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EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295297


The recent emergence of new variants in the COVID-19 pandemic has led to new requirements for vaccines, with a focus on the capacity of vaccines to elicit high levels of neutralizing antibodies with specific recognition of S antigen variants based on the characterized vaccines licensed for use. A new strategy involving a heterologous vaccine composed of one or two doses of inactivated vaccine and a boost with the S1 protein with mutations (K-S) administered via the intradermal route was designed in this work and was found to improve immune efficacy by increasing neutralizing antibody titers and promoting specific T cell responses against 5 variants of the RBD peptide. A viral challenge test with the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant confirmed that the both schedules of “1+1” and “2+1” administration ensured a clinical protective effect against this strain. All of these results not only suggested the feasibility of our strategy for protecting against new variants but also provided a technical pathway to enhance the anamnestic immune response in the immunized population.

Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363491


Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.

Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Young Adult