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1.
Gen Psychiatr ; 36(3): e101013, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230669

ABSTRACT

Background: Cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBTi) is the first-line treatment for those with this sleep disorder. However, depressive and anxiety symptoms often co-occur with acute insomnia, which may affect the effectiveness of CBTi treatment. Aims: This study aimed to determine the impact of depressive and anxiety symptoms on the efficacy of CBTi in treating acute insomnia. Methods: A single-arm clinical trial was conducted among individuals who have acute insomnia. Participants underwent self-guided CBTi for 1-week. Their insomnia, depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms were evaluated using the Insomnia Severity Index and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at baseline, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess the effectiveness of CBTi in treating insomnia, depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to determine the impact of depressive and anxiety symptoms on insomnia. Results: The study found significant reductions in insomnia, depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms at both post-treatment and 3-month follow-up (F=17.45, p<0.001; F=36.37, p=0.001; and F=81.51, p<0.001, respectively). The duration of CBTi treatment had a positive impact on insomnia recovery (hazard ratio (HR)=0.94, p=0.018). However, baseline depressive symptoms (HR=1.83, p=0.004) and baseline anxiety symptoms (HR=1.99, p=0.001) had significant negative effects on insomnia recovery. Conclusions: The study showed that a 1-week self-guided CBTi treatment is effective in treating acute insomnia and comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms. However, baseline depressive and anxiety symptoms negatively impact treatment effectiveness. Therefore, clinicians should assess for depressive and anxiety symptoms before treating acute insomnia with monotherapy CBTi.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1053437, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327439

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global pandemic, caused by a novel coronavirus strain with strong infectivity, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). With the in-depth research, the close relationship between COVID-19 and immune system has been dug out. During the infection, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, CD8+ T cells, Th1, Th17, Tfh cells and effector B cells are all involved in the anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses, however, the dysfunctional immune responses will ultimately lead to the excessive inflammation, acute lung injury, even other organ failure. Thus, a detailed understanding of pertinent immune response during COVID-19 will provide insights in predicting disease outcomes and developing appropriate therapeutic approaches. In this review, we mainly clarify the role of immune cells in COVID-19 and the target-vaccine development and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Pandemics , Adaptive Immunity
3.
NPJ Vaccines ; 8(1): 38, 2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288732

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has had and continues to have a significant impact on global public health. One of the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 is a surface homotrimeric spike protein, which is primarily responsible for the host immune response upon infection. Here we present the preclinical studies of a broadly protective SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine developed from our trimer domain platform using the Delta spike protein, from antigen design through purification, vaccine evaluation and manufacturability. The pre-fusion trimerized Delta spike protein, PF-D-Trimer, was highly expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, purified by a rapid one-step anti-Trimer Domain monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity process and prepared as a vaccine formulation with an adjuvant. Immunogenicity studies have shown that this vaccine candidate induces robust immune responses in mouse, rat and Syrian hamster models. It also protects K18-hACE2 transgenic mice in a homologous viral challenge. Neutralizing antibodies induced by this vaccine show cross-reactivity against the ancestral WA1, Delta and several Omicrons, including BA.5.2. The formulated PF-D Trimer is stable for up to six months without refrigeration. The Trimer Domain platform was proven to be a key technology in the rapid production of PF-D-Trimer vaccine and may be crucial to accelerate the development and accessibility of updated versions of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

4.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 33: 100694, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269304

ABSTRACT

Background: Nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir (Paxlovid) reduced the risk of hospitalization or death by 89% in high-risk, ambulatory adults with COVID-19. We aimed at studying the efficacy and safety of Paxlovid in hospitalized adult patients with SARS-Cov-2 (Omicron BA.2.2 variant) infection and severe comorbidities. Methods: We conducted an open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial in which hospitalized adult patients with severe comorbidities were eligible and assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 300 mg of nirmatrelvir plus 100 mg of ritonavir every 12 h for 5 days with standard treatment or only standard treatment. All-cause mortality on day 28, the duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance, and safety were evaluated. Findings: 264 patients (mean age, 70.35 years; 122 [46.21%] female) who met the criteria were enrolled at 5 sites in Shanghai from April 10 to May 19 in 2022. After randomization, a total of 132 patients were assigned to receive Paxlovid treatment plus standard treatment, and 132 patients were assigned to receive only standard treatment. The overall 28-day mortality was 4.92%, 8 patients died in the standard treatment group and 5 died in the Paxlovid plus standard treatment group. There was no significant difference in mortality from any cause at 28 days between the Paxlovid plus standard treatment group and the standard treatment group (absolute risk difference [ARD], 2.27; 95% CI -2.94 to 7.49, P = 0.39). There was no significant difference in the duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance among the two groups (mean days, 10 in Paxlovid plus standard treatment group and 10.50 in the standard treatment group; ARD, -0.62; 95% CI -2.29 to 1.05, P = 0.42). The incidence of adverse events that occurred during the treatment period was similar in the two groups (any adverse event, 10.61% with Paxlovid plus standard treatment vs. 7.58% with the standard, P = 0.39; serious adverse events, 4.55% vs. 3.788%, P = 0.76). Interpretation: Paxlovid showed no significant reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality on day 28 and the duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance in hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients with severe comorbidities. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number: 82172152, 81873944).

5.
J Happiness Stud ; 24(2): 589-606, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264745

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of examining psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to identify the factors that affect the influence of COVID-19 on people's mental health. The present research was a three-wave longitudinal study (N = 1495) examining the concurrent and prospective relations of good personality with subjective well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results showed that good personality positively predicted the subsequent well-being after controlling for the respective autoregressive effects and Big Five personality traits. Specifically, individuals who scored higher on measures of good personality tended to maintain higher well-being in the face of COVID-19. However, subjective well-being could positively predict subsequent personality only at the first time point. In addition, the prospective effect of good personality on subjective well-being was greater than the reverse effect. These findings support the opinion that as a positive value orientation in personality, good personality has a significant positive impact on the response to the pandemic situation.

6.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 6029-6037, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241155

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To retrospectively analyse the CT imaging during the long-term follow-up of COVID-19 patients after discharge. Patients and Methods: A total of 122 patients entered the study group. All patients underwent CT examinations. The CT images, which included distribution and imaging signs, were evaluated by two chest radiologists. Laboratory examinations included routine blood work, biochemical testing, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody screening. Statistical methods include chi-square, Fisher's exact test, one-way analysis of variance, rank sum test and logistic regression by SPSS 17.0. Results: There were 22 (18.0%) patients in the mild group, 74 (60.7%) patients in the moderate group, and 26 (21.3%) patients in the severe-critical group. The median follow-up interval was 405 days (378.0 days, 462.8 days). Only monocytes, prothrombin activity, and γ-glutamyltransferase showed significant differences among the three groups. We found that the more severe the patient's condition, the more SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies existed. Only 11 patients (11.0%) showed residual lesions on CT. The CT manifestations included irregular linear opacities in nine cases (9.0%), reticular patterns in six cases (6.0%), and GGOs in five cases (5.0%). Conclusion: The proportion of residual lesions on CT in COVID-19 patients was significantly reduced after long-term follow-up. The patients' age and disease conditions were positively correlated with residual lesions.

8.
The Lancet regional health Western Pacific ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2232615

ABSTRACT

Background Nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir (Paxlovid) reduced the risk of hospitalization or death by 89% in high-risk, ambulatory adults with COVID-19. We aimed at studying the efficacy and safety of Paxlovid in hospitalized adult patients with SARS-Cov-2 (Omicron BA.2.2 variant) infection and severe comorbidities. Methods We conducted an open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial in which hospitalized adult patients with severe comorbidities were eligible and assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 300 mg of nirmatrelvir plus 100 mg of ritonavir every 12 h for 5 days with standard treatment or only standard treatment. All-cause mortality on day 28, the duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance, and safety were evaluated. Findings 264 patients (mean age, 70.35 years;122 [46.21%] female) who met the criteria were enrolled at 5 sites in Shanghai from April 10 to May 19 in 2022. After randomization, a total of 132 patients were assigned to receive Paxlovid treatment plus standard treatment, and 132 patients were assigned to receive only standard treatment. The overall 28-day mortality was 4.92%, 8 patients died in the standard treatment group and 5 died in the Paxlovid plus standard treatment group. There was no significant difference in mortality from any cause at 28 days between the Paxlovid plus standard treatment group and the standard treatment group (absolute risk difference [ARD], 2.27;95% CI −2.94 to 7.49, P = 0.39). There was no significant difference in the duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance among the two groups (mean days, 10 in Paxlovid plus standard treatment group and 10.50 in the standard treatment group;ARD, −0.62;95% CI −2.29 to 1.05, P = 0.42). The incidence of adverse events that occurred during the treatment period was similar in the two groups (any adverse event, 10.61% with Paxlovid plus standard treatment vs. 7.58% with the standard, P = 0.39;serious adverse events, 4.55% vs. 3.788%, P = 0.76). Interpretation Paxlovid showed no significant reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality on day 28 and the duration of SARS–CoV-2 RNA clearance in hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients with severe comorbidities. Funding 10.13039/501100001809National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number: 82172152, 81873944).

9.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 14(4): 689-698, 2023 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236297

ABSTRACT

A deficiency of the functional α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) impairs neuronal and immune systems. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S12) facilitates virus cell entry during COVID-19 infection and can also independently disrupt cellular functions. Here, we found that S12 expression significantly downregulated surface expression of α7nAChR in mammalian cells. A helical segment of S12 (L1145-L1152) in the spike neck was identified to be responsible for the downregulation of α7nAChR, as the mutant S12AAA (L1145A-F1148A-L1152A) had minimal effects on surface α7nAChR expression. This S12 segment is homologous to the α7nAChR intracellular helical motif known for binding chaperone proteins RIC3 and Bcl-2 to promote α7nAChR surface expression. Competition from S12 for binding these proteins likely underlies suppression of surface α7nAChR. Considering the critical roles of α7nAChR in cellular functions, these findings provide a new perspective for improving mRNA vaccines and developing treatment options for certain symptoms related to long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor , Animals , Humans , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Mammals
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 9: e43689, 2023 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic represents a global health crisis. The Shanghai municipal government in China implemented strict and comprehensive pandemic control strategies in the first half of 2022 to eliminate a wave of COVID-19 infection. The pandemic and the resulting government responses have led to abrupt changes to families' daily lives, including the mental health of children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of COVID-19 exposure and the stringent lockdown measures on the daily life and mental health of children and adolescents and to provide suggestions on maintaining their mental health when similar public health emergencies occur in the future. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, an anonymous survey was distributed online in May 1-15, 2022, in Shanghai. Individuals were eligible to participate if they were currently the caregiver of a child or adolescent (aged 4-17 years). Outcomes were psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents, as reported by parents, using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. COVID-19 exposure and life changes were also reported. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors for poor psychosocial functioning. RESULTS: In total, 2493 valid questionnaires were analyzed. The rate of positive scores on the global Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 scale was 16.5% (n=411). Internalizing, attention, and externalizing problem subscale positivity rates were 17.3% (n=431), 10.9% (n=272), and 8.9% (n=221), respectively. Caregivers reported that 64.2% (n=1601) and 20.7% (n=516) of the children's interactions with friends or peers and parents deteriorated, respectively. Compared with male caregivers, female caregivers were less likely to report psychosocial problems in children and adolescents (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.68; 95% CI 0.53-0.88). Older children and those with lower COVID-19 Exposure and Family Impact Scales scores were less likely to have psychological problems (aOR 1.15; 95% CI 1.10-1.21). Compared with children with screen times <1 hour per day for recreation, those using screens for >3 hours had higher odds of psychological distress (aOR 2.09; 95% CI 1.47-1.97). Children who spent 1-2 hours exercising and had better interactions with friends or peers and parents showed a trend toward lower odds of psychological problems. Children and adolescents with worse sleep compared with preclosure were more likely to have psychological problems. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of psychosocial problems among children and adolescents is relatively high. Being young, having more COVID-19 exposure, and having more screen times (>3 h/day), less exercise time (<30 min), worse sleep, and deteriorated interactions with friends or peers and parents were risk factors for poor psychosocial functioning. It is necessary for governments, communities, schools, and families to take appropriate countermeasures to reduce the negative impact of the stringent control measures on caregivers' parenting and psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Humans , Child , Male , Adolescent , Female , Caregivers/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Psychosocial Functioning , Pandemics , China , Communicable Disease Control
11.
Cell Immunol ; 385: 104689, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230873

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect conferred by vaccination and previous infection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in molecular level, weighted gene co-expression network analysis was applied to screen vaccination, prior infection and Omicron infection-related gene modules in 46 Omicron outpatients and 8 controls, and CIBERSORT algorithm was used to infer the proportions of 22 subsets of immune cells. 15 modules were identified, where the brown module showed positive correlations with Omicron infection (r = 0.35, P = 0.01) and vaccination (r = 0.62, P = 1 × 10-6). Enrichment analysis revealed that LILRB2 was the unique gene shared by both phosphatase binding and MHC class I protein binding. Pathways including "B cell receptor signaling pathway" and "FcγR-mediated phagocytosis" were enriched in the vaccinated samples of the highly correlated LILRB2. LILRB2 was also identified as the second hub gene through PPI network, after LCP2. In conclusion, attenuated LILRB2 transcription in PBMC might highlight a novel target in overcoming immune evasion and improving vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , mRNA Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gene Regulatory Networks , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
12.
J Med Virol ; 95(1): e28411, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173197

ABSTRACT

A series of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) was launched in Beijing, China, on January 24, 2020, to control coronavirus disease 2019. To reveal the roles of NPIs on the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), respiratory specimens collected from children with acute respiratory tract infection between July 2017 and Dec 2021 in Beijing were screened by capillary electrophoresis-based multiplex PCR (CEMP) assay. Specimens positive for RSV were subjected to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyped by G gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis using iqtree v1.6.12. The parallel and fixed (paraFix) mutations were analyzed with the R package sitePath. Clinical data were compared using SPSS 22.0 software. Before NPIs launched, each RSV endemic season started from October/November to February/March of the next year in Beijing. After that, the RSV positive rate abruptly dropped from 31.93% in January to 4.39% in February 2020; then, a dormant state with RSV positive rates ≤1% from March to September, a nearly dormant state in October (2.85%) and November (2.98%) and a delayed endemic season in 2020, and abnormal RSV positive rates remaining at approximately 10% in summer until September 2021 were detected. Finally, an endemic RSV season returned in October 2021. There was a game between Subtypes A and B, and RSV-A replaced RSV-B in July 2021 to become the dominant subtype. Six RSV-A and eight RSV-B paraFix mutations were identified on G. The percentage of severe pneumonia patients decreased to 40.51% after NPIs launched. NPIs launched in Beijing seriously interfered with the endemic season of RSV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Beijing/epidemiology , Phylogeny , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 15: 17562848221145552, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2195421

ABSTRACT

Background: Since initially detected in late December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak rapidly swept the world, which has profoundly affected healthcare system and clinical practice in the management of gastrointestinal diseases. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the pattern of hospital admissions and healthcare services for acute pancreatitis (AP). Design: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using the anonymized electronic medical records. Methods: This single-center, retrospective observational study from a regional medical center in the northeast of China included all consecutively admitted patients with AP from 23 January to 10 June 2020 (during the COVID-19 outbreak in Harbin), compared with the equivalent period of the previous year, in terms of demographics, clinical characteristics, and in-hospital outcomes. Results: In this article, we observed a reduction in AP admissions after the beginning of COVID-19 outbreak. With the prolonged time from symptom onset to hospitalization [32.0 (22.0-72.0) versus 18.0 (12.0-24.0) h; p < 0.001], a higher proportion of AP patients developed acute renal failure (14.0% versus 7.4%, p = 0.004) and acute necrotic collection (16.5% versus 11.2%; p = 0.038) in the COVID-19 era. The percentage of alcohol etiology significantly decreased after the implementation of social restriction measures (11.5% versus 20.4%; p = 0.002), whereas biliary etiology was numerically more common amidst the COVID-19 era (41.6% versus 32.6%; p = 0.014). No significant differences were found in the rates of intensive care unit admission and mortality between the two groups. Conclusion: This study preliminarily demonstrated the descending trend and delay in hospital presentations for AP during the outbreak of COVID-19. Given that the pandemic may persist for several years, adjustments of medical services according to the varying degrees of local breakouts are imperative to provide appropriate care for AP patients and diminish the risk of viral transmission. Registration: ClincialTrials.gov number ChiCTR2100043350.

14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1054617, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199534

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The dramatic decrease in the number of reported cases of pertussis during COVID-19 pandemic has been underestimated. The objective was to compare the estimated incidence rate of pertussis in populations pre- and post-COVID-19 pandemic by analyzing the anti-pertussis toxin (anti-PT) IgG and anti-filamentous hemagglutininant (anti-FHA) IgG antibodies in healthy Chinese population from 2018 to 2021. Methods: All serum samples (N = 1,000) were collected from healthy population (aged ≥ 15 years) who attended an annual monitoring project of antibody levels in Jiangsu province in 2018-2021 were measured by ELISA. Results: The positive rates of anti-PT IgG and anti-FHA IgG antibodies were 11.4% (114/1,000) and 20.2% (202/1,000) (≥40 IU/ml), the GMC were 17.25 (95% CI: 15.49-19.03) IU/mL and 24.94 (95% CI: 22.73-27.16) IU/mL in the study population, respectively. The percentage of participants with anti-PT IgG antibodies higher than 40 IU/mL was 5.20% (11/212) in 2018, 5.5% (19/348) in 2019, 21.2% (46/217) in 2020 and 17.0% (38/223) in 2021, respectively. The non-detectable rate (<5 IU/mL) of anti-PT IgG antibodies was 16.9, 17.7, 28.1, and 37.3% in 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2021, respectively. We assumed that the infection occurred within 58.6 days, and based on the overall proportion (2.9%) of individuals with anti-PT IgG antibody ≥100 IU/ml, the incidence rate (/100) was estimated by the formula to be 18.08 (95% CI: 12.40-26.11). In addition, the estimated incidence of Post-COVID-19 was higher than that of Pre-COVID-19 (36.33/100 vs. 12.84/100), and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest a high rate of under-reporting of pertussis in Jiangsu Province both pre- and post-COVID-19 pandemic, and there are a large number of adults of childbearing age who are susceptible to pertussis. It seems imperative that vaccination of adolescents and adults should be considered for inclusion in vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Whooping Cough , Adult , Adolescent , Humans , Incidence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Pandemics , Antibodies, Bacterial , Immunoglobulin G , COVID-19/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Pertussis Toxin , China/epidemiology
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1022810, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199495

ABSTRACT

Background: The global community has been affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which emerged in December 2019. Since then, many studies have been conducted on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and COVID-19. The aim of this study was to perform a bibliometric and visual analysis of the published relationship between CVDs and COVID-19. Methods: 1,890 publications were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection database on January 5, 2022. Microsoft Office Excel and CiteSpace were then used to carry out scientometric analysis on the relevant literature according to seven aspects: document type, countries/regions, institutions, authors, journals, references, and keywords. Results: The research on CVDs and COVID-19 is currently in a period of rapid development, with China, USA, England, and Italy leading the field. There is active cooperation between most countries and institutions. Harvard Medical School stands out among the many institutions not only for the largest number of publications, but also for their high quality. Banerjee A, Solomon SD and Narula J are three representative authors in this field. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine was the journal with the highest number of published studies, and The Lancet was the most cited journal. Two documents with a high degree of significance in this field were identified. Popular research topics in this field are specific diseases, such as acute coronary syndrome and heart failure; pathogenesis related to ACE2, insulin resistance and pericyte; the specific therapeutic drug chloroquine; and clinical characteristics, physical activity, and mental health. ACE2 and NF-κB will be the focus of future research. Conclusions: This study provides useful information for the research of CVDs and COVID-19, including potential collaborators, popular research topics, and a reference for more extensive and in-depth research in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Bibliometrics
16.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2157239

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global pandemic, caused by a novel coronavirus strain with strong infectivity, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). With the in-depth research, the close relationship between COVID-19 and immune system has been dug out. During the infection, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, CD8+ T cells, Th1, Th17, Tfh cells and effector B cells are all involved in the anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses, however, the dysfunctional immune responses will ultimately lead to the excessive inflammation, acute lung injury, even other organ failure. Thus, a detailed understanding of pertinent immune response during COVID-19 will provide insights in predicting disease outcomes and developing appropriate therapeutic approaches. In this review, we mainly clarify the role of immune cells in COVID-19 and the target-vaccine development and treatment.

17.
Technol Health Care ; 30(6): 1299-1314, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a deadly viral infection spreading rapidly around the world since its outbreak in 2019. In the worst case a patient's organ may fail leading to death. Therefore, early diagnosis is crucial to provide patients with adequate and effective treatment. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to build machine learning prediction models to automatically diagnose COVID-19 severity with clinical and computed tomography (CT) radiomics features. METHOD: P-V-Net was used to segment the lung parenchyma and then radiomics was used to extract CT radiomics features from the segmented lung parenchyma regions. Over-sampling, under-sampling, and a combination of over- and under-sampling methods were used to solve the data imbalance problem. RandomForest was used to screen out the optimal number of features. Eight different machine learning classification algorithms were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The experimental results showed that the COVID-19 mild-severe prediction model trained with clinical and CT radiomics features had the best prediction results. The accuracy of the GBDT classifier was 0.931, the ROUAUC 0.942, and the AUCPRC 0.694, which indicated it was better than other classifiers. CONCLUSION: This study can help clinicians identify patients at risk of severe COVID-19 deterioration early on and provide some treatment for these patients as soon as possible. It can also assist physicians in prognostic efficacy assessment and decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Machine Learning , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Algorithms , Retrospective Studies
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 900556, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141916

ABSTRACT

Up to now, there has been insufficient clinical data to support the safety and effects of vaccination on pregnancy post COVID-19 vaccination. The γδ-T cells are considered an important component in the immune system to fight against viral infection and exhibit critical roles throughout the pregnancy period. However, the immunological roles of γδ-T cells in pregnant women with the COVID-19 vaccination remain unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the alteration of frequency and expression pattern of activation receptors and inhibitory receptors in γδ-T cell and its subsets in peripheral blood samples collected from non-pregnant vaccinated women, vaccinated pregnant women, and unvaccinated pregnant women. Our findings indicated that the frequency of CD3+γδ-T+ cells is lower in vaccinated pregnant women than in unvaccinated pregnant women. But no significant difference was found in the frequency of CD3+γδ-T+ cells between non-pregnant vaccinated women and vaccinated pregnant women. In addition, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of CD3+γδ-T+Vδ1+T cells, CD3+γδ-T+Vδ2+T cells, CD3+γδ-T+Vδ1-Vδ2-T cells, and Vδ1+T cell/Vδ2+T cell ratio between the pregnant women with or without COVID-19 vaccination. Similar results were found after comparing non-pregnant and pregnant women who received the COVID-19 vaccine. However, there was a significant difference in the fraction of Vδ1-Vδ2-T cells in CD3+γδ-T+ cells between non-pregnant vaccinated women and vaccinated pregnant women. The frequency of NKG2D+ cells in Vδ2+T cells was not significantly different in the vaccinated pregnant women when compared to that in unvaccinated pregnant women or non-pregnant vaccinated women. But the percentage of NKG2D+ cells in Vδ1+T cells was the lowest in pregnant women after COVID-19 vaccination. Furthermore, down-regulation of NKP46 and NKP30 were found in Vδ2+T and Vδ1+T cells in the vaccinated pregnant women, respectively. After the vaccination, up-regulation of PD-1 expression in Vδ1+T cells and Vδ2+T cells indicated γδ-T cells could respond to COVID-19 vaccination and display an exhausted phenotype following activation. In conclusion, COVID-19 vaccination influences subtypes of γδ-T cells during pregnancy, but the side effects might be limited. The phenotypical changes of Vδ1+T cells and Vδ2+T cells will be a promising predictor for evaluating the clinical outcome of the COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/metabolism , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , COVID-19 Vaccines , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e31052, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused great panic among the public, with many people suffering from adverse stress reactions. To control the spread of the pandemic, governments in many countries have imposed lockdown policies. In this unique pandemic context, people can obtain information about pandemic dynamics on the internet. However, searching for health-related information on the internet frequently increases the possibility of individuals being troubled by the information that they find, and consequently, experiencing symptoms of cyberchondria. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the relationships between people's perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and their depression, anxiety, and stress to explore the role of cyberchondria, which, in these relationship mechanisms, is closely related to using the internet. In addition, we also examined the moderating role of lockdown experiences. METHODS: In February 2020, a total of 486 participants were recruited through a web-based platform from areas in China with a large number of infections. We used questionnaires to measure participants' perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, to measure the severity of their cyberchondria, depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, and to assess their lockdown experiences. Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, common method bias, descriptive statistical analysis, and correlation analysis were performed, and moderated mediation models were examined. RESULTS: There was a positive association between perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and depression (ß=0.36, t=8.51, P<.001), anxiety (ß=0.41, t=9.84, P<.001), and stress (ß=0.46, t=11.45, P<.001), which were mediated by cyberchondria (ß=0.36, t=8.59, P<.001). The direct effects of perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety (ß=0.07, t=2.01, P=.045) and stress (ß=0.09, t=2.75, P=.006) and the indirect effects of cyberchondria on depression (ß=0.10, t=2.59, P=.009) and anxiety (ß=0.10, t=2.50, P=.01) were moderated by lockdown experience. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, the more serious individuals' symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. In addition, the associations were partially mediated by cyberchondria. Individuals with higher perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to develop cyberchondria, which aggravated individuals' depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Negative lockdown experiences exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Perception , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/standards , Social Media/standards , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology
20.
Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja ; : 1-21, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-2120955
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