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1.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 251, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may be more susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and even more likely to suffer from severe COVID-19. Whether there is a common molecular pathological basis for COVID-19 and NAFLD remains to be identified. The present study aimed to elucidate the transcriptional alterations shared by COVID-19 and NAFLD and to identify potential compounds targeting both diseases. METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for COVID-19 and NAFLD were extracted from the GSE147507 and GSE89632 datasets, and common DEGs were identified using the Venn diagram. Subsequently, we constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network based on the common DEGs and extracted hub genes. Then, we performed gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis of common DEGs. In addition, transcription factors (TFs) and miRNAs regulatory networks were constructed, and drug candidates were identified. RESULTS: We identified a total of 62 common DEGs for COVID-19 and NAFLD. The 10 hub genes extracted based on the PPI network were IL6, IL1B, PTGS2, JUN, FOS, ATF3, SOCS3, CSF3, NFKB2, and HBEGF. In addition, we also constructed TFs-DEGs, miRNAs-DEGs, and protein-drug interaction networks, demonstrating the complex regulatory relationships of common DEGs. CONCLUSION: We successfully extracted 10 hub genes that could be used as novel therapeutic targets for COVID-19 and NAFLD. In addition, based on common DEGs, we propose some potential drugs that may benefit patients with COVID-19 and NAFLD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Gene Regulatory Networks , Systems Biology , Gene Expression Profiling , Computational Biology , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics
2.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 5993839, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053419

ABSTRACT

This study's aim is to effectively establish a psychological intervention and treatment system for college students and discover and correct their psychological problems encountered in a timely manner. From the perspectives of pedagogy and psychology, the college students majoring in physical education are selected as the research objects, and an interactive college student emotion recognition and psychological intervention system is established based on convolutional neural network (CNN). The system takes face recognition as the data source, adopts feature recognition algorithms to effectively classify the different students, and designs a psychological intervention platform based on interactive technology, and it is compared with existing systems and models to further verify its effectiveness. The results show that the deep learning CNN has better ability to recognize student emotions than backpropagation neural network (BPNN) and decision tree (DT) algorithm. The recognition accuracy (ACC) can be as high as 89.32%. Support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is adopted to classify the emotions, and the recognition ACC is increased by 20%. When the system's K value is 5 and d value is 8, the ACC of the model can reach 92.35%. The use of this system for psychotherapy has a significant effect, and 45% of the students are very satisfied with the human-computer interaction of the system. This study aims to guess the psychology of students through emotion recognition and reduce human participation based on the human-computer interaction, which can provide a new research idea for college psychotherapy. At present, the mental health problems of college students cannot be ignored; especially every year, there will be news reports of college students' extreme behaviors due to depression and other psychological problems. An interactive college student emotion recognition and psychological intervention system based on convolutional neural network (CNN) is established. This system uses face recognition as the basic support technology and uses feature recognition algorithms to effectively classify different students. An interaction technology-based psychological intervention platform is designed and compared with existing systems and models to further verify the effectiveness of the proposed system. The results show that deep learning has better student emotion recognition ability than backpropagation neural network (BPNN) and decision tree algorithm. The recognition accuracy is up to 89.32%. Support vector machine algorithm is employed to classify emotions, and the recognition acceptability rate increases by 20%. When K is 5 and d is 8, the acceptability rate of the model can reach 92.35%. The effect of this system in psychotherapy is remarkable, and 45% of students are very satisfied with the human-computer interaction of this system. This work aims to speculate students' psychology through emotion recognition, reduce people's participation via human-computer interaction, and provide a new research idea for university psychotherapy.


Subject(s)
Emotions , Neural Networks, Computer , Humans , Psychotherapy , Students , Technology
3.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(9): e1016, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine an appropriate dose of, and immunization schedule for, a vaccine SCoK against COVID-19 for an efficacy study; herein, we conducted randomized controlled trials to assess the immunogenicity and safety of this vaccine in adults. METHODS: These randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 and 2 trials of vaccine SCoK were conducted in Binhai District, Yan City, Jiangsu Province, China. Younger and older adult participants in phase 1 and 2 trials were sequentially recruited into different groups to be intramuscularly administered 20 or 40 µg vaccine SCoK or placebo. Participants were enrolled into our phase 1 and 2 studies to receive vaccine or placebo. RESULTS: No serious vaccine-related adverse events were observed in either trial. In both trials, local and systemic adverse reactions were absent or mild in most participants. In our phase 1 and 2 studies, the vaccine induced significantly increased neutralizing antibody responses to pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2. The vaccine induced significant neutralizing antibody responses to live SARS-CoV-2 on day 14 after the last immunization, with NT50s of 80.45 and 92.46 in participants receiving 20 and 40 µg doses, respectively; the seroconversion rates were 95.83% and 100%. The vaccine SCoK showed a similar safety and immunogenicity profiles in both younger participants and older participants. The vaccine showed better immunogenicity in phase 2 than in phase 1 clinical trial. Additionally, the incidence of adverse reactions decreased significantly in phase 2 clinical trial. The vaccine SCoK was well tolerated and immunogenic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 916160, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009904

ABSTRACT

Background: The global effort to develop herd immunity in the general public against the COVID-19 pandemic is currently ongoing. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies on how the COVID-19 vaccine affects mental health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. The present study investigated the psychological effects and associated factors among vaccinated and unvaccinated general populations against COVID-19 infection in Bangladesh. Methods: A nationwide online cross-sectional survey was conducted in Bangladesh from June 23 to December 25, 2021. The frequency of symptoms of psychological distress, depression, anxiety, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), insomnia, and fear was assessed using the Bangla versions of the GHQ-12, PHQ-2, GAD-2, PSS-4, PC-PTSD-5, ISI, and FCV-19S scales, respectively. Results: The study included 3,013 persons from all eight divisions of Bangladesh, with 1,272 (42.2%) being vaccinated and 1,741 (57.8%) being unvaccinated. Compared with unvaccinated populations, vaccinated populations had significantly lower prevalence rates of psychological distress (36.4 vs. 51.5%), depression (21.1 vs. 37.9%), anxiety (25.1 vs. 44.9%), stress (19.4 vs. 30.4%), PTSD (29.4 vs. 38.3%), insomnia (18.7 vs. 39.4%), and fear symptoms (16.1 vs. 27.5%). Among vaccinated populations, respondents who lived in nuclear families were significantly associated with higher risk of psychological distress (AOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78), depression (AOR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.11-1.98), anxiety (AOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.21-1.98), and fear (AOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.11-1.83) symptoms. Participants who lost family members, friends, or colleagues due to the COVID-19 pandemic had significantly higher risk of symptoms of psychological distress (AOR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.02-1.79), anxiety (AOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.11-1.87), and PTSD (AOR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.24-2.19). On the other hand, unvaccinated populations who lived in the Dhaka division were significantly associated with an increased risk of depression (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.40-2.52), anxiety (AOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.15-2.47), stress (AOR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.12-2.88), and insomnia (AOR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.20-2.94) symptoms. Except for PTSD and fear symptoms, unemployed participants had considerably higher rates of psychological distress, depression, anxiety, stress, and insomnia symptoms (e.g., psychological distress: AOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.10-2.62; depression: AOR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.37-2.19). Conclusions: This study recommends immunizing unvaccinated populations as soon as possible to prevent infection and boost mental health. Vulnerable people needed special care, health-related education, and psychological assistance.

5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 936976, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993782

ABSTRACT

Objective: Large body of studies described individuals with obesity experiencing a worse prognosis in COVID-19. However, the effects of obesity on the prognosis of COVID-19 in patients without comorbidities have not been studied. Therefore, the current study aimed to provide evidence of the relationship between obesity and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients without comorbidities. Methods: A total of 116 hospitalized COVID-19 patients without comorbidities from the ORCHID study (Patients with COVID-19 from the Outcomes Related to COVID-19 Treated with Hydroxychloroquine among Inpatients with Symptomatic Disease) were included. Obesity is defined as a BMI of ≥30 kg/m2. A Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for discharge and death after 28 days. Results: The percentage of obesity in COVID-19 patients without comorbidities was 54.3% (63/116). Discharge at 28 days occurred in 56/63 (84.2%) obese and 51/53 (92.2%) non-obese COVID-19 patients without comorbidities. Four (3.4%) COVID-19 patients without any comorbidities died within 28 days, among whom 2/63 (3.2%) were obese and 2/53 (3.8%) were non-obese. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that obesity was independently associated with a decreased rate of 28-day discharge (adjusted HR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83) but was not significantly associated with 28-day death (adjusted HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.18-7.06) in COVID-19 patients without any comorbidities. Conclusions: Obesity was independently linked to prolonged hospital length of stay in COVID-19 without any comorbidity. Larger prospective trials are required to assess the role of obesity in COVID-19 related deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies
6.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989269

ABSTRACT

Background Vaccination of teachers is recommended during the COVID-19 pandemic to reduce the risk of infection for themselves and their students, as well as to encourage their parents to get immunized. The present study investigated the mental health outcomes and associated factors among vaccinated and unvaccinated teachers against COVID-19 infection in Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Bangladesh from March 4 to September 9, 2021. The frequency of symptoms of psychological distress, depression, anxiety, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), insomnia, and fear was assessed using the Bangla versions of the GHQ-12, PHQ-2, GAD-2, PSS-4, PC-PTSD-5, ISI, and FCV-19S scales, respectively. Results A total of 1,527 Bangladeshi teachers completed the questionnaire, with 678 (44.4%) being vaccinated and 849 (55.6%) being unvaccinated. Compared with unvaccinated teachers, vaccinated teachers had a statistically significant lower prevalence of psychological distress (35.8 vs. 42.9%), depression (37.6 vs. 46.4%), anxiety (31.9 vs. 45.1%), stress (18.3 vs. 32.0%), PTSD (33.0 vs. 43.8%), insomnia (25.2 vs. 36.9%), and fear symptoms (23.3 vs. 29.6%). Among vaccinated teachers, participants with master’s or lower degree levels had significantly higher symptoms of depression, stress, and fear than other education levels. Respondents with children had a significantly higher risk of depression, anxiety, stress, and fear symptoms than those who did not have children. Participants who lost family members, friends, or colleagues due to the COVID-19 pandemic had a significantly higher chance of experiencing symptoms of anxiety, PTSD, and fear than those who did not. On the other hand, unvaccinated male teachers were significantly associated with a higher risk of all mental health outcomes except psychological distress and PTSD symptoms compared to female teachers. Participants who were smokers had a significantly higher chance of anxiety, stress, and fear symptoms than non-smokers. Compared to participants with strong social support, those with poor social support had a higher risk of all mental health outcomes except PTSD symptoms. Conclusion This study suggests emphasizing the vaccinated to unvaccinated teachers as soon as possible to control the infection and improve mental health outcomes. Vulnerable teachers also required special attention, health-related education, and psychological support.

7.
Imeta ; : e42, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976732

ABSTRACT

In China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used for coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention, treatment, and recovery and has played a part in the battle against the disease. A variety of TCM treatments have been recommended for different stages of COVID-19. But, to the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive database for storing and organizing anti-COVID TCM treatments is still lacking. Herein, we developed TCM2COVID, a manually curated resource of anti-COVID TCM formulas, natural products (NPs), and herbs. The current version of TCM2COVID (1) documents over 280 TCM formulas (including over 300 herbs) with detailed clinical evidence and therapeutic mechanism information; (2) records over 80 NPs with detailed potential therapeutic mechanisms; and (3) launches a useful web server for querying, analyzing and visualizing documented formulas similar to those supplied by the user (formula similarity analysis). In summary, TCM2COVD provides a user-friendly and practical platform for documenting, querying, and browsing anti-COVID TCM treatments, and will help in the development and elucidation of the mechanisms of action of new anti-COVID TCM therapies to support the fight against the COVID-19 epidemic. TCM2COVID is freely available at http://zhangy-lab.cn/tcm2covid/.

8.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 15: 1731-1740, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951821

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study explored the relationship between emotion and death-thought accessibility (DTA) in individuals experiencing true mortality salience (MS), specifically, patients with cancer. Patients and Methods: The study included 255 participants; among them, 132 patients had cancer and represented the MS group, and 123 had dental pain and served as a control group. Participants completed the Projective Diseases Attitude Assessment Questionnaire to induce priming, completed an affect scale, completed one of four calculation tasks as manipulation of cognitive load (all four were done over several sessions), and performed a Pinyin-Chinese characters exercise to measure DTA. Results: MS was associated with strong negative emotional arousal. When these negative emotions are generated, they enter an individual's consciousness and activate proximal defense mechanisms. At this point, DTA can be measured. Patients with cancer had significantly higher levels of DTA in the high-frequency cognitive load condition than in the other three conditions (no task, simple delay task, and single cognitive load task). Patients with dental pain had significantly higher levels of DTA in the no task and simple delay conditions than in the single cognitive load or high-frequency cognitive load conditions. This study also found that negative experiences without MS (specifically, dental pain) are associated with higher levels of DTA. Conclusion: These findings suggest that in addition to death-related events, both negative and stress-inducing events can produce DTA.

9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 844139, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952785

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown considerably affects people's life in China, both physically and mentally. Staffs of the epidemic prevention and control in the community have played an irreplaceable role during community lockdown period in Wuhan. However, few studies have focused on their health status during epidemic prevention. This study aimed to appraise the available evidence of health conditions of them and explore the influencing factors. Method: Used a multistage sampling method, we conducted a survey in staffs of the epidemic prevention and control in the community (N = 503). Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the respondents. T-test and analysis of variance were for group differences analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to verify the scale validity, correlation analysis and pathway analysis and Structural equation model (SEM) was used to study the relationship between stress perception, social support, mental resilience and sleep quality. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 26.0, R version 4.1.3 and Mplus 8.3. Results: The mean Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) score of the respondents was 13.28 ± 7.31 and 51.1% had higher PSS score than the normal. In the absence of social support, people's sleeping quality and psychological resilience may decrease, their perceived stress may elevate and compromise mental health correspondingly. Social support could affect perceived stress directly, while Sleep quality and psychology resilience played significant partial mediating roles in social support affecting perceived stress. The mediating effects accounted for 50.8% of the total. Conclusion: Staffs of the epidemic prevention and control in the community suffered from poor sleep quality and high level of stress perception. Establishment of good social support may effectively reduce their stress and this effect is mediated by sleep quality and psychological resilience. Physical health status would affect the staffs' mental health and they more attention should be paid to those with poor physical health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/psychology
11.
Northwest Pharmaceutical Journal ; 37(2):44-50, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1897812

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the network regulation mechanism of Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid(HXZQ) in the treatment of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19).

12.
Chinese Journal of Zoonoses ; 37(12):1102-1107, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1818312

ABSTRACT

Comparing the accuracy of antibody detection reagents which based on different principles by the diagnosis of suspected cases of new crown, propose an efficient screening plan for suspected cases, and further provide a scientific basis for establishing a clinical screening path for high-risk populations. For 76 suspected cases of COVID-19 that were transferred to designated hospitals for isolation and observation due to the initial IgM antibody test, nasopharyngeal swab nucleic acid tests, serum trace virus neutralizing antibodies and three commercially available antibody test reagents with different principles were tested, combined with lung CT and the examination and clinical symptoms or other information, comprehensively judge the diagnosis or exclusion of the new crown, and compare the three kinds of serological antibody detection reagents with the clinical judgment results to compare the detection rates of the three detection methods. Through comprehensive judgment, 3 suspected cases are confirmed cases, and 73 suspected cases are excluded cases. Compared with the clinical diagnosis/exclusion results, among the three serological antibody detection methods, the chemiluminescence total antibody kit detect positive for all the 9 serums collected from the 3 confirmed cases in different time points, the detection specificity is 97.26% for 73 excluded cases, it's significantly higher than that of the chemiluminescence method IgM/IgG and the colloidal gold method IgM/IgG Separate testing (the specificity is 73.97% on the first day of admission). The chemiluminescence method for the detection of total antibodies to the 2019-nCoV has high sensitivity and high specificity, and can be used for preliminary screening of antibody detection in suspected cases. For the screening of target populations, the 2019-nCoV nucleic acid test should be performed first. If the nucleic acid test is negative, the screening path with the detection of serum total antibodies as the main indicator should be adopted.

13.
Foreign Language Annals ; 55(1):72-97, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1788854

ABSTRACT

The study reports pedagogical adaptations that Chinese language instructors made to support students' character learning during emergency remote teaching in 2020. Data from an online questionnaire and follow-up interviews show that the handwriting requirement in the language curriculum was ified to way to technology-based instruction, making the conventionally isolated and solitary task of character learning more integrative and interactive. Beginning-level instructors' use of technology in character instruction was correlated with their self-confidence, perceived time sufficiency, technology access, and support received. Meanwhile, intermediate- and upper-level instructors' self-confidence and perceived values of online teaching were factors associated with their technology use. The crucial role of teacher communities in offering language-specific training and peer support is emphasized, and implications to the broader field of foreign language teaching are discussed.

14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 852922, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785365

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) is recommended during the COVID-19 pandemic to reduce the risk of infection for themselves and their patients, as well as to encourage their patients to get immunized. The present study aimed to investigate the psychological outcomes and associated factors among vaccinated and unvaccinated HCWs against COVID-19 infection in Bangladesh. Methods: From March to August 2021, an online nationwide survey was conducted with a total of 2,038 Bangladeshi HCWs. The frequency of symptoms of general health problems, depression, anxiety, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, insomnia, and loneliness was assessed using the Bangla versions of the GHQ-12, PHQ-2, GAD-2, PSS-4, PC-PTSD-5, ISI, and UCLA-LS scales, respectively. Results: Compared with unvaccinated HCWs (n = 1,058), vaccinated HCWs (n = 980) had a statistically significant lower prevalence of general health problems (16.7 vs. 59.1%), depression (15.6 vs. 31.9%), post-traumatic stress disorder (22.3 vs. 30.8%), insomnia (23.8 vs. 64.9%), and loneliness symptoms (13.9 vs. 21.8%). Among vaccinated HCWs, females were significantly associated with a higher risk of symptoms of general health problems (AOR, 2.71; 95% CI, 0.97-7.60), anxiety (AOR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.14-4.13), and loneliness (AOR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.11-5.73). Except for anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, participants living in urban areas had a significantly lower risk of all psychological outcomes (e.g., depression: AOR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27-0.67; stress: AOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.47-0.88). Respondents who were married were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of general health problems (AOR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.02-0.39), depression (AOR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.22-0.82), insomnia (AOR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.20-1.03), and loneliness (AOR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.92). Participants who worked as doctors were significantly less chance of experiencing symptoms of general health problems (AOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.08-0.37), depression (AOR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.87), and anxiety (AOR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.37-0.78). On the other hand, unvaccinated HCWs who were 18-29 years old and had <5 years of work experience were significantly associated with a higher risk of all psychological outcomes except anxiety and insomnia symptoms (e.g., depression among 18-29 years old: AOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 0.27-2.60; stress among those with <5 years of work experience: AOR, 2.37; 95% CI, 0.93-6.07). Participants who worked as nurses were significantly more likely to suffer from depression (AOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.84-2.46), anxiety (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 0.24-1.73), and stress (AOR, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.89) symptoms. Except for anxiety and stress symptoms, respondents who worked as frontline workers and provided direct care to infected patients were the significantly higher chance of experiencing all psychological outcomes (e.g., depression among who worked as frontline workers: AOR, 2.41; 95% CI, 0.23-3.73; insomnia among those who provide direct care to infected patients: AOR, 2.60; 95% CI, 0.34-3.06). Participants who were infected with COVID-19 had a significantly less chance of experiencing symptoms of general health problems (AOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.65-1.22), depression (AOR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.48-0.92), and anxiety (AOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.46-0.87). Conclusions: To control the infection and improve psychological outcomes, this study suggests emphasizing the vaccinated to unvaccinated HCWs as soon as possible. They also required special attention, health-related education, and psychological support.

15.
Virol J ; 19(1): 67, 2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and four seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1) still circulate worldwide. The early clinical symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV infections are similar, so rapid and accurate identification of the subtypes of HCoVs is crucial for early diagnosis, early treatment, prevention and control of these infections. However, current multiplex molecular diagnostic techniques for HCoV subtypes including SARS-CoV-2 are limited. METHODS: We designed primers and probes specific for the S and N genes of SARS-CoV-2, the N gene of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and the ORF1ab gene of four seasonal HCoVs, as well as the human B2M gene product. We developed and optimized a quadruple quantitative real-time PCR assay (qq-PCR) for simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and four seasonal HCoVs. This assay was further tested for specificity and sensitivity, and validated using 184 clinical samples. RESULTS: The limit of detection of the qq-PCR assay was in the range 2.5 × 101 to 6.5 × 101 copies/µL for each gene and no cross-reactivity with other common respiratory viruses was observed. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 0.5-2%. The qq-PCR assay had a 91.9% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity for SARS-CoV-2 and a 95.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity for seasonal HCoVs, using the approved commercial kits as the reference. Compared to the commercial kits, total detection consistency was 98.4% (181/184) for SARS-CoV-2 and 98.6% (142/144) for seasonal HCoVs. CONCLUSION: With the advantages of sensitivity, specificity, rapid detection, cost-effectiveness, and convenience, this qq-PCR assay has potential for clinical use for rapid discrimination between SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and seasonal HCoVs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
J Immunol ; 208(8): 1857-1872, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776405

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are at increased risk of adverse outcomes, including preeclampsia and preterm birth, that may result from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Pregnancy imprints specific maternal immune responses that can modulate host susceptibility to microbial infection; therefore, recent studies have focused on the humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant women. However, the pregnancy-specific cellular immune responses triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection are poorly understood. In this study, we undertook an extensive in vitro investigation to determine the cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 particles and proteins/peptides in pregnant women. First, we show that SARS-CoV-2 particles do not alter the pregnancy-specific oxidative burst of neutrophils and monocytes. Yet, SARS-CoV-2 particles/proteins shift monocyte activation from the classical to intermediate states in pregnant, but not in nonpregnant, women. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 proteins, but not particles or peptide pools, mildly enhance T cell activation during pregnancy. As expected, B cell phenotypes are heavily modulated by SARS-CoV-2 particles in all women; yet, pregnancy itself further modified such responses in these adaptive immune cells. Lastly, we report that pregnancy itself governs cytokine responses in the maternal circulation, of which IFN-ß and IL-8 were diminished upon SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Collectively, these findings highlight the differential in vitro responses to SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant and nonpregnant women and shed light on the immune mechanisms implicated in coronavirus disease 2019 during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 741083, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775896

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the association between passive smoking and physical and psychological health in Chinese nurses. Participants of this cross-sectional study comprised 2,484 non-smoking nurses. Passive smoking and demographic information were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical, psychological, and overall health status of nurses were measured using the Cornell Medical Index (CMI) health questionnaire. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for nurses' health were estimated by exposure to passive smoking using unconditional logistic regression models. A total of 1,219 nurses (49.07%) were exposed to passive smoking. Of these, 609 (24.52%), 160 (6.44%), and 587 (23.63%) nurses had poorer physical, mental, and overall health, respectively. After adjusting for other confounding factors, compared with the non-passive smoking group, passive smoking was associated with poor physical (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.25-1.83), mental (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.07-2.07), and overall (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.30-1.93) health of nurses, respectively. We also carried out subgroup analyses stratified by age, department, and professional title, which showed that most findings supported the main results. This study demonstrated that exposure to passive smoking was a risk factor for overall decreased physical and mental health status among Chinese nurses.


Subject(s)
Health Status , Nurses , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 828691, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775698

ABSTRACT

Different countries have adopted various control measures for the COVID-19 pandemic in different periods, and as the virus continues to mutate, the progression of the pandemic and preventive measures adopted have varied dynamically over time. Thus, quantitative analysis of the dynamic impact of different factors such as vaccination, mutant virus, social isolation, etc., on transmission and predicting pandemic progress has become a difficult task. To overcome the challenges above and enable governments to formulate reasonable countermeasures against the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we integrate several mathematical methods and propose a new adaptive multifactorial and geographically diverse epidemiological model based on a modified version of the classical susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model. Based on public datasets, a multi-center study was carried out considering 21 regions. First, a retrospective study was conducted to predict the number of infections over the next 30 days in 13 representative pandemic areas worldwide with an accuracy of 87.53%, confirming the robustness of the proposed model. Second, the impact of three scenarios on COVID-19 was quantified based on the scalability of the model: two different vaccination regimens were analyzed, and it was found that the number of infections would progressively decrease over time after vaccination; variant virus caused a 301.55% increase in infections in the United Kingdom; and 3-tier social lockdown in the United Kingdom reduced the infections by 47.01%. Third, we made short-term prospective predictions for the next 15 and 30 days for six countries with severe COVID-19 transmission and the predicted trend is accurate. This study is expected to inform public health responses. Code and data are publicly available at https://github.com/yuanyuanpei7/covid-19.

19.
Journalism Practice ; : 1-21, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1774247
20.
Comput Biol Med ; 144: 105340, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734294

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused a severe shortage of healthcare resources. Ground Glass Opacity (GGO) and consolidation of chest CT scans have been an essential basis for imaging diagnosis since 2020. The similarity of imaging features between COVID-19 and other pneumonia makes it challenging to distinguish between them and affects radiologists' diagnosis. Recently, deep learning in COVID-19 has been mainly divided into disease classification and lesion segmentation, yet little work has focused on the feature correlation between the two tasks. To address these issues, in this study, we propose MultiR-Net, a 3D deep learning model for combined COVID-19 classification and lesion segmentation, to achieve real-time and interpretable COVID-19 chest CT diagnosis. Precisely, the proposed network consists of two subnets: a multi-scale feature fusion UNet-like subnet for lesion segmentation and a classification subnet for disease diagnosis. The features between the two subnets are fused by the reverse attention mechanism and the iterable training strategy. Meanwhile, we proposed a loss function to enhance the interaction between the two subnets. Individual metrics can not wholly reflect network effectiveness. Thus we quantify the segmentation results with various evaluation metrics such as average surface distance, volume Dice, and test on the dataset. We employ a dataset containing 275 3D CT scans for classifying COVID-19, Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP), and healthy people and segmented lesions in pneumonia patients. We split the dataset into 70% and 30% for training and testing. Extensive experiments showed that our multi-task model framework obtained an average recall of 93.323%, an average precision of 94.005% on the classification test set, and a 69.95% Volume Dice score on the segmentation test set of our dataset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
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