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EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315699


We provide one of the first comprehensive and most updated studies on the effects of firms’ organizational resources, country institutions, and national culture on the survival and growth of private firms around the world during the COVID-19 pandemic. Analyzing World Bank Enterprise Follow-up Surveys on COVID-19 that covers 18,770 firms from 36 countries, we document four sets of findings. (1) During the pandemic, firms with favorable organizational resources (i.e., state ownership and affiliation with parent companies) are more likely to survive and grow, whereas firms with foreign ownership or with more financial obstacles are less likely to survive or grow. Firms in countries with a higher per capita income, a lower COVID spread, and a less stringent COVID control policy are more likely to survive and grow. (2) Favorable ownership and parent-company affiliations help cushion the pandemic shock during the pandemic. (3) The relationship between firm characteristics and firm survival/growth is significantly affected by the stringency of a country’s COVID policy. (4) Firm survival and growth are positively related to a country’s cultural tendency in terms of long-term orientation, and are not significantly related to uncertainty avoidance and individualism. The overall country governance quality is negatively linked to the odds for firm survival as well as revenue and employment growth.

Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 219, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834865


Convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion has been indicated as a promising therapy in the treatment for other emerging viral infections. However, the quality control of CP and individual variation in patients in different studies make it rather difficult to evaluate the efficacy and risk of CP therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to explore the potential efficacy of CP therapy, and to assess the possible factors associated with its efficacy. We enrolled eight critical or severe COVID-19 patients from four centers. Each patient was transfused with 200-400 mL of CP from seven recovered donors. The primary indicators for clinical efficacy assessment were the changes of clinical symptoms, laboratory parameters, and radiological image after CP transfusion. CP donors had a wide range of antibody levels measured by serology tests which were to some degree correlated with the neutralizing antibody (NAb) level. No adverse events were observed during and after CP transfusion. Following CP transfusion, six out of eight patients showed improved oxygen support status; chest CT indicated varying degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions in six patients within 8 days; the viral load was decreased to a negative level in five patients who had the previous viremia; other laboratory parameters also tended to improve, including increased lymphocyte counts, decreased C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and indicators for liver function. The clinical efficacy might be associated with CP transfusion time, transfused dose, and the NAb levels of CP. This study indicated that CP might be a potential therapy for severe patients with COVID-19.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Procalcitonin/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Load
Innovation (Camb) ; 1(1): 100001, 2020 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-42140


BACKGROUND: Adolescents and young adults might play a key role in the worldwide spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) because they are more likely to be involved in overseas study, business, work, and travel. However, the epidemiological and clinical characteristics remain unknown. METHODS: We collected demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data from 46 confirmed COVID-19 patients aged 10 to 35 years from the Chongqing Three Gorges Central Hospital. Several key epidemiological parameters, asymptomatic cases, transmission to family members, and clinical characteristics at admission and during treatment were summarized. RESULTS: Of 46 confirmed patients, 14 patients (30.4%) were aged between 10 and 24 years, and 24 (52.2%) patients were male. The estimated mean incubation period was 6.6 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.4-9.6). The median serial interval was 1.9 days (95% CI 0.4-6.2). Three of the asymptomatic cases showed transmission to their family members. Only one patient was identified as a severe case at admission. The common symptoms at admission were dry cough (34, 81.0%) and fever (29, 69.1%). Nearly 60% of the patients showed ground-glass opacity on chest computed tomography. Three patients developed acute kidney injury during treatment. Most of the patients (78.3%) recovered and were discharged by the end of the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This single-center study with a relatively small sample size showed that adolescent and young adult patients with COVID-19 had a long incubation period and a short serial interval. The transmission occurred from asymptomatic cases to family members. Fewer patients developed complications during treatment.