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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324816

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is the third zoonotic coronavirus (CoV) outbreak of the century after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) since 2012. Treatment options for CoVs are largely lacking. Here, we show that clofazimine, an anti-leprosy drug with a favorable safety and pharmacokinetics profile, possesses pan-coronaviral inhibitory activity, and can antagonize SARS-CoV-2 replication in multiple in vitro systems, including the human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and ex vivo lung cultures. The FDA-approved molecule was found to inhibit multiple steps of viral replication, suggesting multiple underlying antiviral mechanisms. In a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, prophylactic or therapeutic administration of clofazimine significantly reduced viral load in the lung and fecal viral shedding, and also prevented cytokine storm associated with viral infection. Additionally, clofazimine exhibited synergy when administered with remdesivir. Since clofazimine is orally bioavailable and has a comparatively low manufacturing cost, it is an attractive clinical candidate for outpatient treatment and remdesivir-based combinatorial therapy for hospitalized COVID-19 patients, particularly in developing countries. Taken together, our data provide evidence that clofazimine may have a role in the control of the current pandemic SARS-CoV-2, endemic MERS-CoV in the Middle East, and, possibly most importantly, emerging CoVs of the future.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324324

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a newly emerging infectious disease, which is generally susceptible to human beings and has caused huge losses to people's health. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the common clinical manifestations of severe COVID-19 and it is also responsible for the current shortage of ventilators worldwide. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 ARDS patients and establish a diagnostic system based on artificial intelligence (AI) method to predict the probability of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. We collected clinical data of 659 COVID-19 patients from 11 regions in China. The clinical characteristics of the two groups were elaborately compared and both traditional machine learning algorithms and deep learning-based methods were used to build the prediction models. Results indicated the median age of ARDS patients was 56.5 years old, which was significantly older than those with non-ARDS by 7.5 years. Male and patients with BMI>25 were more likely to develop ARDS. The clinical features of ARDS patients included cough (80.3%), polypnea (59.2%), lung consolidation (53.9%), secondary bacterial infection (30.3%), and comorbidities such as hypertension (48.7%). Abnormal biochemical indicators such as lymphocyte count, leukocyte counting, CK, NLR, AST, LDH, and CRP were all strongly related to the aggravation of ARDS. Furthermore, through various AI methods for modeling and prediction effect evaluation based on the above risk factors, decision tree achieved the best AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in identifying the mild patients who were easy to develop ARDS, which undoubtedly helps to optimize the treatment strategy, reduce mortality, and relieve the medical pressure.

3.
Nature ; 593(7859): 418-423, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137788

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is the third outbreak this century of a zoonotic disease caused by a coronavirus, following the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 20031 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 20122. Treatment options for coronaviruses are limited. Here we show that clofazimine-an anti-leprosy drug with a favourable safety profile3-possesses inhibitory activity against several coronaviruses, and can antagonize the replication of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV in a range of in vitro systems. We found that this molecule, which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, inhibits cell fusion mediated by the viral spike glycoprotein, as well as activity of the viral helicase. Prophylactic or therapeutic administration of clofazimine in a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis led to reduced viral loads in the lung and viral shedding in faeces, and also alleviated the inflammation associated with viral infection. Combinations of clofazimine and remdesivir exhibited antiviral synergy in vitro and in vivo, and restricted viral shedding from the upper respiratory tract. Clofazimine, which is orally bioavailable and comparatively cheap to manufacture, is an attractive clinical candidate for the treatment of outpatients and-when combined with remdesivir-in therapy for hospitalized patients with COVID-19, particularly in contexts in which costs are an important factor or specialized medical facilities are limited. Our data provide evidence that clofazimine may have a role in the control of the current pandemic of COVID-19 and-possibly more importantly-in dealing with coronavirus diseases that may emerge in the future.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Clofazimine/pharmacology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Cell Fusion , Cell Line , Clofazimine/pharmacokinetics , Clofazimine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus/growth & development , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Cricetinae , DNA Helicases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Synergism , Female , Humans , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , Male , Mesocricetus , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Transcription, Genetic/genetics
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2933, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062775

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a newly emerging infectious disease, which is generally susceptible to human beings and has caused huge losses to people's health. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the common clinical manifestations of severe COVID-19 and it is also responsible for the current shortage of ventilators worldwide. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 ARDS patients and establish a diagnostic system based on artificial intelligence (AI) method to predict the probability of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. We collected clinical data of 659 COVID-19 patients from 11 regions in China. The clinical characteristics of the ARDS group and no-ARDS group of COVID-19 patients were elaborately compared and both traditional machine learning algorithms and deep learning-based method were used to build the prediction models. Results indicated that the median age of ARDS patients was 56.5 years old, which was significantly older than those with non-ARDS by 7.5 years. Male and patients with BMI > 25 were more likely to develop ARDS. The clinical features of ARDS patients included cough (80.3%), polypnea (59.2%), lung consolidation (53.9%), secondary bacterial infection (30.3%), and comorbidities such as hypertension (48.7%). Abnormal biochemical indicators such as lymphocyte count, CK, NLR, AST, LDH, and CRP were all strongly related to the aggravation of ARDS. Furthermore, through various AI methods for modeling and prediction effect evaluation based on the above risk factors, decision tree achieved the best AUC, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in identifying the mild patients who were easy to develop ARDS, which undoubtedly helped to deliver proper care and optimize use of limited resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Machine Learning , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Adult , Area Under Curve , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
5.
Res Sq ; 2020 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-869425

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is the third zoonotic coronavirus (CoV) outbreak of the century after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) since 2012. Treatment options for CoVs are largely lacking. Here, we show that clofazimine, an anti-leprosy drug with a favorable safety and pharmacokinetics profile, possesses pan-coronaviral inhibitory activity, and can antagonize SARS-CoV-2 replication in multiple in vitro systems, including the human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and ex vivo lung cultures. The FDA-approved molecule was found to inhibit multiple steps of viral replication, suggesting multiple underlying antiviral mechanisms. In a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, prophylactic or therapeutic administration of clofazimine significantly reduced viral load in the lung and fecal viral shedding, and also prevented cytokine storm associated with viral infection. Additionally, clofazimine exhibited synergy when administered with remdesivir. Since clofazimine is orally bioavailable and has a comparatively low manufacturing cost, it is an attractive clinical candidate for outpatient treatment and remdesivir-based combinatorial therapy for hospitalized COVID-19 patients, particularly in developing countries. Taken together, our data provide evidence that clofazimine may have a role in the control of the current pandemic SARS-CoV-2, endemic MERS-CoV in the Middle East, and, possibly most importantly, emerging CoVs of the future.

6.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(4): 614-617, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696956

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 caused an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, Hubei province of China in January 2020. This study aims to investigate the effects of different temperature and time durations of virus inactivation on the results of PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2. Twelve patients at the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University suspected of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 were selected on February 13, 2020 and throat swabs were taken. The swabs were stored at room temperature (20-25°C), then divided into aliquots and subjected to different temperature for different periods in order to inactivate the viruses (56°C for 30, 45, 60 min; 65, 70, 80°C for 10, 15, 20 min). Control aliquots were stored at room temperature for 60 min. Then all aliquots were tested in a real-time fluorescence PCR using primers against SARS-CoV-2. Regardless of inactivation temperature and time, 7 of 12 cases (58.3%) tested were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR, and cycle threshold values were similar. These results suggest that virus inactivation parameters exert minimal influence on PCR test results. Inactivation at 65°C for 10 min may be sufficient to ensure safe, reliable testing.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Virus Inactivation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Medical Laboratory Personnel , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature , Time Factors
7.
Histopathology ; 77(5): 823-831, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186376

ABSTRACT

AIMS: An ongoing outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (CoV) disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV-2, has been spreading in multiple countries. One of the reasons for the rapid spread is that the virus can be transmitted from infected individuals without symptoms. Revealing the pathological features of early-phase COVID-19 pneumonia is important for understanding of its pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the pulmonary pathology of early-phase COVID-19 pneumonia in a patient with a benign lung lesion. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed the pathological changes in lung tissue from a 55-year-old female patient with early-phase SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this case, right lower lobectomy was performed for a benign pulmonary nodule. Detailed clinical, laboratory and radiological data were also examined. This patient was confirmed to have preoperative SARS-CoV-2 infection by the use of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and RNA in-situ hybridisation on surgically removed lung tissues. Histologically, COVID-19 pneumonia was characterised by exudative inflammation. The closer to the visceral pleura, the more severe the exudation of monocytes and lymphocytes. Perivascular inflammatory infiltration, intra-alveolar multinucleated giant cells, pneumocyte hyperplasia and intracytoplasmic viral-like inclusion bodies were seen. However, fibrinous exudate and hyaline membrane formation, which were typical pulmonary features of SARS pneumonia, were not evident in this case. Immunohistochemical staining results showed an abnormal accumulation of CD4+ helper T lymphocytes and CD163+ M2 macrophages in the lung tissue. CONCLUSION: The results highlighted the pulmonary pathological changes of early-phase SARS-CoV-2 infection, and suggested a role of immune dysfunction in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
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