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1.
Computational Intelligence ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819884

ABSTRACT

Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global pandemic which provokes massive devastation to the society, economy, and culture since January 2020. The pandemic demonstrates the inefficiency of superannuated manual detection approaches and inspires novel approaches that detect COVID-19 by classifying chest x-ray (CXR) images with deep learning technology. Although a wide range of researches about bran-new COVID-19 detection methods that classify CXR images with centralized convolutional neural network (CNN) models have been proposed, the latency, privacy, and cost of information transmission between the data resources and the centralized data center will make the detection inefficient. Hence, in this article, a COVID-19 detection scheme via CXR images classification with a lightweight CNN model called MobileNet in edge computing is proposed to alleviate the computing pressure of centralized data center and ameliorate detection efficiency. Specifically, the general framework is introduced first to manifest the overall arrangement of the computing and information services ecosystem. Then, an unsupervised model DCGAN is employed to make up for the small scale of data set. Moreover, the implementation of the MobileNet for CXR images classification is presented at great length. The specific distribution strategy of MobileNet models is followed. The extensive evaluations of the experiments demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed scheme for detecting COVID-19 over CXR images in edge computing.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313408

ABSTRACT

The authors have withdrawn this preprint due to author disagreement.

3.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2022: 8733598, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lianhua Qingke (LH) tablets is an effective traditional Chinese medicine against various viral infections, especially in relieving coughing. However, its effects on COVID-19 are unknown. METHODS: To examine the therapeutic effectiveness of LH tablets in COVID-19 patients with mild and common types, a randomized, multicenter, controlled study was carried out. COVID-19 cases were randomized to undergo routine treatment with or without LH tablets (4 tablets, three times a day) for 14 days. The primary endpoints were the rate of achieving clinical symptom resolution and the corresponding time. RESULTS: There were 144 participants in the full analysis set (72 each in the LH and control groups). The LH group participants had elevated symptom alleviation rate at 14 days compared with control cases (FAS: 98.61% vs. 84.72%, p = 0.0026). In comparison with control group participants, the LH group participants had reduced median time to clinical symptom alleviation (median: 4 vs. 7 days, p < 0.0001). Higher resolution rates of coughing (98.44% vs. 84.51%, p = 0.0045) and expectoration (100% vs. 82.35%, p = 0.0268) were observed in the LH group. Times to recovery of fever (median: 2 vs. 3 days, p = 0.0007), coughing (median: 4 vs. 7 days, p < 0.0001), and expectoration (median: 3 vs. 6 days, p < 0.0001) were also notably shorter in the LH group. Moreover, the LH group had elevated improvement rates in chest computed tomography signs (FAS: 86.11% vs. 72.22%, p = 0.0402) and clinical cure at day 28 (FAS: 83.33% vs. 68.06%, p = 0.0326). However, no differences were found in the laboratory test and viral assay. Serious adverse events were not detected. CONCLUSION: These preliminary findings indicate LH tablets may be effective in symptomatic COVID-19, especially in relieving coughing. This trial was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2100042069).

5.
Cell Chem Biol ; 28(6): 855-865.e9, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201399

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been disastrous to society and effective drugs are urgently needed. The papain-like protease domain (PLpro) of SARS-CoV-2 (SCoV2) is indispensable for viral replication and represents a putative target for pharmacological intervention. In this work, we describe the development of a potent and selective SCoV2 PLpro inhibitor, 19. The inhibitor not only effectively blocks substrate cleavage and immunosuppressive function imparted by PLpro, but also markedly mitigates SCoV2 replication in human cells, with a submicromolar IC50. We further present a convenient and sensitive activity probe, 7, and complementary assays to readily evaluate SCoV2 PLpro inhibitors in vitro or in cells. In addition, we disclose the co-crystal structure of SCoV2 PLpro in complex with a prototype inhibitor, which illuminates their detailed binding mode. Overall, these findings provide promising leads and important tools for drug discovery aiming to target SCoV2 PLpro.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Drug Development/methods , Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
6.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5146-5155, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reduning injection is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with known efficacy against a variety of viral infections, but there is no data about its efficacy against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: To explore the efficacy and safety of Reduning injection in the treatment of COVID-19, a randomized, open-labeled, multicenter, controlled trial was conducted from 12 general hospitals between 2020.02.06 and 2020.03.23. Patients with COVID-19 who met the diagnostic criteria of the "Diagnosis and Treatment Program for Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia (Trial Fifth Edition)". Patients were randomized to routine treatment with or without Reduning injection (20 mL/day for 14 days) (ChiCTR2000029589). The primary endpoint was the rate of achieving clinical symptom recovery on day 14 of treatment. RESULTS: There were 77 and 80 participants in the Reduning and control groups. The symptom resolution rate at 14 days was higher in the Reduning injection than in controls [full-analysis set (FAS): 84.4% vs. 60.0%, P=0.0004]. Compared with controls, the Reduning group showed shorter median time to resolution of the clinical symptoms (143 vs. 313.5 h, P<0.001), shorter to nucleic acid test turning negative (146.5 vs. 255.5 h, P<0.001), shorter hospital stay (14.1 vs. 18.1 days, P<0.001), and shorter time to defervescence (29 vs. 71 h, P<0.001). There was no difference in AEs (3.9% vs. 8.8%, P=0.383). CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary trial suggests that Reduning injection might be effective and safe in patients with symptomatic COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 584057, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836210

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected millions of people worldwide. Critically ill COVID-19 patients develop viral septic syndrome, including inflammatory damage, immune dysfunction, and coagulation disorder. In this study, we investigated ShenFuHuang formula (SFH), a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been widely used as complementary therapy for clinical treatment of COVID-19 in Wuhan, to understand its pharmacological properties. Results of systems pharmacology identified 49 active compounds of SFH and their 69 potential targets, including GSK3ß, ESR1, PPARG, PTGS2, AKR1B10, and MAPK14. Network analysis illustrated that the targets of SFH may be involved in viral disease, bacterial infection/mycosis, and metabolic disease. Moreover, signaling pathway analysis showed that Toll-like receptors, MAPK, PPAR, VEGF, NOD-like receptor, and NF-kappa B signaling pathways are highly connected with the potential targets of SFH. We further employed multiple zebrafish models to confirm the pharmacological effects of SFH. Results showed that SFH treatment significantly inhibited the inflammatory damage by reducing the generation of neutrophils in Poly (I:C)-induced viral infection model. Moreover, SFH treatment could improve the phagocytosis of macrophages and enhance the expression of immune genes in an immune deficiency model. Furthermore, SFH treatment exhibited promising anti-thrombosis effect in a thrombus model. This study provided additional evidence of SFH formula for treating COVID-19 patients with septic syndrome using multiple-scale estimation.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 278-282, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459551

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although COVID-19 is known to be caused by human-to-human transmission, it remains largely unclear whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological parameters could promote its transmission. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to study whether air quality index (AQI), four ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and CO) and five meteorological variables (daily temperature, highest temperature, lowest temperature, temperature difference and sunshine duration) could increase COVID-19 incidence in Wuhan and XiaoGan between Jan 26th to Feb 29th in 2020. RESULTS: First, a significant correlation was found between COVID-19 incidence and AQI in both Wuhan (R2=0.13, p<0.05) and XiaoGan (R2=0.223, p<0.01). Specifically, among four pollutants, COVID-19 incidence was prominently correlated with PM2.5 and NO2 in both cities. In Wuhan, the tightest correlation was observed between NO2 and COVID-19 incidence (R2=0.329, p<0.01). In XiaoGan, in addition to the PM2.5 (R2=0.117, p<0.01) and NO2 (R2=0.015, p<0.05), a notable correlation was also observed between the PM10 and COVID-19 incidence (R2=0.105, p<0.05). Moreover, temperature is the only meteorological parameter that constantly correlated well with COVID-19 incidence in both Wuhan and XiaoGan, but in an inverse correlation (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: AQI, PM2.5, NO2, and temperature are four variables that could promote the sustained transmission of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Temperature , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Carbon Monoxide/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Cities , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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