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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 714387, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639203

ABSTRACT

This paper reports a complete case of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who presented with rapid deterioration of oxygenation during hospitalization despite escalating high-flow nasal cannulation to invasive mechanical ventilation. After inefficacy with lung-protective ventilation, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration, prone position, we administered extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a salvage respiratory support with ultra-protective ventilation for 47 days and finally discharged the patient home with a good quality of life with a Barthel Index Score of 100 after 76 days of hospitalization. The purpose of this paper is to provide a clinical reference for the management of ECMO and respiratory strategy of critical patients with COVID-19-related ARDS.

2.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610604

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by dysfunction of the alveolar epithelial membrane caused by acute inflammation and tissue injury. Qingwenzhike (QWZK) prescription has been demonstrated to be effective against respiratory viral infections in clinical practices, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. So far, the chemical compositions, protective effects on ALI, and possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms remain unknown. Methods: In this study, the compositions of QWZK were determined via the linear ion trap/electrostatic field orbital trap tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS). To test the protective effects of QWZK on ALI, an ALI model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats was used. The effects of QWZK on the LPS-induced ALI were evaluated by pathological changes and the number and classification of white blood cell (WBC) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). To investigate the possible underlying mechanisms, the contents of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-18 (IL-18), and immunoregulatory-related factors interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were detected by ELISA. Furthermore, the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), p-IKKα/β, IKKα, IKKβ, p-IκBα, IκBα, p-NF-κB, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), cleaved caspase-1, pro-caspase-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), and β-actin were tested by Western blot. Results: A total of 99 compounds were identified in QWZK, including 33 flavonoids, 23 phenolic acids, 3 alkaloids, 3 coumarins, 20 triterpenoids, 5 anthraquinones, and 12 others. ALI rats induced by LPS exhibited significant increase in neutrophile, significant decrease in lymphocyte, and evidently thicker alveolar wall than control animals. QWZK reversed the changes in WBC count and alveolar wall to normal level on the model of ALI induced by LPS. ELISA results revealed that QWZK significantly reduced the overexpression of proinflammatory factors IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-1β, IL-18, and IFN-γ induced by LPS. Western blot results demonstrated that QWZK significantly downregulated the overexpression of TLR4, p-IKKα/β, p-IκBα, p-NF-κB, NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1, and ASC induced by LPS, which suggested that QWZK inhibited TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway and NLRP3 inflammasomes. Conclusions: The chemical compositions of QWZK were first identified. It was demonstrated that QWZK showed protective effects on ALI induced by LPS. The possible underlying mechanisms of QWZK on ALI induced by LPS was via inhibiting TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. This work suggested that QWZK is a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatments of ALI and pulmonary inflammation.

3.
Frontiers in medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610581

ABSTRACT

This paper reports a complete case of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who presented with rapid deterioration of oxygenation during hospitalization despite escalating high-flow nasal cannulation to invasive mechanical ventilation. After inefficacy with lung-protective ventilation, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration, prone position, we administered extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a salvage respiratory support with ultra-protective ventilation for 47 days and finally discharged the patient home with a good quality of life with a Barthel Index Score of 100 after 76 days of hospitalization. The purpose of this paper is to provide a clinical reference for the management of ECMO and respiratory strategy of critical patients with COVID-19-related ARDS.

4.
Dev Cell ; 57(1): 112-145.e2, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587971

ABSTRACT

The human lung plays vital roles in respiration, host defense, and basic physiology. Recent technological advancements such as single-cell RNA sequencing and genetic lineage tracing have revealed novel cell types and enriched functional properties of existing cell types in lung. The time has come to take a new census. Initiated by members of the NHLBI-funded LungMAP Consortium and aided by experts in the lung biology community, we synthesized current data into a comprehensive and practical cellular census of the lung. Identities of cell types in the normal lung are captured in individual cell cards with delineation of function, markers, developmental lineages, heterogeneity, regenerative potential, disease links, and key experimental tools. This publication will serve as the starting point of a live, up-to-date guide for lung research at https://www.lungmap.net/cell-cards/. We hope that Lung CellCards will promote the community-wide effort to establish, maintain, and restore respiratory health.

5.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297085

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to observe the changes in spherical equivalent and ocular axial length 6 months after withdrawal of 1% atropine eye gel. Methods: Due to COVID-19, the follow-up of patients in our optometric clinic who were undergoing myopia control treatment with a dropwise 1% atropine “5+3” regimen was interrupted. No return visit was made after the 3 months of at-home treatment, and follow-ups resumed 6 months after treatment withdrawal. The contralateral eye was not treated over the 9-month period. A total of 16 patients aged 11.5 years (average) were enrolled from November 2019 to March 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The treated eyes formed a treatment group (16 eyes) and the contralateral eyes formed a control group (16 eyes). The changes in spherical equivalent, ocular axial length, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were compared between groups. Results: After 9 months, the changes in spherical equivalent were significantly less in the treatment group (0.00 ± 0.20 [D]) compared to the control group (-0.67 ± 0.25 [D]) (P<0.05). The ocular axial length changes were significantly less in the treatment group (0.00 ± 0.06 mm) compared to the control group (0.25 ± 0.11 mm) (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups for changes in IOP. Conclusions: Despite treatment withdrawal after 3 months, treatment with 1% atropine eye gel successfully controlled myopia progression in the 6 months after withdrawal, as evidence by no rebound increase in myopic spherical equivalent after the withdrawal.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7083, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555251

ABSTRACT

The availability of viral entry factors is a prerequisite for the cross-species transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Large-scale single-cell screening of animal cells could reveal the expression patterns of viral entry genes in different hosts. However, such exploration for SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. Here, we perform single-nucleus RNA sequencing for 11 non-model species, including pets (cat, dog, hamster, and lizard), livestock (goat and rabbit), poultry (duck and pigeon), and wildlife (pangolin, tiger, and deer), and investigated the co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Furthermore, cross-species analysis of the lung cell atlas of the studied mammals, reptiles, and birds reveals core developmental programs, critical connectomes, and conserved regulatory circuits among these evolutionarily distant species. Overall, our work provides a compendium of gene expression profiles for non-model animals, which could be employed to identify potential SARS-CoV-2 target cells and putative zoonotic reservoirs.

8.
Expert Rev Proteomics ; 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528086

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of the newly discovered human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has disrupted the normal life of almost every civilization worldwide. Studies have shown that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 can affect multiple human organs and physiological systems, but the respiratory system remains the primary location for viral infection. AREAS COVERED: We summarize how omics technologies are used in SARS-CoV-2 research and specifically review the current knowledge of COVID-19 from the aspect of human bronchial-pulmonary proteomics. Also, knowledge gaps in COVID-19 that can be fulfilled by proteomics are discussed. EXPERT OPINION: Overall, human bronchial-pulmonary proteomics plays an important role in revealing the dynamics, functions, tropism, and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2, which is crucial for COVID-19 biomarker and therapeutic target discoveries. To more fully understand the impact of COVID-19, research from various angles using multi-omics approaches should also be conducted on the lungs as well as other organs.

9.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 31(18):2872-2876, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1519178

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current status of prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic and health status of elderly care institutions in Jiangsu Province so as to provide basis for better implementing the state's work deployment on the COVID-19 epidemic and improving the health status and disinfection quality of elderly care institutions. METHODS: From Oct 2020 to Dec 2020, a survey was conducted for the elderly care institutions in Jiangsu Province by using self-designed survey plans and questionnaires, the results of the survey were collected and summarized by "Questionnaire Star" platform, and statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 23.0 software. RESULTS: The proportions of provision of anti-epidemic materials, indoor ventilation, environmental cleaning and disinfection, and staff's wearing masks were relatively high in 93 elderly care institutions, there was significant difference in the provision rate of hand-washing disinfectants between the medical treatment integrated care institutions and the non-medical treatment integrated care institutions (P < 0.05), there were no significant differences in other survey items.In terms of health monitoring, 719 samples were collected from environmental object surfaces for test of new coronavirus nucleic acid, and all of the results were negative;the average qualified rate of 1750 samples that were collected from air, object surfaces, tableware and staff' hands was 75.09%, the qualified rate of the tableware was the lowest, and there was significant difference in the qualified rate between the health care doctors' hands and the cleaning staff's hands (P < 0.05). There was significant difference in the qualified rate of air between the medical treatment integrated care institutions and the non-medical treatment integrated care institutions (P < 0.05), while there were no significant differences in the qualified rates of object surfaces, tableware and working staff' hands. CONCLUSION: In accordance with the requirements of the "Notice on Printing and Distributing the Technical Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of New Coronary Pneumonia Epidemic Prevention and Control in Key Units and Key Populations in Key Places", the implementation of state-issued notices needs to be strengthened in the elderly care institutions in Jiangsu Province and the environmental sanitation needs to be improved, it is suggested that the supervision and management of the environment should be strengthened in the elderly care institutions, and disinfection-related national standards and norms for elderly care institutions should be introduced as early as possible.

11.
Curr Drug Targets ; 22(16): 1832-1843, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511929

ABSTRACT

ACE2 has long been known as an injury protective protein, which can protect against a variety of organ damage such as the heart, liver, kidney, and lung. Especially in cardiovascular diseases, as a negative regulator of RAAS, ACE2 is an extremely important protective factor that mainly plays a role by converting Ang II to Ang-(1-7). Nevertheless, with the recent outbreak of COVID-19, it is exposed that another identity of ACE2 is the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, which previously serves as the entry receptor for SARS. With the in-depth clinical research, it is found that the severity and susceptibility of COVID-19 are related to cardiovascular diseases, and SARS-CoV-2 binding to ACE2 receptor is also potentially associated with heart injury symptoms. Therefore, in this article, we mainly summarize the relationship between ACE2, COVID-19, and cardiovascular diseases/heart injury.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Injuries , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Heart Injuries/virology , Humans
12.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131615, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systematic evaluations of the cumulative effects and mortality displacement of ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution on deaths are lacking. We aimed to discern the cumulative effect profile of PM exposure, and investigate the presence of mortality displacement in a large-scale population. METHODS: We conducted a time-series analysis with different exposure-lag models on 13 cities in Jiangsu, China, to estimate the effects of PM pollution on non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality (2015-2019). Over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive models were integrated with distributed lag models to estimate cumulative exposure effects, and assess mortality displacement. RESULTS: Pooled cumulative effect estimates with lags of 0-7 and 0-14 days were substantially larger than those with single-day and 2-day moving average lags. For each 10 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5 concentration with a cumulative lag of 0-7 days, we estimated an increase of 0.50 % (95 % CI: 0.29, 0.72), 0.63 % (95 % CI: 0.38, 0.88), and 0.50 % (95 % CI: 0.01, 1.01) in pooled estimates of non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. Both PM10 and PM2.5 were associated with significant increases in non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality with a cumulative lag of 0-14 days. We observed mortality displacement within 30 days for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that risk assessment based on single-day or 2-day moving average lag structures may underestimate the adverse effects of PM pollution. The cumulative effects of PM exposure on non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality can last up to 14 days. Evidence of mortality displacement for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths was found.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Cardiovascular Diseases , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mortality , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 659793, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497084

ABSTRACT

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) might benefit critically ill COVID-19 patients. But the considerations besides indications guiding ECMO initiation under extreme pressure during the COVID-19 epidemic was not clear. We aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics and in-hospital mortality of severe critically ill COVID-19 patients supported with ECMO and without ECMO, exploring potential parameters for guiding the initiation during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: Observational cohort study of all the critically ill patients indicated for ECMO support from January 1 to May 1, 2020, in all 62 authorized hospitals in Wuhan, China. Results: Among the 168 patients enrolled, 74 patients actually received ECMO support and 94 not were analyzed. The in-hospital mortality of the ECMO supported patients was significantly lower than non-ECMO ones (71.6 vs. 85.1%, P = 0.033), but the role of ECMO was affected by patients' age (Logistic regression OR 0.62, P = 0.24). As for the ECMO patients, the median age was 58 (47-66) years old and 62.2% (46/74) were male. The 28-day, 60-day, and 90-day mortality of these ECMO supported patients were 32.4, 68.9, and 74.3% respectively. Patients survived to discharge were younger (49 vs. 62 years, P = 0.042), demonstrated higher lymphocyte count (886 vs. 638 cells/uL, P = 0.022), and better CO2 removal (PaCO2 immediately after ECMO initiation 39.7 vs. 46.9 mmHg, P = 0.041). Age was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality of the ECMO supported patients, and a cutoff age of 51 years enabled prediction of in-hospital mortality with a sensitivity of 84.3% and specificity of 55%. The surviving ECMO supported patients had longer ICU and hospital stays (26 vs. 18 days, P = 0.018; 49 vs. 29 days, P = 0.001 respectively), and ECMO procedure was widely carried out after the supplement of medical resources after February 15 (67.6%, 50/74). Conclusions: ECMO might be a benefit for severe critically ill COVID-19 patients at the early stage of epidemic, although the in-hospital mortality was still high. To initiate ECMO therapy under tremendous pressure, patients' age, lymphocyte count, and adequacy of medical resources should be fully considered.

14.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1186: 339134, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446328

ABSTRACT

In recent years, single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) has become a powerful tool for biological quantitative analysis. Homogeneous analysis method requires no separation and washing steps, which is suited for the analysis of highly infectious pathogens, so as to reduce the risk of infection during the operation. SARS-CoV-2 spreads all over the world, and its early infection symptoms are similar to influenza, which brings inconvenience to triage. Therefore, developing novel analytical method for simultaneous detection of multiple viral nucleic acids is essential. Taking the advantages of SP-ICP-MS and homogeneous analysis strategy, a SP-ICP-MS homogeneous nucleic acid assay by using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) probes was established for simultaneous sensitive analysis of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A (H3N2). In the present of target SARS-CoV-2 or H3N2 nucleic acids, corresponding Au NPs or Ag NPs probes form larger aggregates, resulting in increased pulse signal intensity and reduced pulse signal frequency of the corresponding NPs in SP-ICP-MS measurement. In this assay, the reaction system of Au NPs and Ag NPs probes does not interfere with each other, and there was no separation and washing procedure, which facilitates operation, saves the analysis time, and improves the analysis efficiency. The linear range of this method is 5-1000 pmol L-1, with low-level limits of quantification of target nucleic acid. The developed SP-ICP-MS simultaneous homogeneous detection method has a good potential for detecting nucleic acid, protein, cell and other biological samples by changing different modification sequences on the NPs probes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Metal Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids , Gold , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Mass Spectrometry , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 681516, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399136

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out and then became a global epidemic at the end of 2019. With the increasing number of deaths, early identification of disease severity and interpretation of pathogenesis are very important. Aiming to identify biomarkers for disease severity and progression of COVID-19, 75 COVID-19 patients, 34 healthy controls and 23 patients with pandemic influenza A(H1N1) were recruited in this study. Using liquid chip technology, 48 cytokines and chemokines were examined, among which 33 were significantly elevated in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls. HGF and IL-1ß were strongly associated with APACHE II score in the first week after disease onset. IP-10, HGF and IL-10 were correlated positively with virus titers. Cytokines were significantly correlated with creatinine, troponin I, international normalized ratio and procalcitonin within two weeks after disease onset. Univariate analyses were carried out, and 6 cytokines including G-CSF, HGF, IL-10, IL-18, M-CSF and SCGF-ß were found to be associated with the severity of COVID-19. 11 kinds of cytokines could predict the severity of COVID-19, among which IP-10 and M-CSF were excellent predictors for disease severity. In conclusion, the levels of cytokines in COVID-19 were significantly correlated with the severity of the disease in the early stage, and serum cytokines could be used as warning indicators of the severity and progression of COVID-19. Early stratification of disease and intervention to reduce hypercytokinaemia may improve the prognosis of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Transcriptome/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Chemokines/blood , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged
16.
J Aerosol Sci ; 152: 105693, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392358

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought an unprecedented crisis to the global health sector. When discharging COVID-19 patients in accordance with throat or nasal swab protocols using RT-PCR, the potential risk of reintroducing the infection source to humans and the environment must be resolved. Here, 14 patients including 10 COVID-19 subjects were recruited; exhaled breath condensate (EBC), air samples and surface swabs were collected and analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in four hospitals with applied natural ventilation and disinfection practices in Wuhan. Here we discovered that 22.2% of COVID-19 patients (n = 9), who were ready for hospital discharge based on current guidelines, had SARS-CoV-2 in their exhaled breath (~105 RNA copies/m3). Although fewer surface swabs (3.1%, n = 318) tested positive, medical equipment such as face shield frequently contacted/used by healthcare workers and the work shift floor were contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 (3-8 viruses/cm2). Three of the air samples (n = 44) including those collected using a robot-assisted sampler were detected positive by a digital PCR with a concentration level of 9-219 viruses/m3. RT-PCR diagnosis using throat swab specimens had a failure rate of more than 22% in safely discharging COVID-19 patients who were otherwise still exhaling the SARS-CoV-2 by a rate of estimated ~1400 RNA copies per minute into the air. Direct surface contact might not represent a major transmission route, and lower positive rate of air sample (6.8%) was likely due to natural ventilation (1.6-3.3 m/s) and regular disinfection practices. While there is a critical need for strengthening hospital discharge standards in preventing re-emergence of COVID-19 spread, use of breath sample as a supplement specimen could further guard the hospital discharge to ensure the safety of the public and minimize the pandemic re-emergence risk.

17.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e31052, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused great panic among the public, with many people suffering from adverse stress reactions. To control the spread of the pandemic, governments in many countries have imposed lockdown policies. In this unique pandemic context, people can obtain information about pandemic dynamics on the internet. However, searching for health-related information on the internet frequently increases the possibility of individuals being troubled by the information that they find, and consequently, experiencing symptoms of cyberchondria. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the relationships between people's perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and their depression, anxiety, and stress to explore the role of cyberchondria, which, in these relationship mechanisms, is closely related to using the internet. In addition, we also examined the moderating role of lockdown experiences. METHODS: In February 2020, a total of 486 participants were recruited through a web-based platform from areas in China with a large number of infections. We used questionnaires to measure participants' perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, to measure the severity of their cyberchondria, depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, and to assess their lockdown experiences. Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, common method bias, descriptive statistical analysis, and correlation analysis were performed, and moderated mediation models were examined. RESULTS: There was a positive association between perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and depression (ß=0.36, t=8.51, P<.001), anxiety (ß=0.41, t=9.84, P<.001), and stress (ß=0.46, t=11.45, P<.001), which were mediated by cyberchondria (ß=0.36, t=8.59, P<.001). The direct effects of perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety (ß=0.07, t=2.01, P=.045) and stress (ß=0.09, t=2.75, P=.006) and the indirect effects of cyberchondria on depression (ß=0.10, t=2.59, P=.009) and anxiety (ß=0.10, t=2.50, P=.01) were moderated by lockdown experience. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, the more serious individuals' symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. In addition, the associations were partially mediated by cyberchondria. Individuals with higher perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to develop cyberchondria, which aggravated individuals' depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Negative lockdown experiences exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Perception , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/standards , Social Media/standards , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology
18.
Cell Res ; 31(1): 25-36, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387275

ABSTRACT

Structural principles underlying the composition and synergistic mechanisms of protective monoclonal antibody cocktails are poorly defined. Here, we exploited antibody cooperativity to develop a therapeutic antibody cocktail against SARS-CoV-2. On the basis of our previously identified humanized cross-neutralizing antibody H014, we systematically analyzed a fully human naive antibody library and rationally identified a potent neutralizing antibody partner, P17, which confers effective protection in animal model. Cryo-EM studies dissected the nature of the P17 epitope, which is SARS-CoV-2 specific and distinctly different from that of H014. High-resolution structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike in complex with H014 and P17, together with functional investigations revealed that in a two-antibody cocktail, synergistic neutralization was achieved by S1 shielding and conformational locking, thereby blocking receptor attachment and viral membrane fusion, conferring high potency as well as robustness against viral mutation escape. Furthermore, cluster analysis identified a hypothetical 3rd antibody partner for further reinforcing the cocktail as pan-SARS-CoVs therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Chain Antibodies/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Single-Chain Antibodies/pharmacology , Vero Cells
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 305: 114180, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused widespread panic due to its highly infectious and pandemic transmission. We aimed to evaluate the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on infected subjects in China. METHODS: This case-control, survey-based study assessed the psychological status of COVID-19 patients and non-infected controls from February 10 to March 18, 2020, in China. Sex, age, education years, marital status, jobs, annual household income, living status, and geographic origin were matched between the two groups. The main outcome measures included anxiety, depression, insomnia, help-seeking behaviors, and treatment for mental problems. RESULTS: A total of 326 patients and 1304 (1:4 ratio) matched non-infected controls were enrolled. Compared with controls, patients had higher scores on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) (all p<0.01). Patients had higher rate of any mental problems (62.6% vs 42.5%, p<0.01), anxiety (27.3% vs 12.2%, p<0.01), depression (26.7% vs 14.6%, p<0.01), suicidal ideation (16.0% vs 10.7%, p<0.01), and insomnia (57.7% vs 36.7%, p<0.01). Among the subjects with mental problems, the proportion of seeking help (15.2% vs 6.9%, p<0.01) and receiving treatment (11.3% vs 4.3%, p<0.01) was higher in patients than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a higher prevalence of mental problems in COVID-19 patients compared to controls, suggesting a great psychological impact of COVID-19 infection. Our findings highlighted the urgent need for psychological assistance for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Remote Sensing ; 13(15):2961-2961, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1350327

ABSTRACT

Cloud cover hinders the effective use of vegetation indices from optical satellite-acquired imagery in cloudy agricultural production areas, such as Guangdong, a subtropical province in southern China which supports two-season rice production. The number of cloud-free observations for the earth-orbiting optical satellite sensors must be determined to verify how much their observations are affected by clouds. This study determines the quantified wide-ranging impact of clouds on optical satellite observations by mapping the annual total observations (ATOs), annual cloud-free observations (ACFOs), monthly cloud-free observations (MCFOs) maps, and acquisition probability (AP) of ACFOs for the Sentinel 2 (2017–2019) and Landsat 8 (2014–2019) for all the paddy rice fields in Guangdong province (APRFG), China. The ATOs of Landsat 8 showed relatively stable observations compared to the Sentinel 2, and the per-field ACFOs of Sentinel 2 and Landsat 8 were unevenly distributed. The MCFOs varied on a monthly basis, but in general, the MCFOs were greater between August and December than between January and July. Additionally, the AP of usable ACFOs with 52.1% (Landsat 8) and 47.7% (Sentinel 2) indicated that these two satellite sensors provided markedly restricted observation capability for rice in the study area. Our findings are particularly important and useful in the tropics and subtropics, and the analysis has described cloud cover frequency and pervasiveness throughout different portions of the rice growing season, providing insight into how rice monitoring activities by using Sentinel 2 and Landsat 8 imagery in Guangdong would be impacted by cloud cover. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Remote Sensing is the property of MDPI and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

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