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1.
Lancet ; 399(10336):1694-1694, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880313
2.
19th International Symposium on Web and Wireless Geographical Information Systems, W2GIS 2022 ; 13238 LNCS:18-27, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1877760

ABSTRACT

Over the past two years, the COVID-19 pandemic had a major worldwide health, economic and daily life impact. Amongst many dramatic consequences, such as major human mobility disruptions at all scales, the tourism sector has been largely affected. This raises the need for the development of quantitative and qualitative research to favor a better understanding of the impact of the pandemic on human travel behaviors. This study introduces a computational approach that combines inference mechanisms and statistics to quantify tourists’ travel behaviors before and during the pandemic by exploring the evolution of the patterns extracted from a local tourism social network from 2019 to 2020 in the city of Hong Kong. The results show that the COVID-19 pandemic: 1) has a major influence on travel intentions that mainly swift from journeys with generally long sequences of attractions to rather single attractions;2) lead to a decline when considering connections between popular attractions, while the strength of connections within other attractions increase;3) generates novel patterns such as tourists preferring relaxing visits and even minor attractions. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

3.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-338229

ABSTRACT

The Omicron BA.2 variant has become a dominant infective strain worldwide. Receptor binding studies reveal that the Omicron BA.2 spike trimer have 11-fold and 2-fold higher potency to human ACE2 than the spike trimer from the wildtype (WT) and Omicron BA.1 strains. The structure of the BA.2 spike trimer complexed with human ACE2 reveals that all three receptor-binding domains (RBDs) in the spike trimer are in open conformation, ready for ACE2 binding, thus providing a basis for the increased infectivity of the BA.2 strain. JMB2002, a therapeutic antibody that was shown to have efficient inhibition of Omicron BA.1, also shows potent neutralization activities against Omicron BA.2. In addition, both BA.1 and BA.2 spike trimers are able to bind to mouse ACE2 with high potency. In contrast, the WT spike trimer binds well to cat ACE2 but not to mouse ACE2. The structures of both BA.1 and BA.2 spike trimer bound to mouse ACE2 reveal the basis for their high affinity interactions. Together, these results suggest a possible evolution pathway for Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants from human-cat-mouse-human circle, which could have important implications in establishing an effective strategy in combating viral infection.

4.
Adverse Drug Reactions Journal ; 24(4):169-174, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875842

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the occurrence and influencing factors of serum uric acid elevation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID⁃19) treated with favipiravir. Methods Medical records of patients with COVID⁃19 who were hospitalized in Beijing Ditan Hospital between June 1, 2020 and June 30, 2021 and treated with the 5- or 10-day regimen of favipiravir were collected and retrospectively analyzed. After favipiravir withdrawal, if the elevation in serum uric acid was ≥30% of baseline level, it was defined as serum uric acid elevation. Then patients were divided into serum uric acid elevation group and non-serum uric acid elevation group. The clinical characteristics such as gender, age, body mass index, comorbidities, smoking and drinking behavior, COVID⁃19 grade, favipiravir regimen, and serum uric acid level and renal function before treatment in patients between the 2 groups were compared. Influencing factors of favipiravir⁃associated serum uric acid elevation was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression method. Results A total of 179 patients were included in the analysis, including 104 (58.1%) males and 75 (41.9%) females, aged from 19 to 70 years with a median age of 43 years. The level of serum uric acid in 179 patients after favipiravir treatment was significantly higher than before [(451±119) μmol/L vs. (332±94) μmol/L, P<0.001]. The change rate of serum uric acid from baseline level ranged from -57.1% to 157.8% with the median of 38.6%. The elevation in serum uric acid of ≥ 30% of baseline level occurred in 108 (60.3%) patients. The incidences of serum uric acid elevation in patients treated with 5-day and 10-day regi⁃ mens of favipiravir were 46.8% (36/77) and 70.6% (72/102), respectively, and the difference between them was significant (P=0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index 24.0 to <28.0 kg/m2 (OR=3.109, 95%CI: 1.209-7.994, P=0.019) and 10-day regimen of favipiravir (OR=3.017, 95%CI: 1.526-5.964, P=0.001) were independent risk factors for favipiravir⁃associated serum uric acid elevation. Conclusions More than half of COVID⁃19 patients treated with favipiravir can develop serum uric acid elevation. Overweight and 10-day regimen of favipiravir are independent risk factors for serum uric acid elevation in patients. © 2022 Adverse Drug Reactions Journal.

5.
60th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) ; : 4272-4279, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868526

ABSTRACT

Testing and lock-down are interventions that can combat the spread of an infectious disease. Testing is a targeted instrument that permits the isolation of infectious individuals. Lock-down, on the other hand, is blunt and restricts the mobility of all people. In this paper, we present a compartmental epidemic model that accounts for the impact of lock-down and different kinds of testing, motivated by the nature of the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. We consider the testing of symptomatic, contact traced, and randomly chosen asymptomatic individuals. Using the model, we first characterize static mobility levels and testing requirements that can dampen the spread asymptotically. We then characterize a threshold-type optimal lock-down policy that minimizes the social impact of an epidemic, modeled via a sum of infection and lockdown costs. Our results are contextualized with realistic parameter values for COVID-19.

6.
Chinese General Practice ; 25(14):1741-1748, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863322

ABSTRACT

Background: Based on the current prevalence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), early diagnosis, isolation, and treatment are important methods to prevent and control infectious diseases. The establishment of convenient and efficient immunochromatographic detection techniques is essential for the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic. Objective: To establish a method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 anti-N protein IgG antibody by immun of luorescence chromatography method based on quantum dots labeling technology in August, 2020. In order to determine whether the detected persons had been infected with COVID-19 or been injected with SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine. Methods The prepared rat anti-human secondary antibody and anti-N protein antibody were immobilized on a Nitrocellulose (NC) membrane as detection line (T) and quality control line (C), respectively. Then the SARS-CoV-2 N protein labeled by quantum dots was evenly sprayed on glass fiber, which was assembled, cut and packaged into test strips after drying. The test strips were used to detect the clinical serum of 35 COVID-19 patients and 50 healthy individuals, the results of the initial screening of the ELISA kit were used as a control to calculate the detection specificity and sensitivity of quantum dots fluorescence immunochromatography. The sensitivity of the test strip was detected by using the N protein antibody standard. Results The specificity and sensitivity of the strip were 100.00%, 94.29%, and the susceptibility was 8.53-17.06 ng/ml antibody concentration. Conclusion: The detection of anti-N protein IgG antibody in serum by quantum dots labeling is simple, fast, with strong sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2022 by the Chinese General Practice.

7.
International Eye Science ; 22(5):870-874, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847437

ABSTRACT

AIM: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma during the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic. METHODS: A retrospective case analysis. Totally 876 cases (905 eyes) of ocular trauma were analyzed in this study, including 545 cases (565 eyes) from January to June 2019 were enrolled ascontrol group, and 331 cases (340 eyes) from January to June 2020 were enrolled in the research group. Information regarding age, sex, location of injury, cause of injury, place of residence, and type of injury were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The number of hospitalisation for ocular trauma in the research group decreased by 39.3% compared with the control group. The age distribution of patients showed a double peak, at 0-10 years (20.55%, 21.45%) and 41-50 years (17.98%, 19.03%) in the control group and research group, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the age distribution between the two groups (P=0.907). Men were predominantly injured in both the control and the research groups, accounting for 80.37% and 83.69%, respectively (P=0.219). The proportion of home injuries in the research group (28.40%) was higher than the control group (11.38%) (P<0.001). The proportion of mechanical eye injuries in the research group (98.19%) was higher than the control group (95.60%) (P=0.041), and the proportion of open globe injuries (85.54%) was also higher than the control group (76.58%) (P=0.001). The proportion of patients with no light perception in the research group (18.86%) was higher than that of the control group (9.53%) (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 epidemic period, the total number of ocular trauma cases was significantly reduced. Mechanical eye injuries are still the main type for hospitalisation of patients with eye injuries. The awareness of eye injury prevention should be strengthened during the period of epidemic. Copyright 2022 by the IJO Press.

8.
EPL ; 137(4), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846890

ABSTRACT

It is well known that the outbreak of infectious diseases is affected by the diffusion of the infected. However, the diffusion network is seldom considered in the network-organized SIR model. In this work, we investigate the effect of the maximum eigenvalue on Turing instability and show the role of network parameters (the network connection rate, the network's infection, etc.) on the outbreak of infectious diseases. Meanwhile, stability of network-organized SIR is given by using the maximum eigenvalue of the network matrix which is proportional to the network connection rate and the networks infection rate. The bridge between the two rates and Turing instability was also revealed which can explain the spread mechanism of infectious diseases. In the end, some measures to mitigate the spread of infectious diseases are proposed and the feasible strategies for prevention and control can be provided in our paper, the data from COVID-19 validated the above results. © Copyright © 2022 EPLA.

9.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-336229

ABSTRACT

Background: We estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mRNA vaccines among US Veterans during periods of Delta and Omicron variant dominance. Patients included in this study were largely 65 years or older (62,834, 55%), male (101,259, 88%), and non-Hispanic white (66,986, 58%). Methods: We used SARS-CoV-2 laboratory test results to conduct a matched test-negative case-control study to estimate VE of three and two doses of mRNA vaccines against infection (regardless of symptoms), and a matched case-control study to estimate VE against COVID-19related hospitalization and death. We estimated VE as (1- odds ratio) x 100%. Severity of disease was measured using hospital length of stay (LOS) and admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). Results: Against infection, booster doses had 7-times higher VE - 59% (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 61) - than 2-dose VE (7%;95% CI, 3 to 10) during the Omicron period. For the Delta period, estimated VE against infection was 90% (95% CI, 88 to 92) among boosted vaccinees, 64% higher than VE among 2-dose vaccinees [55% (95% CI, 51 to 58)]. Against hospitalization, booster dose VE was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 91) during Omicron and 95% (95% CI, 91 to 97) during Delta;the 2-dose VE was 44% (95% CI, 26 to 58) during Omicron and 75% (95% CI, 70 to 80) during Delta. Against death, estimated VE with a booster dose was 94% (95% CI, 85 to 98) during Omicron and 96% (95% CI, 88 to 99) during Delta, while the 2-dose VE was 75% (95% CI, 52 to 87) during Omicron and 93% (95% CI, 85 to 97) during Delta. During the Omicron period, average hospital LOS was 4 days shorter [3 days (95%CI, 3 to 4 days)] than during the Delta period. Conclusions: A mRNA vaccine booster is more effective against infection, hospitalization, and death than 2-dose vaccination among an older male population with comorbidities.

10.
2021 Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Findings of ACL: EMNLP 2021 ; : 1215-1228, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1837715

ABSTRACT

Morality plays an important role in social wellbeing, but people's moral perception is not stable and changes over time. Recent advances in natural language processing have shown that text is an effective medium for informing moral change, but no attempt has been made to quantify the origins of these changes. We present a novel unsupervised framework for tracing textual sources of moral change toward entities through time. We characterize moral change with probabilistic topical distributions and infer the source text that exerts prominent influence on the moral time course. We evaluate our framework on a diverse set of data ranging from social media to news articles. We show that our framework not only captures fine-grained human moral judgments, but also identifies coherent source topics of moral change triggered by historical events. We apply our methodology to analyze the news in the COVID-19 pandemic and demonstrate its utility in identifying sources of moral change in high-impact and real-time social events. © 2021 Association for Computational Linguistics.

11.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816903

ABSTRACT

Vimentin intermediate filament is involved in multiple steps of viral infection such as viral entry, trafficking and egress, as well as in various mechanisms of hyperinflammation such as the restraint of Treg cell functions and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. We evaluated a vimentin-binding small molecule compound ALD-R491 for its effects on cellular processes related to viral infection and for its efficacy in treating SARS-CoV2 infection in vitro and in vivo. In cultured cells, the compound could reduce endocytosis by 10%, endosomal trafficking by 40% and exosomal release by over 30%. In an infection system consisting of a lentiviral pseudotype bearing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and HEK293 cells over-expressing the human ACE2 receptor with multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1, 10 and 100, the compound inhibited the infection up to a maximum of over 90%, with IC 50 < 50 nM, CC50 > 10 μM, and SI > 200. After oral administration of ALD-R491 in rats, the plasma concentration of the compound reached the peak (Tmax) at around 5 h with a half-life (T1/2) of about 5 h. The compound was widely distributed and enriched in tissues in vivo in rats with a volume of distribution (Vd) of over 2,000 ml/kg. The lung and the lymph nodes were among the tissues with high drug exposures. In rats receiving oral gavage of the compound at 30 mg/kg, the drug exposure in the lung and the lymph nodes maintained at levels over 1 μM from 1 h to 6 h after the oral dosing. In the syngeneic mouse tumor CT26 model, ALD-R491 was found to activate regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vivo and enhance de novo generation of Tregs in lymph nodes of the mice. In the Mouse-Adapted SARS-CoV2 model, aged mice (11-12 months) were used to provide a harder test of recovery from infection that reflects the severeness of COVID-19 in old patients. For therapeutic treatment, the mice were orally administered with the compound 24 h after the SARS-CoV2 infection once per day on Day 1, Day 2 and Day 4. At 10 mg/kg, ALD-R491 significantly reduced the body weight loss of the mice (p<0.01 on Day 5 post-infection). At both 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, the compound significantly reduced the hemorrhagic score for the lungs (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively, on Day 5). These results indicate that vimentin intermediate filament is an effective host-directed antiviral target. Importantly, the vimentin-binding small molecule ALD-R491 impacts multiple aspects of SARS-CoV2 infection, has a favorable oral pharmacokinetics and a wide therapeutic window, and therefore may be a promising therapeutic candidate for treating COVID-19. Statement: Aluda Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has utilized the non-clinical and pre-clinical services program offered by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

13.
Nature Machine Intelligence ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1805663

ABSTRACT

In the version of this article initially published, the first name of Chuansheng Zheng was misspelled as Chuangsheng. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article. © The Author(s) 2022.

14.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients with comorbidities such as hypertension or heart failure (HF) are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the critical enzyme for SARS-CoV-2 infection, is broadly expressed in many organs including heart. However, the cellular distribution of ACE2 in the human heart, particularly the failing heart is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data in both normal and failing hearts, and characterized the ACE2 gene expression profile in various cell subsets, especially in cardiomyocyte subsets, as well as its interaction with gene networks relating to various defense and immune responses at the single cell level. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that ACE2 is present in cardiomyocytes (CMs), endothelial cells, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in the heart, while the number of ACE2-postive (ACE2+) CMs and ACE2 gene expression in these CMs are significantly increased in the failing hearts. Interestingly, both brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are significantly up-regulated in the ACE2+ CMs. Further analysis shows that ANP, BNP and ACE2 may form a negative feedback loop with a group of genes associated with the development of heart failure. To our surprise, we found that genes related to virus entry, virus replication and suppression of interferon-gamma(IFN-gamma)signaling are all up-regulated in CMs in failing hearts, and the increases were significantly higher in ACE2+ CMs as compared with ACE2 negative (ACE2-) CMs, suggesting that these ACE2+ CMs may be more vulnerable to virus infection. Since ACE2 expression is correlated with BNP expression, we further performed retrospective analysis of the plasma BNP levels and clinic outcome of 91 COVID-19 patients from a single-center. Patients with higher plasma BNP were associated with significantly higher mortality rate and expression levels of inflammatory and infective markers such as procalcitonin and C-reactive protein. CONCLUSION: In the failing heart, the upregulation of ACE2 and virus infection associated genes, as well as the increased expression of ANP and BNP could facilitate SARS-CoV-2 virus entry and replication in these vulnerable cardiomyocyte subsets. These findings may advance our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of myocarditis associated with COVID-19.

15.
18th IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision, ICCV 2021 ; : 7366-7375, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1794834

ABSTRACT

Semi-supervised learning (SSL) algorithms have attracted much attentions in medical image segmentation by leveraging unlabeled data, which challenge in acquiring massive pixel-wise annotated samples. However, most of the existing SSLs neglected the geometric shape constraint in object, leading to unsatisfactory boundary and non-smooth of object. In this paper, we propose a novel boundary-aware semi-supervised medical image segmentation network, named Graph-BAS3Net, which incorporates the boundary information and learns duality constraints between semantics and geometrics in the graph domain. Specifically, the proposed method consists of two components: a multi-task learning framework BAS3Net and a graph-based cross-task module BGCM. The BAS3Net improves the existing GAN-based SSL by adding a boundary detection task, which encodes richer features of object shape and surface. Moreover, the BGCM further explores the co-occurrence relations between the semantics segmentation and boundary detection task, so that the network learns stronger semantic and geometric correspondences from both labeled and unlabeled data. Experimental results on the LiTS dataset and COVID-19 dataset confirm that our proposed Graph-BAS3Net outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in semi-supervised segmentation task. © 2021 IEEE

16.
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology ; 29(1):1-7, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1791590

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause respiratory symptoms such as fever, cough and dyspnea after infection, and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome, and even death can occur in severe cases.SARS-CoV-2 infection has no specific treatment drugs, mainly rely on vaccination to block its transmission.In various structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2, Spike protein (S) and Nucleocapsid protein (N) are the main antigenic proteins, which are also important candidate proteins for developing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and antibody detection reagents.To express chimeric protein containing multiple epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 by prokaryotic expression system, and to verify the immunogenicity of the chimeric protein, antigenic epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins were analyzed and screened by molecular biology software, the selected antigenic epitopes were connected in tandem, and expressed high efficiently in E.coli as a chimeric protein by genetic engineering technology.The soluble chimeric protein of high purity was obtained after purification and renaturation.Mice were immunized with the purified chimeric protein together with MF59 adjuvant, aluminum adjuvant or no adjuvant at different doses respectively.Humoral immunity and cellular immunity induced by the chimeric protein were evaluated by detecting the antibody titer of antiserum and the level of related cytokine.The expressed chimeric protein was in the form of inclusion body and exists in the sediment, soluble chimeric protein was obtained after renaturation.The specific antibodies with high titer were produced in the immunized mice, and strong cellular immunity was induced also.Higher concentration of chimeric protein had better elicited immune effect than the lower concentration of chimeric protein.The immune effect induced by the chimeric protein with MF59 adjuvant was no different from that induced with aluminum adjuvant.This study provides novel ideas for the design and renaturation of SARS-CoV-2 chimeric protein, and the chimeric protein is expected to be used for the development of SARS-CoV-2 recombinant protein vaccine and diagnosis reagent.

17.
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1788890

ABSTRACT

Parent-focused interventions have been designed to provide training and support to caregivers who are essential in achieving positive outcomes for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). In 2020, significant crises, including the COVID-19 pandemic and continued racial tensions, profoundly impacted the livelihood of children with IDD and their families. Many ongoing efforts to address disparities among this population were halted temporarily and required further adaptations. Researchers adapted interventions and support to address the disparities impacting children with IDD and their families with limited guidance. We provide a descriptive case analysis of four parent-focused interventions that responded to the global crises to continue serving children with IDD and their families. The four distinct programs were based on applied behavior analysis and naturalistic, developmental-behavioral paradigms that were culturally adapted for families of young children with IDD from diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. We present the qualitative reports on the challenges and benefits that arose with adapting the four parent-focused interventions for telehealth implementation. We focused specifically on adaptations made in recruitment and retention, instrumentation and measurement, research staff training, and intervention delivery. We synthesize our experience with challenges and solutions in adapting parent-focused interventions for racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse children with IDD and their families. We conclude with recommendations for researchers and practitioners on methods for adapting parent-focused interventions to address the significant health disparities that impact racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse children with IDD and their families. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities published by International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and Wiley Periodicals LLC.

18.
5th Asian Conference on Artificial Intelligence Technology, ACAIT 2021 ; : 791-798, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1788610

ABSTRACT

Face verification has been widely applied to identity authentication in many areas. However, due to the mask information embedded into the facial feature representation, existing face verification systems generally fail to identify the faces covered by masks during the COVID-19 coronavirus epidemic period. To address this issue, we propose a new triplet decoupling network (TDN) for the challenging masked face verification. Different from existing works, our proposed TDN seeks to remove the mask information included in extracted facial features by feature decoupling, such that more discriminative facial feature representations can be obtained for masked face verification. In addition, a new triplet similarity margin loss (TSM) is designed to enlarge the margin between the intra-class similarity and the inter-class similarity of faces. Experimental results show that the proposed method significantly outperforms the other state-of-the-art methods on masked face datasets, which demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed method. © 2021 IEEE.

20.
Food Science and Technology ; 42:6, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1770822

ABSTRACT

To explore characteristics of patients with pneumonia infected by 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in 2019 outside Hubei Province, China. 40 patients with pneumonia infected by COVID-19 which were confirmed by COVID-19 nucleic acid test were included. Procalcitonin (PCT), serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP) and computed tomography (CT) manifestations were analyzed. 40% of patients had clear contact history with Wuhan or other areas of Hubei Province. 60% of patients were clustered diseases and 40% were imported cases. 75% of patients had initial fever, 7.5% had cough, 5% had sore throat at first. 45% had decreased lymphocyte count, 72.5% and 55% patients had increased levels of SAA and CRP. 72.5% of the patients showed multiple ground glass lesions in one or two lungs on chest CT. 90% of the patients with pneumonia are of the common type, and alpha-interferon atomization inhalation combined with Lopinavir/Ritonavir tablets were given to patients during treatment. 62.5% of the patients were treated with antibiotics, and 15% with hormone. All patients improved after treatment, and 14 patients were cured and discharged. Family cluster infection and asymptomatic infection may be the main way of spreading of COVID-19 pneumonia outside Hubei Province in China.

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