explore the feature of shigellosis transmission based on the data of Wuhan City, China, from 2005 to 2017. The study applied effective reproduction number (Reff) to estimate the transmissibility. Daily meteorological data from 2008 to 2017 were used to determine Spearman's correlation with reported new cases and Reff. The SEIARW model fit the data well (χ2 = 0.00046, p > 0.999). The simulation results showed that the reservoir-to-person transmission of the shigellosis route has been interrupted. The Reff would be reduced to a transmission threshold of 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–1.19) in 2035. Reducing the infectious period to 11.25 days would also decrease the value of Reff to 0.99. There was a significant correlation between new cases of shigellosis and atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind speed and sun hours per day. The correlation coefficients, although statistically significant, were very low (<0.3). In Wuhan, China, the main transmission pattern of shigellosis is person-to-person. Meteorological factors, especially daily atmospheric pressure and temperature, may influence the epidemic of shigellosis.

11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 140, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reaching optimal vaccination rates is an essential public health strategy to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to simulate the optimal vaccination strategy to control the disease by developing an age-specific model based on the current transmission patterns of COVID-19 in Wuhan City, China. METHODS: We collected two indicators of COVID-19, including illness onset data and age of confirmed case in Wuhan City, from December 2, 2019, to March 16, 2020. The reported cases were divided into four age groups: group 1, ≤ 14 years old; group 2, 15 to 44 years old; group 3, 44 to 64 years old; and group 4, ≥ 65 years old. An age-specific susceptible-exposed-symptomatic-asymptomatic-recovered/removed model was developed to estimate the transmissibility and simulate the optimal vaccination strategy. The effective reproduction number (Reff) was used to estimate the transmission interaction in different age groups. RESULTS: A total of 47 722 new cases were reported in Wuhan City from December 2, 2019, to March 16, 2020. Before the travel ban of Wuhan City, the highest transmissibility was observed among age group 2 (Reff = 4.28), followed by group 2 to 3 (Reff = 2.61), and group 2 to 4 (Reff = 1.69). China should vaccinate at least 85% of the total population to interrupt transmission. The priority for controlling transmission should be to vaccinate 5% to 8% of individuals in age group 2 per day (ultimately vaccinated 90% of age group 2), followed by 10% of age group 3 per day (ultimately vaccinated 90% age group 3). However, the optimal vaccination strategy for reducing the disease severity identified individuals ≥ 65 years old as a priority group, followed by those 45-64 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 85% of the total population (nearly 1.2 billion people) should be vaccinated to build an immune barrier in China to safely consider removing border restrictions. Based on these results, we concluded that 90% of adults aged 15-64 years should first be vaccinated to prevent transmission in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , China , Cities , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Young Adult
12.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(50): 1071-1074, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567031

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vaccination booster shots are completely necessary for controlling breakthrough infections of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China. The study aims to estimate effectiveness of booster vaccines for high-risk populations (HRPs). Methods: A vaccinated Susceptible-Exposed-Symptomatic-Asymptomatic-Recovered/Removed (SEIAR) model was developed to simulate scenarios of effective reproduction number (R eff ) from 4 to 6. Total number of infectious and asymptomatic cases were used to evaluated vaccination effectiveness. Results: Our model showed that we could not prevent outbreaks when covering 80% of HRPs with booster unless R eff =4.0 or the booster vaccine had efficacy against infectivity and susceptibility of more than 90%. The results were consistent when the outcome index was confirmed cases or asymptomatic cases. Conclusions: An ideal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) booster vaccination strategy for HRPs would be expected to reach the initial goal to control the transmission of the Delta variant in China. Accordingly, the recommendation for the COVID-19 booster vaccine should be implemented in HRPs who are already vaccinated and could prevent transmission to other groups.

13.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(5): 1070-1083, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the efficacy of adjuvant human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in preventing recurrent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or greater after surgical excision. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases (Cochrane, PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched for studies comparing surgical excision alone to surgical excision with adjuvant HPV vaccination for CIN 2 or greater. Studies published from January 1990 to January 2019 were included. METHODS: A total of 5,901 studies were reviewed. The primary outcomes evaluated included: recurrence of CIN 2 or greater, CIN 1 or greater, and HPV 16,18 associated CIN within 6-48 months. We used Covidence software to assist with screening, and meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Six studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. In total 2,984 women were included; 1,360 (45.6%) received adjuvant HPV vaccination after surgical excision, and 1,624 (54.4%) received either placebo or surgical management alone for CIN 2 or greater. Recurrence of CIN 2 or greater occurred within 6-48 months in 115 women (3.9%) overall; however, recurrence was significantly lower for vaccinated women: 26 of 1,360 women (1.9%) vs 89 of 1,624 unvaccinated women (5.9%) (relative risk [RR] 0.36 95% CI 0.23-0.55). The risk of CIN 1 or greater was also significantly lower with adjuvant HPV vaccination, occurring in 86 of 1,360 vaccinated women (6.3%) vs 157 of 1,624 unvaccinated women (9.7%) (RR 0.67 95% CI 0.52-0.85). Thirty-five women developed recurrent CIN 2 or greater lesions specific to HPV 16,18; nine received adjuvant vaccination (0.9%) vs 26 who were unvaccinated (2.0%) (RR 0.41 95% CI 0.20-0.85). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant HPV vaccination in the setting of surgical excision for CIN 2 or greater is associated with a reduced risk of recurrent cervical dysplasia overall and a reduction in the risk of recurrent lesions caused by the most oncogenic strains (HPV 16,18). Human papillomavirus vaccination should therefore be considered for adjuvant treatment in patients undergoing surgical excision for CIN 2 or greater. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42019123786.


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/drug therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/surgery , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/virology , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Treatment Outcome , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Young Adult
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 483, 2021 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the period of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, strong intervention measures, such as lockdown, travel restriction, and suspension of work and production, may have curbed the spread of other infectious diseases, including natural focal diseases. In this study, we aimed to study the impact of COVID-19 prevention and control measures on the reported incidence of natural focal diseases (brucellosis, malaria, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome [HFRS], dengue, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome [SFTS], rabies, tsutsugamushi and Japanese encephalitis [JE]). METHODS: The data on daily COVID-19 confirmed cases and natural focal disease cases were collected from Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Jiangsu Provincial CDC). We described and compared the difference between the incidence in 2020 and the incidence in 2015-2019 in four aspects: trend in reported incidence, age, sex, and urban and rural distribution. An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) (p, d, q) × (P, D, Q)s model was adopted for natural focal diseases, malaria and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), and an ARIMA (p, d, q) model was adopted for dengue. Nonparametric tests were used to compare the reported and the predicted incidence in 2020, the incidence in 2020 and the previous 4 years, and the difference between the duration from illness onset date to diagnosed date (DID) in 2020 and in the previous 4 years. The determination coefficient (R2) was used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the model simulation. RESULTS: Natural focal diseases in Jiangsu Province showed a long-term seasonal trend. The reported incidence of natural focal diseases, malaria and dengue in 2020 was lower than the predicted incidence, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The reported incidence of brucellosis in July, August, October and November 2020, and SFTS in May to November 2020 was higher than that in the same period in the previous 4 years (P < 0.05). The reported incidence of malaria in April to December 2020, HFRS in March, May and December 2020, and dengue in July to November 2020 was lower than that in the same period in the previous 4 years (P < 0.05). In males, the reported incidence of malaria in 2020 was lower than that in the previous 4 years, and the reported incidence of dengue in 2020 was lower than that in 2017-2019. The reported incidence of malaria in the 20-60-year age group was lower than that in the previous 4 years; the reported incidence of dengue in the 40-60-year age group was lower than that in 2016-2018. The reported cases of malaria in both urban and rural areas were lower than in the previous 4 years. The DID of brucellosis and SFTS in 2020 was shorter than that in 2015-2018; the DID of tsutsugamushi in 2020 was shorter than that in the previous 4 years. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions for COVID-19 may help control the epidemics of natural focal diseases in Jiangsu Province. The reported incidence of natural focal diseases, especially malaria and dengue, decreased during the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020. COVID-19 prevention and control measures had the greatest impact on the reported incidence of natural focal diseases in males and people in the 20-60-year age group.


Subject(s)
Brucellosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dengue/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome/epidemiology , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 701836, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394782

ABSTRACT

Background: It is much valuable to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention and control in the non-pharmacological intervention phase of the pandemic across countries and identify useful experiences that could be generalized worldwide. Methods: In this study, we developed a susceptible-exposure-infectious-asymptomatic-removed (SEIAR) model to fit the daily reported COVID-19 cases in 160 countries. The time-varying reproduction number (R t ) that was estimated through fitting the mathematical model was adopted to quantify the transmissibility. We defined a synthetic index (I AC ) based on the value of R t to reflect the national capability to control COVID-19. Results: The goodness-of-fit tests showed that the SEIAR model fitted the data of the 160 countries well. At the beginning of the epidemic, the values of R t of countries in the European region were generally higher than those in other regions. Among the 160 countries included in the study, all European countries had the ability to control the COVID-19 epidemic. The Western Pacific Region did best in continuous control of the epidemic, with a total of 73.76% of countries that can continuously control the COVID-19 epidemic, while only 43.63% of the countries in the European Region continuously controlled the epidemic, followed by the Region of Americas with 52.53% of countries, the Southeast Asian Region with 48% of countries, the African Region with 46.81% of countries, and the Eastern Mediterranean Region with 40.48% of countries. Conclusion: Large variations in controlling the COVID-19 epidemic existed across countries. The world could benefit from the experience of some countries that demonstrated the highest containment capabilities.

16.
Journal of Safety Science and Resilience ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1267758

ABSTRACT

Control measures during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak may have limited the spread of infectious diseases. This study aimed to analyse the impact of COVID-19 on the spread of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in China. A mathematical model was established to fit the reported data of HFMD in six selected cities in mainland China from 2015 to 2020. The absolute difference (AD) and relative difference (RD) between the reported incidence in 2020, and simulated maximum, minimum, or median incidence of HFMD in 2015-2019 were calculated. The incidence and Reff of HFMD have decreased in six selected cities since the outbreak of COVID-19, and in the second half of 2020, the incidence and Reff of HFMD have rebounded. The results show that the total attack rate (TAR) in 2020 was lower than the maximum, minimum, and median TAR fitted in previous years in six selected cities (except Changsha city). For the maximum, median, minimum fitted TAR, the range of RD (%) is 42•20-99•20%, 36•35-98•41% 48•35-96•23% (except Changsha city) respectively. The preventive and control measures of COVID-19 have significantly contributed to the containment of HFMD transmission.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9545, 2021 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217710

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide and led to high disease burden around the world. This study aimed to explore the key parameters of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to assess the effectiveness of interventions to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A susceptible-exposed-infectious-asymptomatic-recovered (SEIAR) model was developed for the assessment. The information of each confirmed case and asymptomatic infection was collected from Ningbo Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to calculate the key parameters of the model in Ningbo City, China. A total of 157 confirmed COVID-19 cases (including 51 imported cases and 106 secondary cases) and 30 asymptomatic infections were reported in Ningbo City. The proportion of asymptomatic infections had an increasing trend. The proportion of elder people in the asymptomatic infections was lower than younger people, and the difference was statistically significant (Fisher's Exact Test, P = 0.034). There were 22 clusters associated with 167 SARS-CoV-2 infections, among which 29 cases were asymptomatic infections, accounting for 17.37%. We found that the secondary attack rate (SAR) of asymptomatic infections was almost the same as that of symptomatic cases, and no statistical significance was observed (χ2 = 0.052, P = 0.819) by Kruskal-Wallis test. The effective reproduction number (Reff) was 1.43, which revealed that the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 was moderate. If the interventions had not been strengthened, the duration of the outbreak would have lasted about 16 months with a simulated attack rate of 44.15%. The total attack rate (TAR) and duration of the outbreak would increase along with the increasing delay of intervention. SARS-CoV-2 had moderate transmissibility in Ningbo City, China. The proportion of asymptomatic infections had an increase trend. Asymptomatic infections had the same transmissibility as symptomatic infections. The integrated interventions were implemented at different stages during the outbreak, which turned out to be exceedingly effective in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Basic Reproduction Number , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Young Adult
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 169, 2021 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199270

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations are frequently reported in the COVID-19 patients. Neuromechanism of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be elucidated. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism via our established non-human primate model of COVID-19. In rhesus monkey, SARS-CoV-2 invades the CNS primarily via the olfactory bulb. Thereafter, viruses rapidly spread to functional areas of the central nervous system, such as hippocampus, thalamus, and medulla oblongata. The infection of SARS-CoV-2 induces the inflammation possibly by targeting neurons, microglia, and astrocytes in the CNS. Consistently, SARS-CoV-2 infects neuro-derived SK-N-SH, glial-derived U251, and brain microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence of SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion in the NHP model, which provides important insights into the CNS-related pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Astrocytes/metabolism , Astrocytes/pathology , Astrocytes/virology , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Microglia/metabolism , Microglia/pathology , Microglia/virology , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/virology
19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 53, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes an immense disease burden. Although public health countermeasures effectively controlled the epidemic in China, non-pharmaceutical interventions can neither be maintained indefinitely nor conveniently implemented globally. Vaccination is mainly used to prevent COVID-19, and most current antiviral treatment evaluations focus on clinical efficacy. Therefore, we conducted population-based simulations to assess antiviral treatment effectiveness among different age groups based on its clinical efficacy. METHODS: We collected COVID-19 data of Wuhan City from published literature and established a database (from 2 December 2019 to 16 March 2020). We developed an age-specific model to evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral treatment in patients with COVID-19. Efficacy was divided into three types: (1) viral activity reduction, reflected as transmission rate decrease [reduction was set as v (0-0.8) to simulate hypothetical antiviral treatments]; (2) reduction in the duration time from symptom onset to patient recovery/removal, reflected as a 1/γ decrease (reduction was set as 1-3 days to simulate hypothetical or real-life antiviral treatments, and the time of asymptomatic was reduced by the same proportion); (3) fatality rate reduction in severely ill patients (fc) [reduction (z) was set as 0.3 to simulate real-life antiviral treatments]. The population was divided into four age groups (groups 1, 2, 3 and 4), which included those aged ≤ 14; 15-44; 45-64; and ≥ 65 years, respectively. Evaluation indices were based on outbreak duration, cumulative number of cases, total attack rate (TAR), peak date, number of peak cases, and case fatality rate (f). RESULTS: Comparing the simulation results of combination and single medication therapy s, all four age groups showed better results with combination medication. When 1/γ = 2 and v = 0.4, age group 2 had the highest TAR reduction rate (98.48%, 56.01-0.85%). When 1/γ = 2, z = 0.3, and v = 0.1, age group 1 had the highest reduction rate of f (83.08%, 0.71-0.12%). CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral treatments are more effective in COVID-19 transmission control than in mortality reduction. Overall, antiviral treatments were more effective in younger age groups, while older age groups showed higher COVID-19 prevalence and mortality. Therefore, physicians should pay more attention to prevention of viral spread and patients deaths when providing antiviral treatments to patients of older age groups.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adolescent , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Young Adult
20.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1647-1661, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been increasingly reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the roles of the GI tract in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not fully understood. We investigated how the GI tract is involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection to elucidate the pathogenesis of COVID-19. METHODS: Our previously established nonhuman primate (NHP) model of COVID-19 was modified in this study to test our hypothesis. Rhesus monkeys were infected with an intragastric or intranasal challenge with SARS-CoV-2. Clinical signs were recorded after infection. Viral genomic RNA was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated by examining inflammatory cytokines, macrophages, histopathology, and mucin barrier integrity. RESULTS: Intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 led to infections and pathologic changes not only in respiratory tissues but also in digestive tissues. Expectedly, intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in the productive infection of digestive tissues and inflammation in both the lung and digestive tissues. Inflammatory cytokines were induced by both types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, consistent with the increased expression of CD68. Immunohistochemistry and Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining showed decreased Ki67, increased cleaved caspase 3, and decreased numbers of mucin-containing goblet cells, suggesting that the inflammation induced by these 2 types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 impaired the GI barrier and caused severe infections. CONCLUSIONS: Both intranasal and intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 caused pneumonia and GI dysfunction in our rhesus monkey model. Inflammatory cytokines are possible connections for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 between the respiratory and digestive systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Gastroenteritis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Lung/pathology , Animals , Bronchi/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Gastric Mucosa , Gastroenteritis/metabolism , Gastroenteritis/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Goblet Cells/pathology , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Intestine, Small/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Macaca mulatta , Nasal Mucosa , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Rectum/metabolism , Rectum/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea/metabolism , Trachea/pathology
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