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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332388

ABSTRACT

Background: A substantial portion of patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can progress to critical illness which is associated with high mortality, and prolonged length of hospital stay. Currently, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy is reported widely in these specific population globally. However, the impact of IVIG treatment on clinically relevant outcomes in the critically ill patients with COVID-19 still remained controversial. Methods: : The major databases including PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register were searched from January 1, 2019 through January 12, 2022. Studies were limited to severely ill patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who receiving IVIG with a comparative group. The primary outcome was the overall mortality. Length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital, utilization rate of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and ventilators free days were secondary outcomes. Meanwhile, sensitivity and subgroup analyses, as well as a trial sequential analysis (TSA), were performed. Results: : 4 prospective randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 6 retrospective cohort studies (involving 2,054 participants) met the inclusion criteria and were included in our meta-analysis. Compare to standard of care (SOC), the use of IVIG was not associated with decreased odds of death significantly (OR 1.03;95% CI 0.63–1.67;P = 0.92). No significant difference was detected in either hospital (MD 1.56;95% CI -1.43–4.55;P = 0.31) or ICU LOS (MD 0.75;95% CI -0.36–1.86;P = 0.18) between the two groups. A sensitivity analysis revealed that administering IVIG may harmful to patients with moderate to severe ARDS induced by SARS-CoV-2 (OR 2.24;95% CI 1.09–4.63;P = 0.03). The high level of heterogeneity remained substantial after multiple sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed. The TSA indicated a lack of sufficient evidence to draw decisive conclusions from the current results since the required information size (RIS) of 8,373 still not reached yet. Conclusions: : Current evidence do not support the use of IVIG in treatment for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Further prospective study with well design urgently needed for conclusive findings.

2.
Information Technology & People ; 35(3):956-976, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1769483

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This study focuses on understanding how channel features can affect people's intention to continue to use an electronic channel in public affairs and their recommendation behaviors. Specifically, three different channels are focused on: email, microblogs and online meetings.Design/methodology/approach>A research model on an e-participation channel based on the channel-disposition framework was developed and an online survey was conducted to collect data from 397 individuals who used three e-participation channels to validate seven hypotheses.Findings>The study found that information quality, channel interaction quality and the social appearance of other citizens all had a significant impact on users' intention to continue to use an electronic channel, which, in turn, affected their recommendation behaviors. However, the impact differed across the three e-participation channels. Information quality had a stronger impact on microblog and online meeting users' intention to continue to use these channels than on email users' intention to continue using email to participate in public affairs. Channel interaction quality had a stronger impact on email users' intention to continue to use email than on microblog and online meeting users' intention to continue to use these channels in public affairs.Originality/value>This study helps better explain how various channels and their features can affect participants' use intentions and behaviors in e-participation. It also provides practical guidance for government to better manage e-participation channels and effectively engage citizens in public affairs.

3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 91, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751707

ABSTRACT

Currently, there is no effective drugs for treating clinically COVID-19 except dexamethasone. We previously revealed that human identical sequences of SARS-CoV-2 promote the COVID-19 progression by upregulating hyaluronic acid (HA). As the inhibitor of HA synthesis, hymecromone is an approved prescription drug used for treating biliary spasm. Here, we aimed to investigate the relation between HA and COVID-19, and evaluate the therapeutic effects of hymecromone on COVID-19. Firstly, HA was closely relevant to clinical parameters, including lymphocytes (n = 158; r = -0.50; P < 0.0001), C-reactive protein (n = 156; r = 0.55; P < 0.0001), D-dimer (n = 154; r = 0.38; P < 0.0001), and fibrinogen (n = 152; r = 0.37; P < 0.0001), as well as the mass (n = 78; r = 0.43; P < 0.0001) and volume (n = 78; r = 0.41; P = 0.0002) of ground-glass opacity, the mass (n = 78; r = 0.48; P < 0.0001) and volume (n = 78; r = 0.47; P < 0.0001) of consolidation in patient with low level of hyaluronan (HA < 48.43 ng/mL). Furthermore, hyaluronan could directly cause mouse pulmonary lesions. Besides, hymecromone remarkably reduced HA via downregulating HAS2/HAS3 expression. Moreover, 89% patients with hymecromone treatment had pulmonary lesion absorption while only 42% patients in control group had pulmonary lesion absorption (P < 0.0001). In addition, lymphocytes recovered more quickly in hymecromone-treated patients (n = 8) than control group (n = 5) (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that hymecromone is a promising drug for COVID-19 and deserves our further efforts to determine its effect in a larger cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyaluronic Acid , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hymecromone/metabolism , Hymecromone/pharmacology , Mice , Prescriptions , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EBioMedicine ; 76: 103861, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since late 2019, SARS-CoV-2 infection has resulted in COVID-19 accompanied by diverse clinical manifestations. However, the underlying mechanism of how SARS-CoV-2 interacts with host and develops multiple symptoms is largely unexplored. METHODS: Bioinformatics analysis determined the sequence similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and human genomes. Diverse fragments of SARS-CoV-2 genome containing Human Identical Sequences (HIS) were cloned into the lentiviral vector. HEK293T, MRC5 and HUVEC were infected with laboratory-packaged lentivirus or transfected with plasmids or antagomirs for HIS. Quantitative RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay detected gene expression and H3K27ac enrichment, respectively. UV-Vis spectroscopy assessed the interaction between HIS and their target locus. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay evaluated the hyaluronan (HA) levels of culture supernatant and plasma of COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: Five short sequences (24-27 nt length) sharing identity between SARS-CoV-2 and human genome were identified. These RNA elements were highly conserved in primates. The genomic fragments containing HIS were predicted to form hairpin structures in silico similar to miRNA precursors. HIS may function through direct genomic interaction leading to activation of host enhancers, and upregulation of adjacent and distant genes, including cytokine genes and hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). HIS antagomirs and Cas13d-mediated HIS degradation reduced HAS2 expression. Severe COVID-19 patients displayed decreased lymphocytes and elevated D-dimer, and C-reactive proteins, as well as increased plasma hyaluronan. Hymecromone inhibited hyaluronan production in vitro, and thus could be further investigated as a therapeutic option for preventing severe outcome in COVID-19 patients. INTERPRETATION: HIS of SARS-CoV-2 could promote COVID-19 progression by upregulating hyaluronan, providing novel targets for treatment. FUNDING: The National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC1005004), Major Special Projects of Basic Research of Shanghai Science and Technology Commission (18JC1411101), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31872814, 32000505).


Subject(s)
Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Genome, Human , Hyaluronic Acid/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antagomirs/metabolism , Argonaute Proteins/genetics , Base Sequence , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Disease Progression , Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics , Humans , Hyaluronan Synthases/genetics , Hyaluronan Synthases/metabolism , Hyaluronic Acid/blood , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Up-Regulation
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324785

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has exploded since December 2019, and causes more than 2 million death with more than 95 million people infected as of Jan. 21th, 2021 globally1,2. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), expressed in the lungs, arteries, heart, kidney, intestines, and nasal epithelium3, has been shown to be the primary entry point targeted by the surface spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Currently, no proven antiviral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection is available. In this study, we screened a number of photosensitizers for photodynamic viral inactivation, and found compounds pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc5K) and chlorin e6 (ce6) potently inhibited the viral infection and replication in vitro with half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) values at nanomolar level. Such viral inactivation strategy is implementable, and has unique advantages, including resistance to virus mutations, affordability compared to the monoclonal antibodies, and lack of long-term toxicity.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322144

ABSTRACT

Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs) are an important cause of mortality, and increasing evidence reveals that the prevalence of NIs can be reduced through effective prevention and control measures. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the prevention and control measures for the COVID-19 pandemic on NIs. Methods: : A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the prevalence of NIs before and after COVID-19 pandemic for six months in the Children’s Hospital of Soochow University. Results: : A total of 39,914 patients in 2019 and 34,645 patients in 2020 were admitted to the hospital during the study. There were 1.39% (481/34645) of patients with NIs in 2020, which was significantly lower than the 2.56% (1021/39914) of patients in 2019. The rate of critical and fatal cases was also decreased. Except for the ICU, the prevalence of nosocomial infection in most departments decreased from 2019 to 2020. Regarding the source of infections, a significant reduction was mainly observed in respiratory (0.99% vs 0.42%, p=0.000) and digestive tract (0.63% vs 0.14%, p=0.000). The microorganism analysis of respiratory infections indicated an obvious decline in acinetobacters and fungi. The most significant decline of pathogens in gastrointestinal infections was observed for rotavirus. The comparison of catheter-related nosocomial infections between 2019 and 2020 did not show significant differences. Conclusions: : The prevention and control measures for the COVID-19 pandemic have reduced the nosocomial infection in almost all departments, except the ICU, mainly regarding respiratory, gastrointestinal, and oral infections, while catheter-related infections did not show any differences.

7.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559815

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Given the prosocial nature of COVID-19 mitigation actions, the norm activation model (NAM) provides a theoretical framework to understand how these mitigation behaviors may be driven by activating personal norms. Aimed at delineating the relationship between awareness of consequences and ascription of responsibility, two key variables in the model, the present study examined to what extent this relationship was moderated by political ideology, individual efficacy, and collective efficacy. METHOD: A cross-sectional online survey (N = 560) was implemented with a sample that matched the demographics of the national population in the U.S. RESULTS: The relationship between awareness of consequences and ascription of responsibility was stronger among liberals and those reporting low levels of individual efficacy and collective efficacy. CONCLUSION: Health behaviors such as COVID-19 mitigation actions can be motivated by activating individuals' sense of moral obligation, but the effectiveness of this approach depends on their political ideology and efficacy beliefs. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Campaigns can promote health behaviors by triggering the moral responsibility of the target audience through emphasizing severity of the consequences. This approach can be more effective for liberals and those that lack confidence in individual and collective abilities to avert the threat.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18023, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402127

ABSTRACT

Similar to global trends, the incidence rate of tuberculosis (TB) in China declined from 2000 to 2018. In this study, we aimed to evaluate TB trends in northern Guizhou Province and identify risk factors associated with rifampicin-resistant (RR) and concurrent extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). We analyzed data of TB patients hospitalized in Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University from 2011 to 2018, and assessed correlations between demographic characteristics of patients and RR-TB as well as concurrent EPTB. Our results showed that numbers of new, retreated, RR-TB and concurrent EPTB cases increased gradually from 2011 to 2018. Retreated patients had the highest odds of RR-TB but a lower likelihood of concurrent EPTB compared to new patients. Patients between 21 and 40 years of age had a higher likelihood of RR-TB compared to those 20 years and younger. Female patients and patients from Bijie city as well as the Miao ethnic minority had higher odds of concurrent EPTB. In summary, our data demonstrate upward trends in new, rifampicin-resistant and concurrent extrapulmonary TB cases in northern Guizhou Province of China, which should not be overlooked especially during and post the COVID-19 pandemic because TB is a greater long-term global health threat than COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , China/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/physiology , Expert Systems , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
10.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 30(2): 192-198, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the nutritional status of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and to determine which route of nutrition support is advantageous. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study was conducted in the ICU of a designated COVID-19 hospital. Patients were divided into an enteral nutrition (EN) group and parenteral nutrition (PN) group according to the initial route of nutrition support. NRS-2002 and NUTRIC were used to assess nutritional status. Blood nutritional markers such as albumin, total protein and hemoglobin were compared at baseline and seven days later. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. RESULTS: A total of 27 patients were enrolled in the study - 14 in the EN group and 13 in the PN group - and there were no significant demographic differences between groups. Most patients (96.3% NRS2002 score ≥5, 85.2% NUTRIC score ≥5) were at high nutritional risk. There was no significant difference in baseline albumin, total protein and hemoglobin levels between groups. After 7 days, albumin levels were significantly higher in the EN group than in the PN group (p=0.030). There was no significant difference in the other two indicators. The 28-day mortality was 50% in the EN group and 76.9% in the PN group. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed significant differences between the groups (p=0.030). Cox proportional risk regression indicated that route of nutrition support was also an independent prognostic risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of nutritional risk in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is very high. Early EN may be beneficial to patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Enteral Nutrition , Intensive Care Units , Nutritional Status , Parenteral Nutrition , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , China , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin/metabolism
11.
Chin J Acad Radiol ; : 1-9, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an independent risk factor of major adverse cardiovascular events; however, the impact of CAC on in-hospital death and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between CAC and in-hospital mortality and adverse events in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study enrolled 2067 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with definitive clinical outcomes (death or discharge) admitted from 22 tertiary hospitals in China between January 3, 2020 and April 2, 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory results, chest CT findings, and CAC on admission were collected. The primary outcome was in-hospital death and the secondary outcome was composed of in-hospital death, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), and requiring mechanical ventilation. Multivariable Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to explore the association between CAC and in-hospital death and adverse clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age was 50 years (SD,16) and 1097 (53.1%) were male. A total of 177 patients showed high CAC level, and compared with patients with low CAC, these patients were older (mean age: 49 vs. 69 years, P < 0.001) and more likely to be male (52.0% vs. 65.0%, P = 0.001). Comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) ([33.3%, 59/177] vs. [4.7%, 89/1890], P < 0.001), presented more often among patients with high CAC, compared with patients with low CAC. As for laboratory results, patients with high CAC had higher rates of increased D-dimer, LDH, as well as CK-MB (all P < 0.05). The mean CT severity score in high CAC group was also higher than low CAC group (12.6 vs. 11.1, P = 0.005). In multivariable Cox regression model, patients with high CAC were at a higher risk of in-hospital death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.731; 95% CI 1.010-2.971, P = 0.046) and adverse clinical outcomes (HR, 1.611; 95% CL 1.087-2.387, P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: High CAC is a risk factor associated with in-hospital death and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with confirmed COVID-19, which highlights the importance of calcium load testing for hospitalized COVID-19 patients and calls for attention to patients with high CAC. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42058-021-00072-4.

12.
Dyes Pigm ; 194: 109570, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275273

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) posed a major challenge to the public health. Currently, no proven antiviral treatment for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is available. Here we report compounds pentalysine ß-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc5K) and chlorin e6 (ce6) potently inhibited the viral infection and replication in vitro with EC50 values at nanomolar level. These compounds were first identified by screening a panel of photosensitizers for photodynamic viral inactivation. Such viral inactivation strategy is implementable, and has unique advantages, including resistance to virus mutations, affordability compared to the monoclonal antibodies, and lack of long-term toxicity.

13.
Angewandte Chemie ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1135068

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 attaches to its host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), via the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. The RBD glycoprotein is a critical target for the development of neutralizing antibodies and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. However, the high heterogeneity of RBD glycoforms may lead to an incomplete neutralization effect and impact the immunogenic integrity of RBD-based vaccines. Investigating the role of different carbohydrate domains is of paramount importance. Unfortunately, there is no viable method for preparing RBD glycoproteins with structurally defined glycans. Herein we describe a highly efficient and scalable strategy for the preparation of six glycosylated RBDs bearing defined structure glycoforms at T323, N331 and N343. A combination of modern oligosaccharide, peptide synthesis and recombinant protein engineering provides a robust route to deciphering carbohydrate structure?function relationships.

14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1215-1227, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119644

ABSTRACT

In this work, the relationships between air quality and pollutant emissions were investigated during the COVID-19 pandemic in Shandong Province. During the quarantine period (from January 24 to February 7, 2020), the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants decreased significantly relative to the period before controls were imposed (from January 15 to 23, 2020). Specifically, except for an increase in the concentration of O3, concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, and CO decreased for 72.6 µg·m-3 (45.86%), 47.4 µg·m-3(41.24%), 25.6 µg·m-3 (58.00%), 3.0 µg·m-3 (17.71%), and 0.5 mg·m-3 (31.40%), respectively. RAMS-CMAQ simulation showed that meteorological diffusion had an essential role in improving air quality. Influenced by meteorological factors, emissions of PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, and CO were reduced 26.04%, 33.03%, 28.35%, 43.27%, and 23.29%, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, and CO were reduced by 19.82%, 8.21%, 29.65%, -25.56%, and 8.12%, respectively, due to pollution emissions reductions during the quarantine period. O3 concentrations increased by 20.51% during quarantine, caused by both meteorological factors (10.47%) and human activities (10.04%). These results indicate that primary pollutants were more sensitive to emissions reductions; however, secondary pollutants demonstrated a lagged response the emissions reduction and were significantly affected by meteorological factors. The linear relationship between ozone and the emissions reduction was not significant, and was inverse overall. Further investigation are now required on the impact of emissions reduction on ozone pollution control.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Animals , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 780, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1026832

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus motivates diverse diagnostic approaches due to the novel causative pathogen, incompletely understood clinical sequelae, and limited availability of testing resources. Given the variability in viral load across and within patients, absolute viral load quantification directly from crude lysate is important for diagnosis and surveillance. Here, we investigate the use of digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) for SARS-CoV-2 viral load measurement directly from crude lysate without nucleic acid purification. We demonstrate ddPCR accurately quantifies SARS-CoV-2 standards from purified RNA and multiple sample matrices, including commonly utilized universal transport medium (UTM). In addition, we find ddPCR functions robustly at low input viral copy numbers on nasopharyngeal swab specimens stored in UTM without upfront RNA extraction. We also show ddPCR, but not qPCR, from crude lysate shows high concordance with viral load measurements from purified RNA. Our data suggest ddPCR offers advantages to qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 detection with higher sensitivity and robustness when using crude lysate rather than purified RNA as input. More broadly, digital droplet assays provide a potential method for nucleic acid measurement and infectious disease diagnosis with limited sample processing, underscoring the utility of such techniques in laboratory medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/virology , Viral Load , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , Humans , Nasal Mucosa/virology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Build Environ ; 187: 107368, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844143

ABSTRACT

Various organizations and societies around the globe have issued guidelines in response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and virus (SARS-CoV-2). In this paper, heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning-related guidelines or documents in several major countries and regions have been reviewed and compared, including those issued by the American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, the Federation of European Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Associations, the Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Architectural Society of China, and the Chinese Institute of Refrigeration. Most terms and suggestions in these guidelines are consistent with each other, although there are some conflicting details, reflecting the underlying uncertainty surrounding the transmission mechanism and characteristics of COVID-19 in buildings. All guidelines emphasize the importance of ventilation, but the specific ventilation rate that can eliminate the risk of transmission of airborne particulate matter has not been established. The most important countermeasure, commonly agreed countermeasures, the conflicting content from different guidelines, and further work have been summarized in this paper.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 142323, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752858

ABSTRACT

Controlling anthropogenic mercury emissions is an ongoing effort and the effect of atmospheric mercury mitigation is expected to be impacted by accelerating climate change. The lockdown measures to restrict the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the following unfavorable meteorology in Beijing provided a natural experiment to examine how air mercury responds to strict control measures when the climate becomes humid and warm. Based on a high-time resolution emission inventory and generalized additive model, we found that air mercury concentration responded almost linearly to the changes in mercury emissions when excluding the impact of other factors. Existing pollution control and additional lockdown measures reduced mercury emissions by 16.7 and 12.5 kg/d during lockdown, respectively, which correspondingly reduced the concentrations of atmospheric mercury by 0.10 and 0.07 ng/m3. Emission reductions from cement clinker production contributed to the largest decrease in atmospheric mercury, implying potential mitigation effects in this sector since it is currently the number one emitter in China. However, changes in meteorology raised atmospheric mercury by 0.41 ng/m3. The increases in relative humidity (9.5%) and temperature (1.2 °C) significantly offset the effect of emission reduction by 0.17 and 0.09 ng/m3, respectively, which highlights the challenge of air mercury control in humid and warm weather and the significance of understanding mercury behavior in the atmosphere and at atmospheric interfaces, especially the impact from relative humidity.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Mercury , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Mercury/analysis , Meteorology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Dig Endosc ; 33(1): 195-202, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744720

ABSTRACT

During the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, the gastroenterology department of our hospital performed gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures using strict infection control measures. Thorough screening of incoming patients, separation of diagnostic and treatment areas, regional management, hierarchical protection, disinfection protocols, and other measures were enforced to prevent virus transmission during endoscopic treatments. During the COVID-19 pandemic, between February and March 2020, 159 endoscopic examinations and treatments were performed, including emergency endoscopy for 17 patients. Among these, seven patients were either previously infected with or were suspected carriers of the virus. Using the aforementioned control measures, we did not encounter a single case of cross-infection or infection among the patients or staff. The presented protocols may provide valuable insight regarding how to protect gastroenterology endoscopy units during the novel coronavirus disease pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/standards , Infection Control/methods , Workflow , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Disinfection , Female , Humans , Inservice Training , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(15): 15771-15783, 2020 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721665

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 outbreak, some patients with COVID-19 pneumonia also suffered from acute abdomen requiring surgical treatment; however, there is no consensus for the treatment of such patients. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed 34 patients with acute abdomen who underwent emergency surgery during the COVID-19 outbreak. Among the 34 patients with acute abdomen, a total of six cases were found with COVID-19 pneumonia (clinical classification for COVID-19 pneumonia: all were the common type). On the premise of similar demographics between both groups, patients with COVID-19 pneumonia had worse indicators of liver and coagulation function. Compared with acute abdomen patients without COVID-19, patients with COVID-19 pneumonia had a longer hospital stay, but there were no significant differences in postsurgical complications (P = 0.58) or clinical outcomes (P = 0.56). In addition, an obvious resolution of lung inflammation after surgery was observed in five COVID-19 patients (83.3%). No new COVID-19 cases occurred during the patients' hospital stays. Therefore, for the common type of COVID-19 pneumonia, emergency surgery could not only improve the outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia patients with acute abdomen, but also benefit the resolution of pulmonary inflammation.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute , Coronavirus Infections , Emergency Treatment , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Abdomen, Acute/diagnosis , Abdomen, Acute/epidemiology , Abdomen, Acute/etiology , Abdomen, Acute/surgery , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Emergency Treatment/methods , Emergency Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Liver Function Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/trends
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