Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 64
Filter
1.
Genomics and Applied Biology ; 40(Z1):2346-2355, 2021.
Article in English, Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1841703

ABSTRACT

It has been found in previous studies that S protein of coronavirus plays a decisive role in invading host cells. In this paper, nucleotide sequence of SARS-CoV-2 S gene and its encoding amino acid sequence were obtained from NCBI. The bioinformatics analysis of S protein was carried out by DNAMAN, DNAStar, Mega 7.0 and some online analysis and prediction websites. The S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV has high homology, which suggests that the structure and function of S protein of the two strains are similar. S protein contains signal peptide sequence, and the number of potential phosphorylated amino acids is 136, and the other amino acids have high phosphorylation tendency;there are 17 N-glycosylation sites, and it is a membrane protein, containing S1 and S2 domains;in the prediction results of secondary structure, a helix accounted for 28.59%, beta turn accounted for 3.38%, extended strand accounted for 23.25%, and random coil accounted for 44.78%. The quaternary structure shows that the complete S protein is composed of three monomers. This study can provide a theoretical basis for the infection mechanism and specific treatment of SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Lab Chip ; 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839582

ABSTRACT

When dealing with infectious pathogens, the point-of-care screening and diagnosis strategy should be low-cost, simple, rapid and accurate. Here, we report a multifunctional rapid PCR platform allowing both simultaneous screening of suspected cases and accurate identification and quantification of the virus. Based on the platform, samples suspected of being infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are screened first, after which subsequent precise quantification of the virus (SARS-CoV-2) can be performed if necessary. This fast screening technique offers a detection limit of 10 nucleic acid copies per test during the entire running time of 15 minutes, with a throughput of 9 samples at a time. Besides, depending on a droplet microfluidic chip, this platform could also provide assays of nucleic acids across four orders of magnitude of concentration within less than 15 minutes. Additionally, we successfully use the platform to quickly distinguish between positive and negative cases in clinical samples and rapidly quantify the viral load in each sample, which is consistent with standard RT-qPCR tests. As such, we demonstrate a promising and versatile rapid PCR platform for point-of-care diagnosis of infectious diseases.

3.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5325, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1820367

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates how investors respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly regarding their intention to invest in sustainability-related investment (SRI) funds. We conduct two experiments online with participants who have experience with stock and fund investments. The first one includes 292 participants, which aims to explore investors' attitudes and investment intention of different sustainability-related components, and the second one includes 432 participants, which aims to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic affects individuals' attitudes and investment intention. Our results show that investors tend to invest in SRI funds when the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic is salient. Specifically, we find that although investors perceive environmental issues to be more important than economic and social issues, their investment intention of economic-focused SRI funds significantly increases in response to the COVID-19 pandemic threat. These findings suggest that fund managers can focus on particular types of investors when designing SRI funds, such as active investors with a preference for technical analysis and young female investors with a high level of income and education.

4.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(9): 2525, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796885

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ekir.2020.07.010.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ekir.2021.07.022.].

5.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(9): 2526-2531, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796884

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ekir.2021.07.021.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ekir.2020.07.010.].

6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 206: 114163, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719388

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of the COVID-19 has highlighted the importance of the pandemic prevention and control. A rapid and sensitive antigen assay is crucial in diagnosing and curbing pandemic. Here, we report a novel surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on laser heterodyne feedback interferometry for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen, which is achieved by detecting the tiny difference in refractive index between different antigen concentrations. The biosensor converts the refractive index changes at the sensing unit into the intensity changes of light through surface plasmon resonance, achieving label-free and real-time detection of biological samples. Moreover, the gain amplification effect of the laser heterodyne feedback interferometry further improved the sensitivity of this biosensor. The biosensor can rapidly respond to continuous and periodic changes in the refractive index with a high resolution of 3.75 × 10-8 RIU, demonstrating the repeatability of the biosensor. Afterwards, the biosensor is immobilized by the anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike monoclonal antibodies, thus realizing the specific recognition of the antigen. The biosensor exhibited a high sensitivity towards the concentration of the antigen with a linear dynamic range of five orders of magnitude and a resolution of 0.08 pg/mL. These results indicate that this principle can be used as a rapid diagnostic method for COVID-19 antigens without sample labelling.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Feedback , Humans , Lasers , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315087

ABSTRACT

Background: Older adults are more susceptible to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (hereafter, COVID-19) and more likely to develop severe illness. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) may be an important factor in the development of severe disease in patients with COVID-19. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important cytokine in CRS, and tocilizumab can block the IL-6 receptor. In this study, we analyzed the therapeutic effects and safety of tocilizumab on CRS in older patients with severe COVID-19. Methods: Between February 10 and March 21, 2020, a total of 19 patients with severe or critical COVID-19 aged ≥ 60 years met the study inclusion criteria at Tongji hospital in Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China. Patients were divided into two groups: 1. The tocilizumab group, whose IL-6 levels exceeded the upper limit of normal by > 10-fold;and 2. The no tocilizumab group, with 1L-6 levels < 10-fold the upper normal limit. Results: Patients in the tocilizumab group were older (73.20 ± 4.44 vs. 66.21 ± 5.06 years, P = 0.014);had lower lymphocyte counts (0.71 ± 0.18 vs. 1.18 ± 0.59 × 10 9 /L, P = 0.016);and higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels (94.04 ± 57.24 vs. 51.65 ± 45.37 mg/L, P = 0.035). The increases in ferritin (FER) and hsCRP levels in patients in the tocilizumab group were marked. Except in one patient who died, IL-6, FER, and hsCRP levels, and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, in the remaining four patients decreased following treatment with tocilizumab. Further, patient computerized tomography scan results improved after 3–8 days of tocilizumab treatment. Tocilizumab did not cause any serious adverse reactions. There were no differences in mortality or days until lung computerized tomography improvement between the two groups. The total mortality rate was 10.53%. Conclusions: Our results support the therapeutic efficacy and safety of tocilizumab on older patients with severe COVID-19.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312205

ABSTRACT

Background: An outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has spread globally. However, the viral dynamics, co-infection and their associations with clinical severity, have not been well explored. Methods: We longitudinally enrolled 23 (Five severe-type, ten common-type and eight asymptomatic-type patients) hospitalized 2019-nCov-infected patients in Jiangsu between January 21 and February 11, 2020. Medical records and pharyngeal swab specimens, were collected to analyze the association between viral dynamic and disease severity. Results: Five severe-type, ten common-type and eight asymptomatic-type patients were enrolled. Linear mixed effects models revealed that the common and severe-type patients had a higher level of viral load (3.08 points, 95% CI, 0.51-5.65, P = 0.019;6.07 points, 95% CI, 2.79-9.35, P < 0.001) and maintained a higher peak viral load ( P = 0.066 and 0.022, respectively), when compared with the asymptomatic group. Viral load shedding among older patients (aged ≥ 60) processed slower than that among younger patients ( P = 0.047). RNA virome sequencing identified two co-infected RNA viruses, Human endogenous retrovirus H (HERV) and Human picobirnavirus (HPBV). Of note, HPBV was detected in one severe-type and two common-type patients, while was not detected in all the asymptomatic cases. Conclusion: Higher viral load was positively associated with disease severity. This finding highlights the importance of monitoring the viral kinetics to identify patients at greater risk of progressing to severe pneumonia.

9.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327482

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Preclinical pharmacokinetics (PK) and in vitro ADME properties of GS-441524, a potential oral agent for the treatment of Covid-19, were studied. GS-441524 was stable in vitro in liver microsomes, cytosols, and hepatocytes of mice, rats, monkeys, dogs, and humans. The plasma free fractions of GS-441524 were 62-78% across all studied species. The in vitro transporter study results showed that GS-441524 was a substrate of MDR1, BCRP, CNT3, ENT1, and ENT2;but not a substrate of CNT1, CNT2, and ENT4. GS-441524 had a low to moderate plasma clearance (CLp), ranging from 4.1 mL/min/kg in dogs to 26 mL/min/kg in mice;the steady state volume distribution (Vd ss ) ranged from 0.9 L/kg in dogs to 2.2 L/kg in mice after IV administration. Urinary excretion appeared to be the major elimination process for GS-441524. Following oral administration, the oral bioavailability was 8.3% in monkeys, 33% in rats, 39% in mice, and 85% in dogs. The PK and ADME properties of GS-441524 support its further development as an oral drug candidate.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325346

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and differences in etiology, clinical manifestations, and psychological activity of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) among patients. Results We recruited 90 subjects, 30 were healthy controls, 30 were patients with moderate infection, and 30 were patients with severe/critical infections. No significant differences were noted in the sex ratio, mean age, body mass index, or blood type;however, the history of exposure of the patients with COVID-19 compared with healthy controls was noteworthy. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, as well as the levels of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A (SAA) were all increased. In terms of mental health, there were significant differences in the worry scores between severely and moderately infected patients and healthy controls. There was a significant difference in depression scores between patients with moderate infection and healthy hypertension, and there was also a significant difference in dream worry scores. Analysis of the Mini-Mental State Examination scores showed that for patients with moderate infection, the depression score was moderately and positively correlated with the dream anxiety score. For patients with severe infection, the anxiety score was positively correlated with the dream anxiety score, and the depression score was moderately and positively correlated with the dream anxiety score. Conclusion Patients with severe infection showed increased pain and sputum in the pharyngeal area compared with patients with moderate infection. Patients with blood type A may be more susceptible to COVID-19, and lymphopenia may indicate worsening of COVID-19.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325261

ABSTRACT

Background: Reduction of solid organ transplant (SOT) became notable while limited data are available regarding its resumption during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.Methods: Based on the SOT and COVID-19 diagnosis data collected from open-access official organizations, we studied the trend changes of SOT in the U.S.A. since the COVID-19 outbreak, and made the validation using the U.K. dataset. Trend curves were divided into virus-free, restrictive, and/or recovery phases. Kruskal-Wallis H test was performed to assess the differences among those phases with significance set at adjusted P < 0.05 (two-sided).Findings: In a 30-week (January 5 to August 1, 2020) observing period for the U.S.A. dataset, there was an obvious association between the trends of SOT and COVID-19 diagnosis (both overall and death cases) in the 10-week restrictive phase;significant reduction of overall SOTs per day were found in the restrictive phase (median 78.0, IQR 64.6-91.4) compared with the virus-free phase (median 115.0, IQR 97.5-132.5;P < 0.001);The most affected organ transplants were kidney (35.5% reduction) and lung (35.4% reduction), and the most affected U.S. region was Northeast (62.2% reduction). Resumption occurred with no significant difference found between the comparison of recovery (median 118.5, IQR 99.3-137.8) versus virus-free phases (P = 1.000) in overall SOTs per day, as well as those stratified by donor type (deceased and living), organ, and region. The SOT reduction and resumption were validated by the U.K. dataset.Interpretation: Using the U.S.A. and U.K. datasets, our study thoroughly presented the reduction and resumption patterns of SOT during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is essential that transplant units, based on the gained experience, make adequate preparations for any further possible COVID-19 attack.Funding Statement: This study received no external funding.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: Exemptions of ethics approval, institutional review board, and informed consent were granted as data used in this study were publicly available.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324206

ABSTRACT

COVID -19 has rapidly spread from Wuhan to worldwide, and now has become a global health concern. Hypertension is the most common chronic illness in COVID-19, while the influence on those patients have not been well described. In this retrospective study, 82 confirmed patients with COVID-19 were enrolled, with epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and therapies data analyzed and compared between COVID-19 patients with (29 cases) or without (53 cases) hypertension. Of all 82 patients with COVID-19, the median age of all patients was 60.5 years, including 49 females (59.8%) and 33 (40.2%) males. Hypertension (31[28.2%]) was the most chronic illness, followed by diabetes (16 [19.5%]) and cardiovascular disease (15 [18.3%]). Common symptoms included fatigue (55[67.1%]), dry cough (46 [56.1%]) and fever (≥37.3℃ (46 [56.1%]). The median time from illness onset to positive outcomes of RT-PCR analysis were 13.0 days, ranging from 3-25 days. In hypertension group, 6 (20.7%) patients died compared to 5 (9.4%) died in non-hypertension group. More hypertension patients with COVID-19 (8 [27.6%]) had at least one coexisting disease than those of non-hypertension patients (2 [3.8%]) ( P =0.002). Compared with non-hypertension patients, higher levels of neutrophil counts, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and NT-proBNP were observed in hypertension group, whereas levels of lymphocyte count and eGFR were decreased. Dynamic observations displayed more significant and worsened outcomes in hypertension group after hospital admission. COVID-19 patients with hypertension take more risks of severe inflammatory reactions, worsened internal organ injuries, and deteriorated progress.

13.
Environ Res ; 210: 112899, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683117

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 control on air quality have been prevalent for the past two years, however few studies have explored the toxicity of atmospheric particulate matter during the epidemic control. Therefore, this research highlights the characteristics and sources of oxidative potential (OP) and the new health risk substances environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in comparison to city lockdown (CLD) with early days of 2019-2020. Daily particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected from January 14 to February 3, 2020, with the same period during 2019 in Xi'an city. The results indicated that the average concentration of PM2.5 decreased by 48% during CLD. Concentrations of other air pollutants and components, such as PM10, NO2, SO2, WSIs, OC and EC were also decreased by 22%, 19%, 2%, 17%, 6%, and 4% respectively during the CLD, compared to the same period in 2019. Whereas only O3 increased by 30% during CLD. The concentrations of EPFRs in PM2.5 was considerably lower than in 2019, which decreased by 12% during CLD. However, the OP level was increased slightly during CLD. Moreover, both EPFRs/PM and DTTv/PM did not decrease or even increase significantly, manifesting that the toxicity of particulate matter has not been reduced by more gains during the CLD. Based on PMF analysis, during the epidemic period, the contribution of traffic emission is significantly reduced, while EPFRs and DTTv increased, which consist of significant O3 and secondary aerosols. This research leads to able future research on human health effect of EPFRs and oxidative potential and can be also used to formulate the majors to control EPFRs and OP emissions, suggest the need for further studies on the secondary processing of EPFRs and OP during the lockdown period in Xi'an. .The COVID-19 lockdown had a significant impact on both social and economic aspects. The city lockdown, however, had a positive impact on the environment and improved air quality, however, no significant health benefits were observed in Xi'an, China.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Free Radicals/analysis , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis
14.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 7(1): e12141, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669647

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SINGER pilot randomized controlled trial aims to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study (FINGER) multi-domain lifestyle interventions compared to Singaporean adaptations. METHODS: Seventy elderly participants were recruited and randomized into FINGER (n = 36) or SINGER (n = 34) interventions; involving physical exercise, cognitive training, diet, and vascular risk factors management, for 6 months. RESULTS: Both intervention groups were equally feasible and acceptable with participants completing at least 80% of the interventions. Body strength improved in both groups (Pupper body = .04, P lower body = .06, P core = .05). More participants in the SINGER group attained good blood pressure control at month-6 compared to FINGER (41% vs 19%; P = .06). DISCUSSION: This study is the first to compare the feasibility of multi-domain interventions adapted to local culture with the FINGER interventions. The findings will be utilized for a larger study to provide evidence for the efficacy of multi-domain lifestyle interventions in preventing cognitive decline.

15.
Frontiers in immunology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652322

ABSTRACT

Brain organoids, or brainoids, have shown great promise in the study of central nervous system (CNS) infection. Modeling Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in brain organoids may help elucidate the relationship between ZIKV infection and microcephaly. Brain organoids have been used to study the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HSV-1, and other viral infections of the CNS. In this review, we summarize the advances in the development of viral infection models in brain organoids and their potential application for exploring mechanisms of viral infections of the CNS and in new drug development. The existing limitations are further discussed and the prospects for the development and application of brain organs are prospected.

16.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(1)2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625759

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Chest radiographs are the mainstay of initial radiological investigation in this COVID-19 pandemic. A reliable and readily deployable artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm that detects pneumonia in COVID-19 suspects can be useful for screening or triage in a hospital setting. This study has a few objectives: first, to develop a model that accurately detects pneumonia in COVID-19 suspects; second, to assess its performance in a real-world clinical setting; and third, by integrating the model with the daily clinical workflow, to measure its impact on report turn-around time. (2) Methods: The model was developed from the NIH Chest-14 open-source dataset and fine-tuned using an internal dataset comprising more than 4000 CXRs acquired in our institution. Input from two senior radiologists provided the reference standard. The model was integrated into daily clinical workflow, prioritising abnormal CXRs for expedited reporting. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), F1 score, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated to characterise diagnostic performance. The average time taken by radiologists in reporting the CXRs was compared against the mean baseline time taken prior to implementation of the AI model. (3) Results: 9431 unique CXRs were included in the datasets, of which 1232 were ground truth-labelled positive for pneumonia. On the "live" dataset, the model achieved an AUC of 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 0.96) corresponding to a specificity of 97% (95% CI: 0.97, 0.98) and sensitivity of 79% (95% CI: 0.72, 0.84). No statistically significant degradation of diagnostic performance was encountered during clinical deployment, and report turn-around time was reduced by 22%. (4) Conclusion: In real-world clinical deployment, our model expedites reporting of pneumonia in COVID-19 suspects while preserving diagnostic performance without significant model drift.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294165

ABSTRACT

Europe's high pre-existing level of financial development can partly account for the relatively smaller reach of fintech payment and lending activities compared to some other regions. But fintech activity is growing rapidly. Digital payment schemes are expanding within countries, although cross-border and pan-euro area instruments are not yet widespread, notwithstanding important enabling EU level regulation and the establishment of instant payments by the ECB. Automated lending models are developing but remain limited mainly to unsecured consumer lending. While start-ups are pursuing platform-based approaches under minimal regulation, there is a clear trend for fintech companies to acquire balance sheets and, relatedly, banking licenses as they expand. Meanwhile, competition is pushing many traditional banks to adopt fintech instruments, either in-house or by acquisition, thereby causing them to increasingly resemble balanced sheet-based fintech companies. These developments could improve the efficiency and reach of financial intermediation while also adding to profitability pressures for some banks. Although the COVID-19 pandemic could call into question the viability of platform-based lending fintechs funding models given that investors could face much higher delinquencies, it may also offer growth opportunities to those fintechs that are positioned to take advantage of the ongoing structural shift in demand toward virtual finance.

18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 767347, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528823

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 triggers the simultaneous activation of innate inflammatory pathways including the complement system and the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) generating in the process potent vasoactive peptides that contribute to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and multi-organ failure. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 encodes four major structural proteins - the spike (S) protein, nucleocapsid (N) protein, membrane (M) protein, and the envelope (E) protein. However, the role of these proteins in either binding to or activation of the complement system and/or the KKS is still incompletely understood. In these studies, we used: solid phase ELISA, hemolytic assay and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques to examine if recombinant proteins corresponding to S1, N, M and E: (a) bind to C1q, gC1qR, FXII and high molecular weight kininogen (HK), and (b) activate complement and/or the KKS. Our data show that the viral proteins: (a) bind C1q and activate the classical pathway of complement, (b) bind FXII and HK, and activate the KKS in normal human plasma to generate bradykinin and (c) bind to gC1qR, the receptor for the globular heads of C1q (gC1q) which in turn could serve as a platform for the activation of both the complement system and KKS. Collectively, our data indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 viral particle can independently activate major innate inflammatory pathways for maximal damage and efficiency. Therefore, if efficient therapeutic modalities for the treatment of COVID-19 are to be designed, a strategy that includes blockade of the four major structural proteins may provide the best option.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Kallikrein-Kinin System , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Structural Proteins/immunology , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Carrier Proteins/immunology , Hemolysis , Humans , Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics , Mitochondrial Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Viral Structural Proteins/genetics
19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108264, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487769

ABSTRACT

Topoisomerase (TOP) inhibitors were commonly used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancers. In our present study, we found that etoposide (ETO), a topoisomerase 2 (TOP2) inhibitor, upregulated the production of Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Besides, other TOP2 inhibitors including doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and teniposide (TEN) were also able to augment IL-10 production. Meanwhile, the expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors, for example IL-6 and TNF-α, were also decreased accordingly by the treatment of the TOP2 inhibitors. Of note, ETO facilitated IL-10 secretion, which might be regulated by transcription factor Maf via PI3K/AKT pathway, as pharmaceutic blockage of kinase PI3K or AKT attenuated ETO-induced Maf and IL-10 expression. Further, in LPS-induced mice sepsis model, the enhanced generation of IL-10 was observed in ETO-treated mice, whereas pro-inflammatory cytokines were decreased, which significantly reduced the mortality of mice from LPS-induced lethal cytokine storm. Taken together, these results indicated that ETO may exhibit an anti-inflammatory role by upregulating the alteration of transcription factor Maf and promoting subsequential IL-10 secretion via PI3K/Akt pathway in LPS-induced macrophages. Therefore, ETO may serve as a potential anti-inflammatory agent and employed to severe pro-inflammatory diseases including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Etoposide/pharmacology , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf/genetics , Topoisomerase II Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Female , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Macrophages/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf/metabolism , Shock, Septic/chemically induced , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Topoisomerase II Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Up-Regulation/drug effects
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 540, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colleges and universities in China have offered courses based on online teaching platforms as required by the Ministry of Education since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. This emergency action was not an expedient measure, but a powerful impetus to improve extant education and implement teaching reform. Oral histopathology is a basic subject in oral medicine education, which combines theory with practice. The course aims to improve the ability of students to observe, think, analyze and identify oral diseases. METHOD: We adjusted and modified the original Bridge-In, Outcomes, Pre-assessment, Participatory Learning, Post-assessment, and Summary (BOPPPS) teaching method to fit the characteristics and needs of oral histopathology. We then combined the characteristics of Small Private Online Courses (SPOCs) and a Flipped class to complete teaching material online, and assessed the effects of such teaching using a questionnaire and interviews. Fifty 5th-year undergraduates in stomatology at the School of Stomatology of Harbin Medical University of China participated in online classes. All were in the junior second half of the semester at the beginning of 2020. Teachers investigated from various medical colleges were responsible for delivering courses associated with stomatology or ophthalmology. RESULT & CONCLUSION: The results showed that the modified BOPPPS combined with SPOC and the Flipped class improved teaching satisfaction. Modified BOPPPS combined with SPOC and the Flipped class is a useful complement to offline teaching on 5th-year undergraduate oral histopathology learning in China during COVID-19, and it can meet the multiple needs of students participating in the course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China , Humans , Pandemics , Problem-Based Learning , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Teaching
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL