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1.
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28871, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238610

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is still spreading globally. Studies have reported the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosols and on surfaces under different conditions. However, studies on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 and viral nucleic acids on common food and packaging material surfaces are insufficient. The study evaluated the stability of SARS-CoV-2 using TCID50 assays and the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction on various food and packaging material surfaces. Viral nucleic acids were stable on food and material surfaces under different conditions. The viability of SARS-CoV-2 varied among different surfaces. SARS-CoV-2 was inactivated on most food and packaging material surfaces within 1 day at room temperature but was more stable at lower temperatures. Viruses survived for at least 1 week on pork and plastic at 4°C, while no viable viruses were detected on hairtail, orange, or carton after 3 days. There were viable viruses and a slight titer decrease after 8 weeks on pork and plastic, but titers decreased rapidly on hairtail and carton at -20°C. These results highlight the need for targeted preventive and disinfection measures based on different types of foods, packaging materials, and environmental conditions, particularly in the cold-chain food trade, to combat the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Biological Assay , Plastics
2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(2): 2220630, 2023 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244911

ABSTRACT

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is a rare and serious ocular adverse reaction following COVID-19 vaccination. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical features, diagnosis and management of COVID-19 vaccine-associated VKH disease. Case reports of VKH disease after COVID-19 vaccination were collected up to February 11, 2023 for retrospective analysis. Twenty-one patients (9 males and 12 females) were included, with a median age of 45 years (range 19-78), from three main regions, Asia (12/21), the Mediterranean region (4/21), and South America (5/21). Fourteen patients developed symptoms after the first dose of the vaccine, and 8 after the second dose. Vaccines included mRNA vaccine (10 cases), virus vector vaccine (6 cases), and inactivated vaccine (5 cases). The average time interval from vaccination to onset of symptoms was 7.5 days (range 12 hours to 4 weeks). All 21 patients experienced visual impairment after vaccination, with 20 cases involving both eyes. Sixteen patients showed symptoms of meningitis. Serous retinal detachment was observed in 16 patients, choroidal thickening was observed in 14, aqueous cell in 9, and subretinal fluid in 6. CSF pleocytosis was detected in 7 patients and skin symptoms were found in 3 patients. All patients received corticosteroid therapy, and 8 also received immunosuppressive agents. All patients recovered well, with a mean recovery time of 2 months. Early diagnosis and early treatment are crucial to the prognosis of patients with VKH after vaccination with COVID-19 vaccine. The risk of vaccination against COVID-19 in patients with a history of VKH disease should be evaluated clinically.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome/chemically induced , Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome/complications , Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome/diagnosis
3.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 177, 2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal circulating eosinophil (EOS) data impacted by the COVID-19 vaccine, the predictive role of circulating EOS in the disease severity, and its association with T cell immunity in patients with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 variant infection in Shanghai, China. METHODS: We collected a cohort of 1,157 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron/BA.2 variant in Shanghai, China. These patients were diagnosed or admitted between Feb 20, 2022, and May 10, 2022, and were classified as asymptomatic (n = 705), mild (n = 286) and severe (n = 166) groups. We compiled and analyzed data of patients' clinical demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: COVID-19 vaccine reduced the incidence of severe cases. Severe patients were shown to have declined peripheral blood EOS. Both the 2 doses and 3 doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines promoted the circulating EOS levels. In particular, the 3rd booster shot of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was shown to have a sustained promoting effect on circulating EOS. Univariate analysis showed that there was a significant difference in age, underlying comorbidities, EOS, lymphocytes, CRP, CD4, and CD8 T cell counts between the mild and the severe patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and ROC curve analysis indicate that circulating EOS (AUC = 0.828, p = 0.025), the combination of EOS and CD4 T cell (AUC = 0.920, p = 0.017) can predict the risk of disease severity in patients with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 variant infection. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccine promotes circulating EOS and reduces the risk of severe illness, and particularly the 3rd booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine sustainedly promotes EOS. Circulating EOS, along with T cell immunity, may have a predictive value for the disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Eosinophils , SARS-CoV-2 , Patient Acuity
4.
Antib Ther ; 6(2): 76-86, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294418

ABSTRACT

Background: Rapid and efficient strategies are needed to discover neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) from B cells derived from virus-infected patients. Methods: Here, we report a high-throughput single-B-cell cloning method for high-throughput isolation of nAbs targeting diverse epitopes on the SARS-CoV-2-RBD (receptor binding domain) from convalescent COVID-19 patients. This method is simple, fast and highly efficient in generating SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies from COVID-19 patients' B cells. Results: Using this method, we have developed multiple nAbs against distinct SARS-CoV-2-RBD epitopes. CryoEM and crystallography revealed precisely how they bind RBD. In live virus assay, these nAbs are effective in blocking viral entry to the host cells. Conclusion: This simple and efficient method may be useful in developing human therapeutic antibodies for other diseases and next pandemic.

6.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2023 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262533

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis is an inflammatory cardiac disease characterized by the destruction of myocardial cells, infiltration of interstitial inflammatory cells, and fibrosis, and is becoming a major public health concern. The aetiology of myocarditis continues to broaden as new pathogens and drugs emerge. The relationship between immune checkpoint inhibitors, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, vaccines against coronavirus disease-2019, and myocarditis has attracted increased attention. Immunopathological processes play an important role in the different phases of myocarditis, affecting disease occurrence, development, and prognosis. Excessive immune activation can induce severe myocardial injury and lead to fulminant myocarditis, whereas chronic inflammation can lead to cardiac remodelling and inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy. The use of immunosuppressive treatments, particularly cytotoxic agents, for myocarditis, remains controversial. While reasonable and effective immunomodulatory therapy is the general trend. This review focuses on the current understanding of the aetiology and immunopathogenesis of myocarditis and offers new perspectives on immunomodulatory therapies.

7.
CJEM ; 25(4): 335-343, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Intubation practices changed during the COVID-19 pandemic to protect healthcare workers from transmission of disease. Our objectives were to describe intubation characteristics and outcomes for patients tested for SARS CoV-2 infection. We compared outcomes between patients testing SARS COV-2 positive with those testing negative. METHODS: We conducted a health records review using the Canadian COVID-19 Emergency Department Rapid Response Network (CCEDRRN) registry. We included consecutive eligible patients who presented to one of 47 EDs across Canada between March 1, 2020 and June 20, 2021, were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and intubated in the ED. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients experiencing a post-intubation adverse event during the ED stay. Secondary outcomes included first-pass success, intubation practices, and hospital mortality. We used descriptive statistics to summarize variables with subgroup differences examined using t tests, z tests, or chi-squared tests where appropriate with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Of 1720 patients with suspected COVID-19 who were intubated in the ED during the study period, 337 (19.6%) tested SARS-CoV-2 positive and 1383 (80.4%) SARS-CoV-2 negative. SARS-CoV-2 positive patients presented to hospital with lower oxygen levels than SARS-CoV-2 negative patients (mean pulse oximeter SaO2 86 vs 94%, p < 0.001). In total, 8.5% of patients experienced an adverse event post-intubation. More patients in the SARS-CoV-2 positive subgroup experienced post-intubation hypoxemia (4.5 vs 2.2%, p = 0.019). In-hospital mortality was greater for patients who experienced intubation-related adverse events (43.2 vs 33.2%, p = 0.018). There was no significant difference in adverse event-associated mortality by SARS-CoV-2 status. First-pass success was achieved in 92.4% of all intubations, with no difference by SARS-CoV-2 status. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, we observed a low risk of adverse events associated with intubation, even though hypoxemia was common in patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2. We observed high rates of first-pass success and low rates of inability to intubate. The limited number of adverse events precluded multivariate adjustments. Study findings should reassure emergency medicine practitioners that system modifications made to intubation processes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic do not appear to be associated with worse outcomes compared to pre-COVID-19 practices.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Les pratiques d'intubation ont changé au cours de la pandémie de COVID-19 afin de protéger le personnel de santé contre la transmission de la maladie. Nos objectifs étaient de décrire les caractéristiques de l'intubation et les résultats pour les patients testés pour l'infection par le CoV-2 du SRAS. Nous avons comparé les résultats entre les patients testés positifs au SARS COV-2 et ceux testés négatifs. MéTHODES: Nous avons effectué un examen des dossiers de santé à l'aide du registre du Réseau canadien d'intervention rapide dans les services d'urgence pour la COVID-19 (RCIRSUC). Nous avons inclus les patients éligibles consécutifs qui se sont présentés à l'un des 47 services d'urgence du Canada entre le 1er mars 2020 et le 20 juin 2021, qui ont été testés pour le SRAS-CoV-2 et qui ont été intubés dans le service d'urgence. Le résultat principal était la proportion de patients ayant subi un événement indésirable après l'intubation pendant leur séjour aux urgences. Les critères de jugement secondaires comprenaient le succès du premier passage, les pratiques d'intubation et la mortalité hospitalière. Nous avons utilisé des statistiques descriptives pour résumer les variables avec des différences de sous-groupes examinées à l'aide de tests t, de tests z ou de tests du chi carré, le cas échéant, avec des IC à 95%. RéSULTATS: Sur les 1720 patients suspects de COVID-19 qui ont été intubés aux urgences pendant la période de l'étude, 337 (19,6%) ont été testés positifs au SARS-CoV-2 et 1383 (80,4%) négatifs au SARS-CoV-2. Les patients positifs au SRAS-CoV-2 se sont présentés à l'hôpital avec des niveaux d'oxygène inférieurs à ceux des patients négatifs pour le SRAS-CoV-2 (oxymètre de pouls moyen SaO2 86% contre 94%, p < 0,001). Au total, 8,5% des patients ont présenté un événement indésirable après l'intubation. Un plus grand nombre de patients du sous-groupe positif au SRAS-CoV-2 ont présenté une hypoxémie post-intubation (4,5% vs 2,2%, p = 0,019). La mortalité hospitalière était plus élevée chez les patients ayant subi des événements indésirables liés à l'intubation (43,2% vs 33,2%, p = 0,018). Il n'y avait pas de différence significative dans la mortalité associée aux événements indésirables selon le statut du SRAS-CoV-2. Le succès du premier passage a été obtenu dans 92,4% de toutes les intubations, sans différence selon le statut SARS-CoV-2 CONCLUSIONS: Pendant la pandémie de COVID-19, nous avons observé un faible risque d'événements indésirables associés à l'intubation, même si l'hypoxémie était fréquente chez les patients atteints de SRAS-CoV-2 confirmé. Nous avons observé des taux élevés de réussite du premier passage et des taux faibles d'incapacité à intuber. Le nombre limité d'événements indésirables a empêché les ajustements multivariés. Les résultats de l'étude devraient rassurer les praticiens de la médecine d'urgence que les modifications apportées aux processus d'intubation en réponse à la pandémie de COVID-19 ne semblent pas être associées à des résultats plus défavorables que les pratiques antérieures à la pandémie de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Canada/epidemiology , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Emergency Service, Hospital
8.
Toxics ; 11(2)2023 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253695

ABSTRACT

Wearing masks has become the norm during the Coronavirus disease pandemic. Masks can reportedly interface with air pollutants and release microplastics and plastic additives such as phthalates. In this study, an experimental device was set up to simulate the impact of five kinds of masks (activated-carbon, N95, surgical, cotton, and fashion masks) on the risk of humans inhaling microplastics and phthalates during wearing. The residual concentrations of seven major phthalates ranged from 296 to 72,049 ng/g (median: 1242 ng/g), with the lowest and the highest concentrations detected in surgical (median: 367 ng/g) and fashion masks (median: 37,386 ng/g), respectively. During the whole inhalation simulation process, fragmented and 20-100 µm microplastics accounted for the largest, with a rapid release during the first six hours. After one day's wearing, that of 6 h, while wearing different masks, 25-135 and 65-298 microplastics were inhaled indoors and outdoors, respectively. The total estimated daily intake of phthalates with indoor and outdoor conditions by inhalation and skin exposure ranged from 1.2 to 13 and 0.43 to 14 ng/kg bw/d, respectively. Overall, surgical masks yield a protective effect, while cotton and fashion masks increase human exposure to microplastics and phthalates both indoors and outdoors compared to no mask wearing. This study observed possible risks from common facemasks and provided suggestions to consumers for selecting suitable masks to reduce exposure risks from microplastics and phthalate acid.

9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1051576, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237154

ABSTRACT

The development of vaccines that can efficiently prevent the infection of SARS-CoV-2 is necessary to fight the COVID-19 epidemic. mRNA vaccine has been proven to induce strong humoral and cellular immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we studied the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of a novel mRNA vaccine SYS6006. High expression of mRNA molecules in 293T cells was detected. The initial and boost immunization with a 21-day interval was determined as an optimal strategy for SYS6006. Two rounds of immunization with SYS6006 were able to induce the neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 wild-type (WT) strain, and Delta and Omicron BA.2 variants in mice or non-human primates (NHPs). A3rd round of vaccination could further enhance the titers of neutralization against Delta and Omicron variants. In vitro ELISpot assay showed that SYS6006 could induce memory B cell and T cell immunities specifically against SARS-CoV-2 in mice. FACS analysis indicated that SYS6006 successfully induced SARS-CoV-2-specific activation of T follicular helper cell (Tfh) and Th1 cell, and did not induce CD4+Th2 response in NHPs. SYS6006 vaccine could significantly reduce the viral RNA loads and prevent lung lesions in Delta variant infected hACE2 transgenic mice. Therefore, SYS6006 could provide significant immune protection against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Mice , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization , Mice, Transgenic
10.
J Clin Transl Sci ; 7(1): e24, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237153

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic created an unprecedented need for population-level clinical trials focused on the discovery of life-saving therapies and treatments. However, there is limited information on perception of research participation among perinatal populations, a population of particular interest during the pandemic. Methods: Eligible respondents were 18 years or older, were currently pregnant or had an infant (≤12 months old), and lived in Florida within 50 miles of sites participating in the OneFlorida Clinical Research Consortium. Respondents were recruited via Qualtrics panels between April and September 2020. Respondents completed survey items about barriers and facilitators to participation and answered sociodemographic questions. Results: Of 533 respondents, most were between 25 and 34 years of age (n = 259, 49%) and identified as White (n = 303, 47%) and non-Hispanic (n = 344, 65%). Facebook was the most popular social media platform among our respondents. The most common barriers to research participation included poor explanation of study goals, discomforts to the infant, and time commitment. Recruitment through healthcare providers was perceived as the best way to learn about clinical research studies. When considering research participation, "myself" had the greatest influence, followed by familial ties. Noninvasive biological samples were highly acceptable. Hispanics had higher positive perspectives on willingness to participate in a randomized study (p = 0.009). Education (p = 0.007) had significant effects on willingness to release personal health information. Conclusion: When recruiting women during the pregnancy and postpartum periods for perinatal studies, investigators should consider protocols that account for common barriers and preferred study information sources. Social media-based recruitment is worthy of adoption.

11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): 2178238, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236789

ABSTRACT

5-Methylcytosine (m5C) is a widespread post-transcriptional RNA modification and is reported to be involved in manifold cellular responses and biological processes through regulating RNA metabolism. However, its regulatory role in antiviral innate immunity has not yet been elucidated. Here, we report that NSUN2, a typical m5C methyltransferase, negatively regulates type I interferon responses during various viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2. NSUN2 specifically mediates m5C methylation of IRF3 mRNA and accelerates its degradation, resulting in low levels of IRF3 and downstream IFN-ß production. Knockout or knockdown of NSUN2 enhanced type I interferon and downstream ISGs during various viral infection in vitro. And in vivo, the antiviral innate response is more dramatically enhanced in Nsun2+/- mice than in Nsun2+/+ mice. The highly m5C methylated cytosines in IRF3 mRNA were identified, and their mutation enhanced cellular IRF3 mRNA levels. Moreover, infection with Sendai virus (SeV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), or Zika virus (ZIKV) resulted in a reduction of endogenous NSUN2 levels. Especially, SARS-CoV-2 infection (WT strain and BA.1 omicron variant) also decreased endogenous levels of NSUN2 in COVID-19 patients and K18-hACE2 KI mice, further increasing type I interferon and downstream ISGs. Together, our findings reveal that NSUN2 serves as a negative regulator of interferon response by accelerating the fast turnover of IRF3 mRNA, while endogenous NSUN2 levels decrease during SARS-CoV-2 and various viral infections to boost antiviral responses for effective elimination of viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Virus Diseases , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Mice , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferon-beta/genetics , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Methylation , Zika Virus/metabolism , Mice, Knockout , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 42, 2023 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230292

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2, primarily authenticated in November 2021 in South Africa, has initiated the 5th wave of global pandemics. Here, we systemically examined immunological and metabolic characteristics of Omicron variants infection. We found Omicron resisted to neutralizing antibody targeting receptor binding domain (RBD) of wildtype SARS-CoV-2. Omicron could hardly be neutralized by sera of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescents infected with the Delta variant. Through mass spectrometry on MHC-bound peptidomes, we found that the spike protein of the Omicron variants could generate additional CD8 + T cell epitopes, compared with Delta. These epitopes could induce robust CD8 + T cell responses. Moreover, we found booster vaccination increased the cross-memory CD8 + T cell responses against Omicron. Metabolic regulome analysis of Omicron-specific T cell showed a metabolic profile that promoted the response of memory T cells. Consistently, a greater fraction of memory CD8 + T cells existed in Omicron stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In addition, CD147 was also a receptor for the Omicron variants, and CD147 antibody inhibited infection of Omicron. CD147-mediated Omicron infection in a human CD147 transgenic mouse model induced exudative alveolar pneumonia. Taken together, our data suggested that vaccination booster and receptor blocking antibody are two effective strategies against Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Animals , Mice , COVID-19/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Epitopes , Mice, Transgenic
13.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1083523, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235660

ABSTRACT

Background: The quantitative level and kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in individuals with Omicron breakthrough infections may differ from those of vaccinated individuals without infection. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the difference in NAb levels to distinguish the breakthrough cases from the post-immunized population to identify early infected person in an outbreak epidemic when nasal and/or pharyngeal swab nucleic acid real-time PCR results were negative. Methods: We collected 1077 serum samples from 877 individuals, including 189 with Omicron BA.2 breakthrough infection and 688 post-immunized participants. NAb titers were detected using the surrogate virus neutralization test, and were log(2)-transformed to normalize prior to analysis using Student's unpaired t-tests. Geometric mean titers (GMT) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Linear regression models were used to identify factors associated with NAb levels. We further conducted ROC curve analysis to evaluate the NAbs' ability to identify breakthrough infected individuals in the vaccinated population. Results: The breakthrough infection group had a consistently higher NAb levels than the post-immunized group according to time since the last vaccination. NAb titers in the breakthrough infection group were 6.4-fold higher than those in the post-immunized group (GMT: 40.72 AU/mL and 6.38 AU/mL, respectively; p<0.0001). In the breakthrough infection group, the NAbs in the convalescent phase were 10.9-fold higher than in the acute phase (GMT: 200.48 AU/mL and 18.46 AU/mL, respectively; p<0.0001). In addition, the time since infection, booster vaccination, and the time since last vaccination were associated with log(2)-transformed NAb levels in the breakthrough infection group. ROC curve analysis showed that ROC area was largest (0.728) when the cut-off value of log(2)-transformed NAb was 6, which indicated that NAb levels could identify breakthrough infected individuals in the vaccinated population. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that the NAb titers of Omicron BA.2 variant breakthrough cases are higher than in the post-immunized group. The difference in NAb levels could be used to identify cases of breakthrough infection from the post-immunized population in an outbreak epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Kinetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Breakthrough Infections
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 933075, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215404

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineage B.1.617.2 (also named the Delta variant) was declared as a variant of concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study aimed to describe the outbreak that occurred in Nanjing city triggered by the Delta variant through the epidemiological parameters and to understand the evolving epidemiology of the Delta variant. Methods: We collected the data of all COVID-19 cases during the outbreak from 20 July 2021 to 24 August 2021 and estimated the distribution of serial interval, basic and time-dependent reproduction numbers (R0 and Rt), and household secondary attack rate (SAR). We also analyzed the cycle threshold (Ct) values of infections. Results: A total of 235 cases have been confirmed. The mean value of serial interval was estimated to be 4.79 days with the Weibull distribution. The R0 was 3.73 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.66-5.15] as estimated by the exponential growth (EG) method. The Rt decreased from 4.36 on 20 July 2021 to below 1 on 1 August 2021 as estimated by the Bayesian approach. We estimated the household SAR as 27.35% (95% CI, 22.04-33.39%), and the median Ct value of open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) genes and nucleocapsid protein (N) genes as 25.25 [interquartile range (IQR), 20.53-29.50] and 23.85 (IQR, 18.70-28.70), respectively. Conclusions: The Delta variant is more aggressive and transmissible than the original virus types, so continuous non-pharmaceutical interventions are still needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology
15.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 20, 2023 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185773

ABSTRACT

An ongoing randomized, double-blind, controlled phase 2 trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a mosaic-type recombinant vaccine candidate, named NVSI-06-09, as a booster dose in subjects aged 18 years and older from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), who had administered two or three doses of inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV at least 6 months prior to enrollment. The participants were randomly assigned with 1:1 to receive a booster dose of NVSI-06-09 or BBIBP-CorV. The primary outcomes were immunogenicity and safety against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant, and the exploratory outcome was cross-immunogenicity against other circulating strains. Between May 25 and 30, 2022, 516 adults received booster vaccination with 260 in NVSI-06-09 group and 256 in BBIBP-CorV group. Interim results showed a similar safety profile between two booster groups, with low incidence of adverse reactions of grade 1 or 2. For immunogenicity, by day 14 post-booster, the fold rises in neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) from baseline elicited by NVSI-06-09 were remarkably higher than those by BBIBP-CorV against the prototype strain (19.67 vs 4.47-fold), Omicron BA.1.1 (42.35 vs 3.78-fold), BA.2 (25.09 vs 2.91-fold), BA.4 (22.42 vs 2.69-fold), and BA.5 variants (27.06 vs 4.73-fold). Similarly, the neutralizing GMTs boosted by NVSI-06-09 against Beta and Delta variants were also 6.60-fold and 7.17-fold higher than those by BBIBP-CorV. Our findings indicated that a booster dose of NVSI-06-09 was well-tolerated and elicited broad-spectrum neutralizing responses against divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron and its sub-lineages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control
16.
Cell Rep Med ; 4(2): 100918, 2023 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184477

ABSTRACT

With the widespread vaccinations against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we are witnessing gradually waning neutralizing antibodies and increasing cases of breakthrough infections, necessitating the development of drugs aside from vaccines, particularly ones that can be administered outside of hospitals. Here, we present two cross-reactive nanobodies (R14 and S43) and their multivalent derivatives, including decameric ones (fused to the immunoglobulin M [IgM] Fc) that maintain potent neutralizing activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after aerosolization and display not only pan-SARS-CoV-2 but also varied pan-sarbecovirus activities. Through respiratory administration to mice, monovalent and decameric R14 significantly reduce the lung viral RNAs at low dose and display potent pre- and post-exposure protection. Furthermore, structural studies reveal the neutralizing mechanisms of R14 and S43 and the multiple inhibition effects that the multivalent derivatives exert. Our work demonstrates promising convenient drug candidates via respiratory administration against SARS-CoV-2 infection, which can contribute to containing the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Domain Antibodies , Animals , Mice , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments
17.
CJEM ; 25(2): 134-142, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2175637

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to quantify the prognostic association between various D-dimer thresholds and 30-day PE diagnosis among emergency department (ED) patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients enrolled in the Canadian COVID-19 ED Rapid Response Network (CCEDRRN) registry from March 1, 2020 to July 2, 2021. We included consecutive adults (≥ 18 years) presenting to 49 EDs with chest pain, shortness of breath, hypoxia, syncope, presyncope, or hemoptysis who were tested for both SARS-CoV-2 and D-dimer at index ED visit. The primary outcome measure was the sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of D-dimer test thresholds for the outcome of 30-day PE diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 10,837 patients included in our study, 404 (3.7%) were diagnosed with PE at 30-days. A standard D-Dimer threshold of 500 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 97.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 95.8-99.0%), specificity of 40.9% (95% CI 39.9-41.8%), and negative predictive value of 99.8% (95% CI 99.6-99.9%). An age-adjusted D-dimer threshold had a sensitivity of 96.0% (95% CI 93.6-97.7%), specificity of 48.5% (95% CI 47.5-49.4%), and negative predictive value of 99.7% (95% CI 99.5-99.8%). D-dimer testing had slightly lower prognostic performance among SARS-CoV-2 positive compared to SARS-CoV-2 negative patients in predicting 30-day PE diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Among ED patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2, the standard 500 ng/mL and age-adjusted D-dimer thresholds were comparable for the prediction of PE at 30-days. The prognostic performance of D-dimer was lower among SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04702945.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: L'objectif principal était de quantifier l'association pronostique entre différents seuils de D-dimères et le diagnostic d'EP à 30 jours chez les patients des services d'urgence suspectés d'être infectés par le SRAS-CoV-2. MéTHODES: Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective des patients inscrits au registre du réseau canadien de réponse rapide aux urgences COVID-19 (CCEDRRN) du 1er mars 2020 au 2 juillet 2021. Nous avons inclus des adultes consécutifs (>18 ans) se présentant dans 49 services d'urgence pour une douleur thoracique, un essoufflement, une hypoxie, une syncope, une présyncope ou une hémoptysie et qui ont été testés à la fois pour le SRAS-CoV-2 et les D-dimères lors de la visite de référence aux urgences. Le principal critère d'évaluation était la sensibilité, la spécificité et la valeur prédictive négative des seuils du test des D-dimères pour le diagnostic de l'EP à 30 jours. RéSULTATS: Parmi les 10 837 patients inclus dans notre étude, 404 (3,7 %) ont reçu un diagnostic d'EP à 30 jours. Un seuil standard de D-Dimer de 500 ng/mL avait une sensibilité de 97,8 % (intervalle de confiance [IC] à 95 % 95,8-99,0 %), une spécificité de 40,9 % (IC à 95 % 39,9-41,8 %) et une valeur prédictive négative de 99,8 % (IC à 95 % 99,6-99,9 %). Un seuil de D-dimères ajusté à l'âge avait une sensibilité de 96,0% (IC à 95 % 93,6-97,7 %), une spécificité de 48,5% (IC à 95 % 47,5-49,4 %) et une valeur prédictive négative de 99,7 % (IC à 95 % 99,5-99,8 %). Le test des D-dimères avait une performance pronostique légèrement inférieure chez les patients positifs pour le SRAS-CoV-2 par rapport aux patients négatifs pour le SRAS-CoV-2 en ce qui concerne la prédiction du diagnostic d'EP à 30 jours. CONCLUSIONS: Chez les patients des urgences suspectés d'être atteints du SRAS-CoV-2, les seuils standard de 500 ng/ml et les seuils de D-dimères ajustés à l'âge étaient comparables pour la prédiction de l'EP à 30 jours. La performance pronostique des D-dimères était plus faible chez les patients positifs pour le SRAS-CoV-2. ENREGISTREMENT DE L'ESSAI: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04702945.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , Humans , Infant , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Canada/epidemiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Predictive Value of Tests , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , COVID-19 Testing
18.
Sci Transl Med ; 15(677): eabo3332, 2023 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193427

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 continues to accumulate mutations to evade immunity, leading to breakthrough infections after vaccination. How researchers can anticipate the evolutionary trajectory of the virus in advance in the design of next-generation vaccines requires investigation. Here, we performed a comprehensive study of 11,650,487 SARS-CoV-2 sequences, which revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein evolved not randomly but into directional paths of either high infectivity plus low immune resistance or low infectivity plus high immune resistance. The viral infectivity and immune resistance of variants are generally incompatible, except for limited variants such as Beta and Kappa. The Omicron variant has the highest immune resistance but showed high infectivity in only one of the tested cell lines. To provide cross-clade immunity against variants that undergo diverse evolutionary pathways, we designed a new pan-vaccine antigen (Span). Span was designed by analyzing the homology of 2675 SARS-CoV-2 S protein sequences from the NCBI database before the Delta variant emerged. The refined Span protein harbors high-frequency residues at given positions that reflect cross-clade generality in sequence evolution. Compared with a prototype wild-type (Swt) vaccine, which, when administered to mice, induced serum with decreased neutralization activity against emerging variants, Span vaccination of mice elicited broad immunity to a wide range of variants, including those that emerged after our design. Moreover, vaccinating mice with a heterologous Span booster conferred complete protection against lethal infection with the Omicron variant. Our results highlight the importance and feasibility of a universal vaccine to fight against SARS-CoV-2 antigenic drift.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Mice , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
19.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147764

ABSTRACT

Objectives Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineage B.1.617.2 (also named the Delta variant) was declared as a variant of concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study aimed to describe the outbreak that occurred in Nanjing city triggered by the Delta variant through the epidemiological parameters and to understand the evolving epidemiology of the Delta variant. Methods We collected the data of all COVID-19 cases during the outbreak from 20 July 2021 to 24 August 2021 and estimated the distribution of serial interval, basic and time-dependent reproduction numbers (R0 and Rt), and household secondary attack rate (SAR). We also analyzed the cycle threshold (Ct) values of infections. Results A total of 235 cases have been confirmed. The mean value of serial interval was estimated to be 4.79 days with the Weibull distribution. The R0 was 3.73 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.66–5.15] as estimated by the exponential growth (EG) method. The Rt decreased from 4.36 on 20 July 2021 to below 1 on 1 August 2021 as estimated by the Bayesian approach. We estimated the household SAR as 27.35% (95% CI, 22.04–33.39%), and the median Ct value of open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) genes and nucleocapsid protein (N) genes as 25.25 [interquartile range (IQR), 20.53–29.50] and 23.85 (IQR, 18.70–28.70), respectively. Conclusions The Delta variant is more aggressive and transmissible than the original virus types, so continuous non-pharmaceutical interventions are still needed.

20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18168, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096749

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity are influenced by viral entry (VE) gene expression patterns in the airway epithelium. The similarities and differences of VE gene expression (ACE2, TMPRSS2, and CTSL) across nasal and bronchial compartments have not been fully characterized using matched samples from large cohorts. Gene expression data from 793 nasal and 1673 bronchial brushes obtained from individuals participating in lung cancer screening or diagnostic workup revealed that smoking status (current versus former) was the only clinical factor significantly and reproducibly associated with VE gene expression. The expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was higher in smokers in the bronchus but not in the nose. scRNA-seq of nasal brushings indicated that ACE2 co-expressed genes were highly expressed in club and C15orf48+ secretory cells while TMPRSS2 co-expressed genes were highly expressed in keratinizing epithelial cells. In contrast, these ACE2 and TMPRSS2 modules were highly expressed in goblet cells in scRNA-seq from bronchial brushings. Cell-type deconvolution of the gene expression data confirmed that smoking increased the abundance of several secretory cell populations in the bronchus, but only goblet cells in the nose. The association of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with smoking in the bronchus is due to their high expression in goblet cells which increase in abundance in current smoker airways. In contrast, in the nose, these genes are not predominantly expressed in cell populations modulated by smoking. In individuals with elevated lung cancer risk, smoking-induced VE gene expression changes in the nose likely have minimal impact on SARS-CoV-2 infection, but in the bronchus, smoking may lead to higher viral loads and more severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Early Detection of Cancer , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Bronchi/metabolism , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/genetics
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