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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847414

ABSTRACT

The population with diabetes is more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, and have a significantly higher coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) mortality rate. Previous studies have shown low willingness for the COVID-19 vaccination, and there are limited reports on the behavior and relevance of the COVID-19 vaccination. This study aimed to determine the uptake behavior and associated factors of the COVID-19 vaccine. In our cross-sectional questionnaire-based clinical study, 645 diabetes patients affiliated with two affiliated hospitals of Changzhi Medical College completed the questionnaire between June to October 2021. The health belief model (HBM) was used in examining factors influencing vaccination behavior. After adjusting for covariates with significant differences in social background characteristics, a multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors related to uptake in COVID-19 vaccination. A total of 162 vaccinated and 483 unvaccinated eligible diabetic patients were recruited. Patients who believed that the COVID-19 syndrome is severe (aOR3.67, 95%CI 1.88-7.17; p < 0.001), believe that vaccination can significantly reduce the risk of SARS-Cov-2 infection (aOR3.48, 95%CI 1.80-6.73; p < 0.001), believe that vaccination is beneficial to themselves and others (aOR 4.53, 95%CI 1.71-11.99; p = 0.002), think that relatives' vaccination status has a positive impact on their vaccination behavior (aOR 5.68, 95%CI 2.83-11.39; p < 0.001), and were more likely to be vaccinated; worrying about the adverse health effects of COVID-19 vaccination (aOR 0.18, 95%CI 0.09-0.35; p < 0.001) was negatively correlated with COVID-19 vaccination behavior. Health care workers should provide targeted informative interventions based on the safety and protective effects theory of HBM to improve vaccination behavior in patients with diabetes.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 738541, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847180

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted HIV prevention strategies globally. However, changes in pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence and HIV-related behaviors, and their associations with medication adherence among men who have sex with men (MSM) PrEP users remain unclear since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A Retrospective Cohort Study of HIV-negative MSM PrEP users was conducted in four Chinese metropolises from December 2018 to March 2020, assessing the changes in PrEP adherence and HIV-related behaviors before and during the COVID-19. The primary outcome was poor PrEP adherence determined from self-reported missing at least one PrEP dose in the previous month. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors correlated with poor adherence during COVID-19. Results: We enrolled 791 eligible participants (418 [52.8%] in daily PrEP and 373 [47.2%] in event-driven PrEP). Compared with the data conducted before the COVID-19, the proportion of PrEP users decreased from 97.9 to 64.3%, and the proportion of poor PrEP adherence increased from 23.6 to 50.1% during the COVID-19 [odds ratio (OR) 3.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.62-4.02]. While the percentage of condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with regular partners (11.8 vs. 25.7%) and with casual partners (4.4 vs. 9.0%) both significantly increased. The proportion of those who were tested for HIV decreased from 50.1 to 25.9%. Factors correlated with poor PrEP adherence during the COVID-19 included not being tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.38 [95% CI: 1.00, 1.91]), using condoms consistently with regular partners (vs. never, aOR = 2.19 [95% CI: 1.16, 4.13]), and being married or cohabitating with a woman (vs. not married, aOR = 3.08 [95% CI: 1.60, 5.95]). Conclusions: Increased poor PrEP adherence and CAI along with the decrease in HIV testing can lead to an increase in HIV acquisition and drug resistance to PrEP. Targeted interventions are needed to improve PrEP adherence and HIV prevention strategies.

3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 53, 2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous prime-boost with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vector vaccine (ChAd) and a messenger RNA vaccine (BNT or mRNA-1273) has been widely facilitating mass coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) immunisation. This review aimed to synthesize immunogenicity and reactogenicity of heterologous immunisations with ChAd and BNT (mRNA-1273) vaccine compared with homologous ChAd or BNT (mRNA-1273) immunisation. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases were searched from inception to March 7, 2022. Immunogenicity involving serum antibodies against different SAS-CoV-2 fragments, neutralizing antibody, or spike-specific T cells response were compared. Any, local and systemic reactions were pooled by meta-analysis for comparison. RESULTS: Of 14,571 records identified, 13 studies (3024 participants) were included for analysis. Compared with homologous BNT/BNT vaccination, heterologous ChAd/BNT schedule probably induced noninferior anti-spike protein while higher neutralizing antibody and better T cells response. Heterologous ChAd/BNT (mRNA-1273) immunisation induced superior anti-spike protein and higher neutralizing antibody and better T cells response compared with homologous ChAd/ChAd vaccination. Heterologous ChAd/BNT (mRNA-1273) had similar risk of any reaction (RR = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.86-1.96) while higher risk of local reactions (RR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.27-2.15) and systemic reactions (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.17-1.90) compared with homologous ChAd/ChAd vaccination. There was a higher risk of local reactions (RR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.31) in heterologous ChAd/BNT (mRNA-1273) vaccination compare with homologous BNT/BNT but a similar risk of any reaction (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.79-1.34) and systemic reactions (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.60-1.30). CONCLUSIONS: Heterologous ChAd/BNT schedule induced at least comparable immunogenicity compared with homologous BNT/BNT and better immunogenicity compared with homologous ChAd/ChAd vaccination. The synthetical evidence supported the general application of heterologous prime-boost vaccination using ChAd and BNT COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Background: Many countries and organizations recommended people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. However, vaccine hesitancy still exists and becomes a barrier for promoting COVID-19 vaccination among PLWHA. OBJECTIVE: Objective: This study aims to investigate factors that contributed to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among PLWHA. METHODS: Methods: The study used a multicenter cross-sectional design and an online survey mode. We recruited PLWHA aged 18-65 years old from five metropolitan cities in China between January and February 2021. Participants completed an online survey through the Golden Data, a widely used encrypted web-based survey platform. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the background characteristics in relation to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, and structural equation modeling was performed to assess the relationships among perceived benefits, perceived risks, self-efficacy, subjective norms, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: Results: Among 1735 participants, 41.61% (722/1735) reported COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. An older age, no other vaccinations in the past 3 years, and having chronic disease history were positively associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Structural equation modeling revealed a direct relationship of perceived benefits, perceived risks, and subjective norms with self-efficacy and vaccine hesitancy and an indirect relationship of perceived benefits, perceived risks, and subjective norms with vaccine hesitancy. Moreover, the self-efficacy toward COVID-19 vaccination was low. PLWHA had concerns of HIV disclosure during COVID-19 vaccination. Family members support could have an impact on the COVID-19 vaccination decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was high among PLWHA in China. To reduce COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, programs and strategies should be adopted to eliminate the concerns for COVID-19 vaccination, disseminate accurate information on the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine, encourage family members support for COVID-19 vaccination, and improve PLWHA's trust on medical professionals.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 818054, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731798
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310885

ABSTRACT

Background: &nbsp;The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted HIV prevention strategies globally. However, changes in pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence and HIV-related behaviors, and their associations with medication adherence among MSM PrEP users remains unclear since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.&nbsp;Methods:&nbsp;A longitudinal observational study of HIV-negative MSM PrEP users was conducted in four Chinese metropolises from February to March 2020, assessing the changes in PrEP adherence and HIV-related behaviours before and during the COVID-19. The primary outcome was poor PrEP adherence determined from self-reported missing at least one PrEP dose in the previous month. We used mulitivariable logistic regression to determine factors correlated with poor adherence during the COVID-19. Findings:&nbsp;We enrolled 791 eligible participants (418 [52·8%] in daily PrEP, 373 [47·2%] in event-driven PrEP). Compared with the data conducted before the COVID-19, the proportion of PrEP users decreased from 97·9% to 64·3%, and the proportion of poor PrEP adherence increased from 23.6% to 50·1% during the COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 3·24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·61–4·02). While the percentage of condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with regular partners (11·8% vs 25·7%) and with casual partners (4·4% vs 9·0%) both significantly increased. The proportion of those who were tested for HIV decreased from 50·1% to 25·9%. Factors correlated with poor PrEP adherence during the COVID-19 included not being tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1·38 [95% CI: 1·00, 1·91]), using condoms consistently with regular partners (vs. never, aOR=2·19 [95% CI: 1·16, 4·13]) and being married or cohabitating with a woman (vs. not married, aOR=3·08 [95% CI: 1·60, 5·95]). Interpretation: &nbsp;Increased poor PrEP adherence and CAI along with the decrease in HIV testing can lead to increases in HIV acquisition and of drug resistance to PrEP. Targeted interventions are needed to improve PrEP adherence and HIV prevention strategies. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-IIN-17013762). Funding Statement: The Mega-Projects of national science research for the13th Five-Year Plan (2017ZX10201101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81872674), and the National Science and Technology Major Project (2018ZX10101001-001-003). Declaration of Interests: We declare no competing interests. Ethics Approval Statement: This study was reviewed and approved by the Medical Science Research Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University ([2018]2015-139-5).

7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327123

ABSTRACT

Since the first report on November 24, 2021, the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant is now overwhelmingly spreading across the world. Two SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccines (IAVs), one recombinant protein subunit vaccine (PRV), and one adenovirus-vectored vaccine (AdV) have been widely administrated in many countries including China to pursue herd immunity. Here we investigated cross-neutralizing activities in 341 human serum specimens elicited by full-course vaccinations with IAV, PRV and AdV, and by various vaccine boosters following prime IAV and AdV vaccinations. We found that all types of vaccines induced significantly lower neutralizing antibody titers against the Omicron variant than against the prototype strain. For prime vaccinations with IAV and AdV, heterologous boosters with AdV and PRV, respectively, elevated serum Omicron-neutralizing activities to the highest degrees. In a mouse model, we further demonstrated that among a series of variant-derived RBD-encoding mRNA vaccine boosters, it is only the Omicron booster that significantly enhanced Omicron neutralizing antibody titers compared with the prototype booster following a prime immunization with a prototype S-encoding mRNA vaccine candidate. In summary, our systematical investigations of various vaccine boosters inform potential booster administrations in the future to combat the Omicron variant.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325065

ABSTRACT

Background: Many Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users have difficulty attending the quarterly facility-based HIV testing, which leads to the potential risk of drug resistance in the context of breakthrough infection with low drug compliance. We explored the acceptance of HIV self-testing (HIVST) service among PrEP recipients. Methods: : MSM were recruited for the PrEP demonstration in four major cities in China from December 2018 to September 2019, provided with regimens of both daily and on-demand PrEP. Facility-based HIV testing was provided quarterly at clinic visits. Previous HIV testing history and acceptance of free HIVST kits to use between each quarterly clinic visit was collected. Correlates of levels of acceptance were analysed using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Results: : We recruited 1,222 MSM. among which 48.5% preferred daily PrEP and 51.5% preferred on-demand PrEP. There was 26.8% (321/1222) had never been to any facility-based HIV testing previously, and the self-reported major reason was that they had already routinely used HIVST. A quarter of the participants (74.5%, 910/1222) had used HIVST previously. There were 1184 MSM (96.9%) accepted to use HIVST between each quarterly clinic visits during PrEP usage, composing 947 ( 77.5%) very willing to, 237(19.4%)willing to, 29 (2.4%) unwilling to, and 9 (0.7%) very unwilling to. Participants preferred daily PrEP (vs. on-demand PrEP, aOR=1.8, 95% CI:1.3-2.4) and had less than 2 times of facility-based HIV testing in the past year (vs. ³2, aOR=1.4,95% CI:1.1-1.9) were more likely to have higher level of acceptance of HIVST. Conclusions: : MSM had high acceptance of HIVST, especially among those preferred daily PrEP and with less facility-based HIV testing in the previous year. Offering HIVST services PrEP recipients is feasible and necessary. Above result is of great significance for promoting HIVST among PrEP users during COVID-19, improving awareness of their HIV infection status and ensuring compliance with medication. Future study should exam the impact of HIVST on HIV testing frequency among PrEP users. Trial registration: ChiCTR1800020374 on 27 th Dec 2018. http://www.chictr.org.cn/searchproj.aspx

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324160

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has created a worldwide public health emergency, and there is an urgent need to develop an effective vaccine to control this severe infectious disease. Here, we found that a single vaccination with a replication-defective human type 5 adenovirus encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (Ad5-nCoV) protected mice completely against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Additionally, a single vaccination with Ad5-nCoV protected ferrets from SARS-CoV-2 infection in the upper respiratory tract. This study suggested that a combination of intramuscular and mucosal vaccination maybe provide a desirable protective efficacy and different Ad5-nCoV delivery modes are worth further investigation in human clinical trials.

10.
PLoS Med ; 19(2): e1003928, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital network-based methods may enhance peer distribution of HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits, but interventions that can optimize this approach are needed. We aimed to assess whether monetary incentives and peer referral could improve a secondary distribution program for HIVST among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between October 21, 2019 and September 14, 2020, a 3-arm randomized controlled, single-blinded trial was conducted online among 309 individuals (defined as index participants) who were assigned male at birth, aged 18 years or older, ever had male-to-male sex, willing to order HIVST kits online, and consented to take surveys online. We randomly assigned index participants into one of the 3 arms: (1) standard secondary distribution (control) group (n = 102); (2) secondary distribution with monetary incentives (SD-M) group (n = 103); and (3) secondary distribution with monetary incentives plus peer referral (SD-M-PR) group (n = 104). Index participants in 3 groups were encouraged to order HIVST kits online and distribute to members within their social networks. Members who received kits directly from index participants or through peer referral links from index MSM were defined as alters. Index participants in the 2 intervention groups could receive a fixed incentive ($3 USD) online for the verified test result uploaded to the digital platform by each unique alter. Index participants in the SD-M-PR group could additionally have a personalized peer referral link for alters to order kits online. Both index participants and alters needed to pay a refundable deposit ($15 USD) for ordering a kit. All index participants were assigned an online 3-month follow-up survey after ordering kits. The primary outcomes were the mean number of alters motivated by index participants in each arm and the mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants in each arm. These were assessed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression to determine the group differences in the mean number of alters and the mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants. Analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. We also conducted an economic evaluation using microcosting from a health provider perspective with a 3-month time horizon. The mean number of unique tested alters motivated by index participants was 0.57 ± 0.96 (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) in the control group, compared with 0.98 ± 1.38 in the SD-M group (mean difference [MD] = 0.41),and 1.78 ± 2.05 in the SD-M-PR group (MD = 1.21). The mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants was 0.16 ± 0.39 (mean ± SD) in the control group, compared with 0.41 ± 0.73 in the SD-M group (MD = 0.25) and 0.57 ± 0.91 in the SD-M-PR group (MD = 0.41), respectively. Results indicated that index participants in intervention arms were more likely to motivate unique tested alters (control versus SD-M: incidence rate ratio [IRR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.82 to 4.89, p-value < 0.001; control versus SD-M-PR: IRR = 3.26, 95% CI = 2.29 to 4.63, p-value < 0.001) and newly tested alters (control versus SD-M: IRR = 4.22, 95% CI = 1.93 to 9.23, p-value < 0.001; control versus SD-M-PR: IRR = 3.49, 95% CI = 1.92 to 6.37, p-value < 0.001) to conduct HIVST. The proportion of newly tested testers among alters was 28% in the control group, 42% in the SD-M group, and 32% in the SD-M-PR group. A total of 18 testers (3 index participants and 15 alters) tested as HIV positive, and the HIV reactive rates for alters were similar between the 3 groups. The total costs were $19,485.97 for 794 testers, including 450 index participants and 344 alter testers. Overall, the average cost per tester was $24.54, and the average cost per alter tester was $56.65. Monetary incentives alone (SD-M group) were more cost-effective than monetary incentives with peer referral (SD-M-PR group) on average in terms of alters tested and newly tested alters, despite SD-M-PR having larger effects. Compared to the control group, the cost for one more alter tester in the SD-M group was $14.90 and $16.61 in the SD-M-PR group. For newly tested alters, the cost of one more alter in the SD-M group was $24.65 and $49.07 in the SD-M-PR group. No study-related adverse events were reported during the study. Limitations include the digital network approach might neglect individuals who lack internet access. CONCLUSIONS: Monetary incentives alone and the combined intervention of monetary incentives and peer referral can promote the secondary distribution of HIVST among MSM. Monetary incentives can also expand HIV testing by encouraging first-time testing through secondary distribution by MSM. This social network-based digital approach can be expanded to other public health research, especially in the era of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) ChiCTR1900025433.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Testing/instrumentation , Homosexuality, Male , Reimbursement, Incentive , Self-Testing , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , China , Costs and Cost Analysis , HIV Testing/economics , HIV Testing/methods , Humans , Male
11.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667345

ABSTRACT

This study compared the immunogenicity of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines between people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV-negative individuals. We recruited 120 PLWH and 53 HIV-negative individuals aged 18-59 years who had received an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in two Chinese cities between April and June 2021. Blood samples were tested for immunogenicity of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The prevalence and severity of adverse events associated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were similar between PLWH and HIV-negative individuals. The seropositivity of neutralizing activity against authentic SARS-CoV-2, of the total amount of antibody (total antibody) and of S-IgG were 71.3%, 81.9%, and 92.6%, respectively, among fully vaccinated PLWH. Among all participants, PLWH had lower neutralizing activity, total antibody, S-IgG, and T-cell-specific immune response levels, compared to HIV-negative individuals, after controlling for types of vaccine, time interval between first and second dose, time after receiving the second dose, and sociodemographic factors. PLWH with a longer interval since HIV diagnosis, who received their second dose 15-28 days prior to study commencement, and who had an interval of ≥21 days between first and second dose had higher neutralizing activity levels. The immunogenicity of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was lower among PLWH as compared to HIV-negative individuals. Vaccination guideline specific for PLWH should be developed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Young Adult
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(1)2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625891

ABSTRACT

Patients with diabetes are more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infection, but vaccine hesitancy is a problem in this population. We investigated the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy among diabetes patients in China through a cross-sectional survey from April and August 2021 using a questionnaire administered to patients at two hospitals affiliated with Changzhi Medical College (Shanxi, China). The health belief model (HBM) is used examining factors influencing vaccine hesitancy. After adjusting for potential confounders, a multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze correlations between vaccine hesitancy and associated factors. Of the 483 participants, 56.4% (273/483) had vaccine hesitancy, including 58.2% (159/273) who were unsure of being vaccinated and 41.8% (114/273) who were unwilling. Although patients considered SARS-CoV-2 infection to be serious (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.36-6.42; p < 0.001), they had concerns about vaccine safety (aOR = 3.05, 95% CI: 1.89-4.91; p < 0.001). Relatives' vaccination status did not influence participants' willingness to be vaccinated (aOR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.39-4.25; p < 0.001). Disagreement with physicians' view that vaccination can reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection risk was independently correlated with vaccine hesitancy (aOR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.28-3.95; p < 0.001). Diabetes patients in China need to be educated on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine safety and protective effects to increase the vaccination rate in this population.

13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4964-4970, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to ravage the world. People living with HIV (PLHIV) are one of the most vulnerable groups. This study aims to identify the factors associated with the uptake and adverse reactions of COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: We recruited PLHIV in China by convenience sampling between 7 and 23 February 2021. Participants were asked to complete an online questionnaire. Chi-squared test and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess factors associated with vaccine uptake. RESULTS: A total of 527 vaccinated and 1091 unvaccinated PLHIV were recruited. Individuals who had a higher education, engaged in occupations with a higher risk of COVID-19 infection, received influenza or pneumonia vaccine in the past 3 years (5.40, 3.36-8.77), believed in the effectiveness of vaccines (3.01, 2.20-4.12), and received media information regarding COVID-19 vaccine (2.23, 1.61-3.11), were more likely to be vaccinated. Concerning about adverse reactions (0.31, 0.22-0.44), negative impact on the progression of HIV/AIDS (0.36, 0.26-0.50) or antiretroviral therapy (ART) (0.61, 0.44-0.85), disclosure of HIV infection status (0.69, 0.49-0.96), comorbidities (0.33, 0.22-0.47), being unmarried (0.43, 0.28-0.66) and older age were negatively associated with vaccination. Of the 527 vaccinated PLHIV, 155 (29.4%) PLHIV reported adverse reactions, with pain at the injection site being the most common (18.2%). CONCLUSIONS: PLHIV, who are concerned about adverse reactions, negative impact on ART outcome and disclosure of HIV infection status, were less likely to adopt COVID-19 vaccination. To increase vaccination coverage among PLHIV, health-care professionals should emphasize the benefits and necessity of vaccination and provide consultancy regarding adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
14.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 4529107, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511536

ABSTRACT

Frequent occurrence and long-term existence of respiratory diseases such as COVID-19 and influenza require bus drivers to wear masks correctly during driving. To quickly detect whether the mask is worn correctly on resource-constrained devices, a lightweight target detection network SAI-YOLO is proposed. Based on YOLOv4-Tiny, the network incorporates the Inception V3 structure, replaces two CSPBlock modules with the RES-SEBlock modules to reduce the number of parameters and computational difficulty, and adds a convolutional block attention module and a squeeze-and-excitation module to extract key feature information. Moreover, a modified ReLU (M-ReLU) activation function is introduced to replace the original Leaky_ReLU function. The experimental results show that SAI-YOLO reduces the number of network parameters and calculation difficulty and improves the detection speed of the network while maintaining certain recognition accuracy. The mean average precision (mAP) for face-mask-wearing detection reaches 86% and the average precision (AP) for mask-wearing normative detection reaches 88%. In the resource-constrained device Raspberry Pi 4B, the average detection time after acceleration is 197 ms, which meets the actual application requirements.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Humans , Recognition, Psychology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e31125, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV infection is a significant independent risk factor for both severe COVID-19 presentation at hospital admission and in-hospital mortality. Available information has suggested that people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) could benefit from COVID-19 vaccination. However, there is a dearth of evidence on willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among PLWHA. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among a national sample of PLWHA in China. METHODS: This cross-sectional online survey investigated factors associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among PLWHA aged 18 to 65 years living in eight conveniently selected Chinese metropolitan cities between January and February 2021. Eight community-based organizations (CBOs) providing services to PLWHA facilitated the recruitment. Eligible PLWHA completed an online survey developed using a widely used encrypted web-based survey platform in China. We fitted a single logistic regression model to obtain adjusted odds ratios (aORs), which involved one of the independent variables of interest and all significant background variables. Path analysis was also used in the data analysis. RESULTS: Out of 10,845 PLWHA approached by the CBOs, 2740 completed the survey, and 170 had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. This analysis was performed among 2570 participants who had never received COVID-19 vaccination. Over half of the participants reported willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination (1470/2570, 57.2%). Perceptions related to COVID-19 vaccination were significantly associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination, including positive attitudes (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.09-1.12; P<.001), negative attitudes (aOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.97; P<.001), perceived support from significant others (perceived subjective norm; aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.46-1.61; P<.001), and perceived behavioral control (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.11-1.14; P<.001). At the interpersonal level, receiving advice supportive of COVID-19 vaccination from doctors (aOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.65-2.40; P<.001), CBO staff (aOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.51-2.36; P<.001), friends and/or family members (aOR 3.22, 95% CI 1.93-5.35; P<.001), and PLWHA peers (aOR 2.38, 95% CI 1.85-3.08; P<.001) was associated with higher willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. The overall opinion supporting COVID-19 vaccination for PLWHA on the internet or social media was also positively associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination (aOR 1.59, 95% CI 1.31-1.94; P<.001). Path analysis indicated that interpersonal-level variables were indirectly associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination through perceptions (ß=.43, 95% CI .37-.51; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to PLWHA in other countries and the general population in most parts of the world, PLWHA in China reported a relatively low willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. The internet and social media as well as interpersonal communications may be major sources of influence on PLWHA's perceptions and willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306953

ABSTRACT

In 2020 and 2021, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus, caused a global pandemic. Vaccines are expected to reduce the pressure of prevention and control, and have become the most effective strategy to solve the pandemic crisis. SARS-CoV-2 infects the host by binding to the cellular receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) via the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the surface spike (S) glycoprotein. In this study, a candidate vaccine based on a RBD recombinant subunit was prepared by means of a novel glycoengineered yeast Pichia pastoris expression system with characteristics of glycosylation modification similar to those of mammalian cells. The candidate vaccine effectively stimulated mice to produce high-titer anti-RBD specific antibody. Furthermore, the specific antibody titer and virus-neutralizing antibody (NAb) titer induced by the vaccine were increased significantly by the combination of the double adjuvants Al(OH)3 and CpG. Our results showed that the virus-NAb lasted for more than 6 months in mice. To summarize, we have obtained a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine based on the RBD of the S glycoprotein expressed in glycoengineered Pichia pastoris, which stimulates neutralizing and protective antibody responses. A technical route for fucose-free complex-type N-glycosylation modified recombinant subunit vaccine preparation has been established.

19.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 9979032, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202118

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped and harbor an unusually large (30-32 kb) positive-strand linear RNA genome. Highly pathogenic coronaviruses cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) (MERS-CoV) in humans. The coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infects mice and serves as an ideal model of viral pathogenesis, mainly because experiments can be conducted using animal-biosafety level-2 (A-BSL2) containment. Human thymosin beta-4 (Tß4), a 43-residue peptide with an acetylated N-terminus, is widely expressed in human tissues. Tß4 regulates actin polymerization and functions as an anti-inflammatory molecule and an antioxidant as well as a promoter of wound healing and angiogenesis. These activities led us to test whether Tß4 serves to treat coronavirus infections of humans. To test this possibility, here, we established a BALB/c mouse model of coronavirus infection using mouse CoV MHV-A59 to evaluate the potential protective effect of recombinant human Tß4 (rhTß4). Such a system can be employed under A-BSL2 containment instead of A-BSL3 that is required to study coronaviruses infectious for humans. We found that rhTß4 significantly increased the survival rate of mice infected with MHV-A59 through inhibiting virus replication, balancing the host's immune response, alleviating pathological damage, and promoting repair of the liver. These results will serve as the basis for further application of rhTß4 to the treatment of human CoV diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Murine hepatitis virus , Thymosin/therapeutic use , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Murine hepatitis virus/immunology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Virus Replication/drug effects
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