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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760579

ABSTRACT

A recent examination of the significant role of public health has prompted calls to re-investigate how the urban environment affects public health. A vital part of the solution includes Healthy City initiatives that have been the subject of extensive policies, implications, and practices globally. However, the existing literature mainly focuses on big cities and metropolitan areas, while investigations into small and midsized cities (SMCs) are lacking, and thus reflect the underlying issues of health inequity. This study develops an indicator system for evaluating Healthy City initiatives in SMCs, linking urban design and public health, supported by the analyzed opinions from experts collected using both questionnaires and interviews. The indicator system includes six primary dimensions and 37 variables: urban form and transportation (UFT); health-friendly service (HFS); environmental quality and governance (EQG); community and facility (CF); green and open space (GOS); and ecological construction and biodiversity (ECB). A fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique was used to assess the relative importance of factors, emphasizing the importance of UFT, HFS, and EQG, with importance indexes of 0.175, 0.174, and 0.174, respectively. This indicator system is helpful for SMCs seeking to construct a Healthy City in the future, and is based on urban design and governance inputs and for enhancing the Healthy City knowledge base of cities of varied scales.

2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1467, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751714

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) can experimentally infect a variety of animals. Human infection by PDCoV has also been reported. Consistently, PDCoV can use aminopeptidase N (APN) from different host species as receptors to enter cells. To understand this broad receptor usage and interspecies transmission of PDCoV, we determined the crystal structures of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of PDCoV spike protein bound to human APN (hAPN) and porcine APN (pAPN), respectively. The structures of the two complexes exhibit high similarity. PDCoV RBD binds to common regions on hAPN and pAPN, which are different from the sites engaged by two alphacoronaviruses: HCoV-229E and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV). Based on structure guided mutagenesis, we identified conserved residues on hAPN and pAPN that are essential for PDCoV binding and infection. We report the detailed mechanism for how a deltacoronavirus recognizes homologous receptors and provide insights into the cross-species transmission of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , Deltacoronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Swine
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 49, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692636

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, respiratory infections, including SARS, HINI and the currently spreading COVID-19, caused by various viruses such as influenza and coronavirus have seriously threatened human health. It has generated inconsistent recommendations on the mandatory use of facemasks across countries on a population level due to insufficient evidence on the efficacy of facemask use among the general population. This meta-analysis aimed to explore (1) the efficacy of facemask use on preventing respiratory infections, and (2) the perceptions, intentions, and practice about facemask use among the general population worldwide. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane, bioRxiv, and medRxiv databases since inception to August 17, 2020. From 21,341 records identified, eight RCTs on facemask in preventing infections and 78 studies on perception, intention, and practice of facemask use among the general population were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis of RCTs found a significant protective effect of facemask intervention (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.71-0.99; I2 = 0%). This protective effect was even more pronounced when the intervention duration was more than two weeks (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.66-0.88; I2 = 0%). The meta-analysis of observational studies on perception, intention, and practice on facemask use showed that 71% of respondents perceived facemasks to be effective for infection prevention, 68% of respondents would wear facemasks, and 54% of respondents wore facemasks for preventing respiratory infections. Differences in perception, intention, and practice behavior of facemask use in different regions may be related to the impact of respiratory infections, regional culture, and policies. The governments and relevant organizations should make effort to reduce the barriers in the use of facemasks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Masks , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324789

ABSTRACT

Background: Frontline epidemic prevention workers play a pivotal role against COVID-19. Their baseline of dietary and behavior habits and willingness to change these habits after experiencing the outbreak of COVID-19 remains unclear.Methods: A self-developed online questionnaire survey was carried out via the WeChat platform, and 22,459 participated, including 9402 frontline epidemic prevention workers.Findings: Before COVID-19, 23.9% of frontline epidemic prevention workers reported a high-salt diet, 46.9% reported a high frequency of fried food intake, 21.6% reported a low frequency of fresh vegetable intake, and 50.9% smoked cigarettes. After experiencing the outbreak of COVID-19, 34.6% had the willingness to reduce salt intake, and 43.7% want to reduce the frequency of pickled vegetable intake. 37.9% had the willingness to decrease or quit smoking, and 44.5% want to increase sleep duration. Significant differences in the baseline of dietary and behavioral habits and willingness to change their habits were observed between the frontline epidemic prevention worker and others(P<0.05). However, for the frontline epidemic prevention workers with poor dietary and behavioral habits, the frontline epidemic prevention experience might be a promoting factor to adopt worse dietary and behavioral habits, including the high-salt intake subgroup (OR 2.824, 95% CI 2.341-3.405) and shortest physical exercise time subgroup (OR 1.379, 95% CI 1.041-1.828).Interpretation: The dietary and behavior habits of the frontline epidemic prevention workers were worse than others before COVID-19. They had more willingness to adopt healthy dietary and behavior habits after experiencing the outbreak of COVID-19. Because the frontline epidemic prevention workers, who had poor dietary and behavior habits before COVID-19, still choose worse habits, dietary and behavior intervention policies should be drafted to protect their health, especially for those poor habits subgroups.Funding: This work was supported by The Science and Technology Project of Bao'an (NO.2020JD101).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the ethics committee of Guangdong Medical University.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324418

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused major disturbance to human life. An important reason behind the widespread social anxiety is the huge uncertainty about the pandemic. A fundamental uncertainty is how many or what percentage of people have been infected. There are published and frequently updated data on various statistics of the pandemic, at local, country or global level. However, due to various reasons, many cases were not included in those reported numbers. We propose a structured approach for the estimation of the number of unreported cases, where we distinguish cases that arrive late in the reported numbers and those who had mild or no symptoms and thus were not captured by any medical system at all. We use post-report data for the estimation of the former and population matching to the latter. We estimate that the reported number of infected cases in the US should be corrected by multiplying a factor of 220.54% as of Apr 20, 2020, while the infection ratio out of the US population is estimated to be 0.53%, implying a case mortality rate at 2.85% which is close to the 3.4% suggested by the WHO in Mar 2020. Towards the end of the summer of 2020, the overall infection ratio of the US rises to 2.49% while the case mortality decreases to 2.09%, and the ratio of asymptomatic cases out of all infected cases reduces from the pre-summer 35-40% to around 20-25%.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324331

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate impact of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on willingness to adopt healthy dietary habits in China. Methods: : A survey was carried out, and subjective perception of impact due to COVID-19 and willingness to change dietary habits were obtained. Results: : A total of 22,459 subjects were derived from China, with an average age of 27.9±7.8 years old. Of them, the mean score of willingness to adopt healthy dietary habits was 2.2 (ranges from -9 to 9). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic (epidemic concern, impact of psychology, impact of work or study) are associated with a higher score of willingness to adopt healthy dietary habits among female, the older, on-medical worker, and individuals married or with higher education level, normal BMI. Conclusions: : There was a positive improvement to a proper diet, so the changing features of diets should be considered in nutritional interventions for maintaining health, and prevention and control COVID-19 during the pandemic period.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312635

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In December 2019,the 2019 novel coronavirus ( 2019-nCoV ) emerged in Wuhan, China, leading to a cluster of severe pneumonia cases. Medical staff members on the front line were also infected. We compared the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment measures of survivors and non-survivors and the different clinical outcomes of medical staff members and non-medical members of the community infected with 2019-nCoV. Methods: We included 81 patients with adult 2019-nCoV in Hankou Hospital from mid-January to mid-February 2020 in this single-center retrospective study. Data were compared between survivors and non-survivors and between medical staff members and non-medical individuals. Results: All 38 medical staff members were infected by patients while working. Only 2 (2.5%) non-medical individuals had a clear history of exposure to 2019-nCoV patients. The median age was 49 years (interquartile range [IQR], 35-59;range, 23-89 years), and 42 (51.9%) were women. We found that the median age,comorbidity, and some laboratory outcomes(lymphocyte count, urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, etc.)differed significantly between survivors and non-survivors. There were also significant differences in the time from onset to admission, disease classification, comorbidity, and prognosis between medical staff members and non-medical individuals. All medical staff members were cured, while 13 (30.2%) non-medical individuals died. Conclusions: Older males with comorbidities are more likely to be affected by 2019-nCoV. Significant changes in some laboratory markers may indicate a poor prognosis. Medical staff members may have had better prognoses due to fewer comorbidities and better medical compliance. Key words: 2019-nCoV;Clinical characteristics;Mortality;comorbidity;Survivors;Non-survivors;Medical Staff

8.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295053

ABSTRACT

The origins of pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies and their potential impacts on vaccine efficacy have not been fully clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that S2 was the prevailing target of the pre-existing S protein cross-reactive antibodies in both healthy human and SPF mice. A dominant antibody epitope was identified on the connector domain of S2 (1147-SFKEELDKYFKNHT-1160, P144), which could be recognized by pre-existing antibodies in both human and mouse. Through metagenomic sequencing and fecal bacteria transplant, we proved that the generation of S2 cross-reactive antibodies was associated with commensal gut bacteria. Furthermore, six P144 specific monoclonal antibodies were isolated from mouse and proved to cross-react with commensal gut bacteria collected from both human and mouse. Mice with high levels of pre-existing S2 cross-reactive antibodies mounted higher S protein specific binding antibodies, especially against S2, after being immunized with a candidate COVID-19 DNA vaccine. Similarly, we found that levels of pre-existing antibodies against both S2 and P144 correlated positively with RBD specific binding antibody titers after two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in human. Taken together, our findings revealed that the pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein could be induced by commensal gut bacteria and suggested that these pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies could facilitate the induction of S protein specific antibody responses after vaccination.

9.
mBio ; 12(5): e0254221, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462902

ABSTRACT

Damage in COVID-19 results from both the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its triggered overactive host immune responses. Therapeutic agents that focus solely on reducing viral load or hyperinflammation fail to provide satisfying outcomes in all cases. Although viral and cellular factors have been extensively profiled to identify potential anti-COVID-19 targets, new drugs with significant efficacy remain to be developed. Here, we report the potent preclinical efficacy of ALD-R491, a vimentin-targeting small molecule compound, in treating COVID-19 through its host-directed antiviral and anti-inflammatory actions. We found that by altering the physical properties of vimentin filaments, ALD-491 affected general cellular processes as well as specific cellular functions relevant to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Specifically, ALD-R491 reduced endocytosis, endosomal trafficking, and exosomal release, thus impeding the entry and egress of the virus; increased the microcidal capacity of macrophages, thus facilitating the pathogen clearance; and enhanced the activity of regulatory T cells, therefore suppressing the overactive immune responses. In cultured cells, ALD-R491 potently inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human ACE2-mediated pseudoviral infection. In aged mice with ongoing, productive SARS-CoV-2 infection, ALD-R491 reduced disease symptoms as well as lung damage. In rats, ALD-R491 also reduced bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis. Our results indicate a unique mechanism and significant therapeutic potential for ALD-R491 against COVID-19. We anticipate that ALD-R491, an oral, fast-acting, and non-cytotoxic agent targeting the cellular protein with multipart actions, will be convenient, safe, and broadly effective, regardless of viral mutations, for patients with early- or late-stage disease, post-COVID-19 complications, and other related diseases. IMPORTANCE With the Delta variant currently fueling a resurgence of new infections in the fully vaccinated population, developing an effective therapeutic drug is especially critical and urgent in fighting COVID-19. In contrast to the many efforts to repurpose existing drugs or address only one aspect of COVID-19, we are developing a novel agent with first-in-class mechanisms of action that address both the viral infection and the overactive immune system in the pathogenesis of the disease. Unlike virus-directed therapeutics that may lose efficacy due to viral mutations, and immunosuppressants that require ideal timing to be effective, this agent, with its unique host-directed antiviral and anti-inflammatory actions, can work against all variants of the virus, be effective during all stages of the disease, and even resolve post-disease damage and complications. Further development of the compound will provide an important tool in the fight against COVID-19 and its complications, as well as future outbreaks of new viruses.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Organic Chemicals/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vimentin/metabolism , Animals , Endocytosis/drug effects , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , Exosomes/drug effects , Exosomes/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , RAW 264.7 Cells
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 727419, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444039

ABSTRACT

Background: Blood parameters, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, have been identified as reliable inflammatory markers with diagnostic and predictive value for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, novel hematological parameters derived from high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) have rarely been studied as indicators for the risk of poor outcomes in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of these novel biomarkers in COVID-19 patients and the diabetes subgroup. Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study involving all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from January to March 2020 in five hospitals in Wuhan, China. Demographics, clinical and laboratory findings, and outcomes were recorded. Neutrophil to HDL-C ratio (NHR), monocyte to HDL-C ratio (MHR), lymphocyte to HDL-C ratio (LHR), and platelet to HDL-C ratio (PHR) were investigated and compared in both the overall population and the subgroup with diabetes. The associations between blood parameters at admission with primary composite end-point events (including mechanical ventilation, admission to the intensive care unit, or death) were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the utility of different blood parameters. Results: Of 440 patients with COVID-19, 67 (15.2%) were critically ill. On admission, HDL-C concentration was decreased while NHR was high in patients with critical compared with non-critical COVID-19, and were independently associated with poor outcome as continuous variables in the overall population (HR: 0.213, 95% CI 0.090-0.507; HR: 1.066, 95% CI 1.030-1.103, respectively) after adjusting for confounding factors. Additionally, when HDL-C and NHR were examined as categorical variables, the HRs and 95% CIs for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 were 0.280 (0.128-0.612) and 4.458 (1.817-10.938), respectively. Similar results were observed in the diabetes subgroup. ROC curves showed that the NHR had good performance in predicting worse outcomes. The cutoff point of the NHR was 5.50. However, the data in our present study could not confirm the possible predictive effect of LHR, MHR, and PHR on COVID-19 severity. Conclusion: Lower HDL-C concentrations and higher NHR at admission were observed in patients with critical COVID-19 than in those with noncritical COVID-19, and were significantly associated with a poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients as well as in the diabetes subgroup.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , China , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Leukocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(2): 196-208, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although SARS-CoV-2 infection often causes milder symptoms in children and adolescents, young people might still play a key part in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. An efficacious vaccine for children and adolescents could therefore assist pandemic control. For further evaluation of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine candidate BBIBP-CorV, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of BBIBP-CorV in participants aged 3-17 years. METHODS: A randomised, double-blind, controlled, phase 1/2 trial was done at Shangqiu City Liangyuan District Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Henan, China. In phases 1 and 2, healthy participants were stratified according to age (3-5 years, 6-12 years, or 13-17 years) and dose group. Individuals with a history of SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV infection were excluded. All participants were randomly assigned, using stratified block randomisation (block size eight), to receive three doses of 2 µg, 4 µg, or 8 µg of vaccine or control (1:1:1:1) 28 days apart. The primary outcome, safety, was analysed in the safety set, which consisted of participants who had received at least one vaccination after being randomly assigned, and had any safety evaluation information. The secondary outcomes were geometric meant titre (GMT) of the neutralising antibody against infectious SARS-CoV-2 and were analysed based on the full analysis set. This study is registered with www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000032459, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Aug 14, 2020, and Sept 24, 2020, 445 participants were screened, and 288 eligible participants were randomly assigned to vaccine (n=216, 24 for each dose level [2/4/8 µg] in each of three age cohorts [3-5, 6-12, and 13-17 years]) or control (n=72, 24 for each age cohort [3-5, 6-12, and 13-17 years]) in phase 1. In phase 2, 810 participants were screened and 720 eligible participants were randomly assigned and allocated to vaccine (n=540, 60 for each dose level [2/4/8 µg] in each of three age cohorts [3-5, 6-12, and 13-17 years]) or control (n=180, 60 for each age cohort [3-5, 6-12, and 13-17 years]). The most common injection site adverse reaction was pain (ten [4%] 251 participants in all vaccination groups of the 3-5 years cohort; 23 [9·1%] of 252 participants in all vaccination groups and one [1·2%] of 84 in the control group of the 6-12 years cohort; 20 [7·9%] of 252 participants in all vaccination groups of the 13-17 years cohort). The most common systematic adverse reaction was fever (32 [12·7%] of 251 participants in all vaccination groups and six [7·1%] of 84 participants in the control group of the 3-5 years cohort; 13 [5·2%] of 252 participants in the vaccination groups and one [1·2%] of 84 in the control group of the 6-12 years cohort; 26 [10·3%] of 252 participants in all vaccination groups and eight [9·5%] of 84 in the control group of the 13-17 years cohort). Adverse reactions were mostly mild to moderate in severity. The neutralising antibody GMT against the SARS-CoV-2 virus ranged from 105·3 to 180·2 in the 3-5 years cohort, 84·1 to 168·6 in the 6-12 years cohort, and 88·0 to 155·7 in the 13-17 years cohort on day 28 after the second vaccination; and ranged from 143·5 to 224·4 in the 3-5 years cohort, 127 to 184·8 in the 6-12 years cohort, and 150·7 to 199 in the 13-17 years cohort on day 28 after the third vaccination. INTERPRETATION: The inactivated COVID-19 vaccine BBIBP-CorV is safe and well tolerated at all tested dose levels in participants aged 3-17 years. BBIBP-CorV also elicited robust humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 infection after two doses. Our findings support the use of a 4 µg dose and two-shot regimen BBIBP-CorV in phase 3 trials in the population younger than 18 years to further ascertain its safety and protection efficacy against COVID-19. FUNDING: National Program on Key Research Project of China, National Mega projects of China for Major Infectious Diseases, National Mega Projects of China for New Drug Creation, and Beijing Science and Technology Plan. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/standards
12.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101111, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has evolved into a worldwide pandemic, and has been found to be closely associated with mental and neurological disorders. We aimed to comprehensively quantify the association between mental and neurological disorders, both pre-existing and subsequent, and the risk of susceptibility, severity and mortality of COVID-19. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane library databases for studies published from the inception up to January 16, 2021 and updated at July 7, 2021. Observational studies including cohort and case-control, cross-sectional studies and case series that reported risk estimates of the association between mental or neurological disorders and COVID-19 susceptibility, illness severity and mortality were included. Two researchers independently extracted data and conducted the quality assessment. Based on I2 heterogeneity, we used a random effects model to calculate pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analysis were also performed. This study was registered on PROSPERO (registration number: CRD 42021230832). FINDING: A total of 149 studies (227,351,954 participants, 89,235,737 COVID-19 patients) were included in this analysis, in which 27 reported morbidity (132,727,798), 56 reported illness severity (83,097,968) and 115 reported mortality (88,878,662). Overall, mental and neurological disorders were associated with a significant high risk of infection (pre-existing mental: OR 1·67, 95% CI 1·12-2·49; and pre-existing neurological: 2·05, 1·58-2·67), illness severity (mental: pre-existing, 1·40, 1·25-1·57; sequelae, 4·85, 2·53-9·32; neurological: pre-existing, 1·43, 1·09-1·88; sequelae, 2·17, 1·45-3·24), and mortality (mental: pre-existing, 1·47, 1·26-1·72; neurological: pre-existing, 2·08, 1·61-2·69; sequelae, 2·03, 1·66-2·49) from COVID-19. Subgroup analysis revealed that association with illness severity was stronger among younger COVID-19 patients, and those with subsequent mental disorders, living in low- and middle-income regions. Younger patients with mental and neurological disorders were associated with higher mortality than elders. For type-specific mental disorders, susceptibility to contracting COVID-19 was associated with pre-existing mood disorders, anxiety, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); illness severity was associated with both pre-existing and subsequent mood disorders as well as sleep disturbance; and mortality was associated with pre-existing schizophrenia. For neurological disorders, susceptibility was associated with pre-existing dementia; both severity and mortality were associated with subsequent delirium and altered mental status; besides, mortality was associated with pre-existing and subsequent dementia and multiple specific neurological diseases. Heterogeneities were substantial across studies in most analysis. INTERPRETATION: The findings show an important role of mental and neurological disorders in the context of COVID-19 and provide clues and directions for identifying and protecting vulnerable populations in the pandemic. Early detection and intervention for neurological and mental disorders are urgently needed to control morbidity and mortality induced by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there was substantial heterogeneity among the included studies, and the results should be interpreted with caution. More studies are needed to explore long-term mental and neurological sequela, as well as the underlying brain mechanisms for the sake of elucidating the causal pathways for these associations. FUNDING: This study is supported by grants from the National Key Research and Development Program of China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Special Research Fund of PKUHSC for Prevention and Control of COVID-19, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 281-288, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spatiotemporal trend of renal involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reveal the dynamics of renal involvement superimposed COVID-19 according to time and space. METHODS: COVID-19 patients reporting renal involvement were included in this study. The following information was collected from relevant articles: first author, patient demographics, patient enrollment period, location, definition of acute kidney injury (AKI), prevalence of AKI, and use of renal replacement therapy (RRT). RESULTS: A total of 17 134 patients were finally included. The overall prevalence of AKI in COVID-19 patients was 19%, with 7% of them undergoing RRT. The overall risk of AKI in patients enrolled before March 1, 2020 (9%) was significantly lower than that after March 1, 2020 (36%) (P < 0.00001). Moreover, the overall risk of AKI outside Asia (35%) was significantly higher than that in Asia (10%) (P < 0.00001). Additionally, similar to patients requiring RRT, AKI patients were more likely to become seriously ill or even to die (P < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that renal involvement superimposed COVID-19, a comorbidity portending a poor prognosis, has become an increasingly serious problem over time and is more common outside Asia. Thus, more attention should be paid to the management of this specific group of patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Comorbidity , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e045317, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255596

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to ascertain the trends of injury mortality during the COVID-19 period in southern China. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective analysis to compare the mortality changes of all-cause injury and transport injuries, poisoning, falls, fire/heat/hot substances, drowning, self-harm and interpersonal violence, which were further stratified by sex and age. Comparisons were made between the COVID-19 period (between January 2020 and June 2020) and control period (between January 2019 and June 2019) in Guangdong province. We used the negative binomial models to explore the associations of deaths during the COVID-19 period, according to the different sex and age strata. RESULTS: The all-cause injury mortality in Guangdong province decreased significantly from 28.65 per 100 000 population during the control period to 23.24 per 100 000 population during COVID-19 pandemic period. Similar results were found in specific injury categories. Mortality of self-harm increased by 139.26% in the 10-14 year group during the COVID-19 period as compared with the control period. Although mortality changes in some groups were not statistically significant, some increases were noteworthy during the COVID-19 period (ie, self-harm, transport injury and falls) in the 70-79 year group. The corresponding increase in mortality rate was 16.83%, 3.32% and 4.92%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The mortality of all-cause injury, transport injury and drowning during the COVID-19 pandemic was consistently decreased. However, the increase in mortality associated with falls, fire/heat/hot substance injury and self-harm in specific age populations warrant the targeted control and prevention measures for the population at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Wounds and Injuries , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 140: 111685, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235862

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, and other associated metabolic complications have been demonstrated as a crucial contributor to the enhanced morbidity and mortality of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Data on the interplay between metabolic comorbidities and the outcomes in patients with COVID-19 have been emerging and rapidly increasing. This implies a mechanistic link between metabolic diseases and COVID-19 resulting in the exacerbation of the condition. Nonetheless, new evidences are emerging to support insulin-mediated aggressive glucose-lowering treatment as a possible trigger of high mortality rate in diabetic COVID-19 patients, putting the clinician in a confounding and difficult dilemma for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with metabolic comorbidities. Thus, this review discusses the pathophysiological link among severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), metabolic complications, and severe inflammation in COVID-19 development, especially in those with multi-organ injuries. We discuss the influence of several routinely used drugs in COVID-19 patients, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant drugs, antidiabetic drugs, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors. Especially, we provide a balanced overview on the clinical application of glucose-lowering drugs (insulin and metformin), angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers. Although there is insufficient evidence from clinical or basic research to comprehensively reveal the mechanistic link between adverse outcomes in COVID-19 and metabolic comorbidities, it is hoped that the update in the current review may help to better outline the optimal strategies for clinical management of COVID-19 patients with metabolic comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Comorbidity , Humans , Polypharmacy
16.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 58, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has had a massive impact on public health, resulting in sudden dietary and behavioral habit changes. Frontline epidemic prevention workers play a pivotal role against COVID-19. They must face high-risk infection conditions, insufficient anti-epidemic material supplies, mental pressure, and so on. COVID-19 seriously affects their dietary and behavioral habits, and poor habits make them more susceptible to COVID-19. However, their baseline dietary and behavioral habits before COVID-19 and their willingness to change these habits after the outbreak of COVID-19 remain unclear for these workers in China. This study aimed to explore the baseline dietary and behavioral habits of frontline workers and their willingness to change these habits after the outbreak of the epidemic; in addition, susceptible subgroups were identified by stratified analyses as targets of protective measures to keep them from being infected with COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online questionnaire using a sample of 22,459 valid individuals living in China, including 9402 frontline epidemic prevention workers. RESULTS: Before COVID-19, 23.9% of the frontline epidemic prevention workers reported a high-salt diet, 46.9% of them reported a high frequency of fried foods intake, and 50.9% of them smoked cigarettes. After the outbreak of COVID-19, 34.6% of them expressed a willingness to reduce salt intake, and 43.7% of them wanted to reduce the frequency of pickled vegetables intake. A total of 37.9% of them expressed a willingness to decrease or quit smoking, and 44.5% of them wanted to increase sleep duration. Significant differences in the baseline dietary and behavioral habits and the willingness to change their habits were observed between frontline epidemic prevention workers and other participants. Among the frontline epidemic prevention workers with poor dietary and behavioral habits before COVID-19, frontline epidemic prevention experience was a promoting factor for adopting worse dietary and behavioral habits, including those in the high-salt intake subgroup (OR, 2.824; 95% CI, 2.341-3.405) and the 11-20 cigarettes/day subgroup (OR, 2.067; 95% CI, 1.359-3.143). CONCLUSIONS: The dietary and behavioral habits of frontline epidemic prevention workers were worse than that those of other participants before COVID-19. They had a greater willingness to adopt healthy dietary and behavioral habits after experiencing the outbreak of COVID-19. However, frontline epidemic prevention workers with poor dietary and behavioral habits before COVID-19 continued in engage in these poor habits. Dietary and behavioral intervention policies should be drafted to protect their health, especially frontline epidemic prevention workers with poor habits at baseline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diet/standards , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Int J Cardiol ; 336: 123-129, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has recently been identified as the functional receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent response for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to explore the roles of ACE2, apelin and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in SARS-CoV-2-mediated cardiorenal damage. METHODS AND RESULTS: The published RNA-sequencing datasets of cardiomyocytes infected with SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 patients were used. String, UMAP plots and single cell RNA sequencing data were analyzed to show the close relationship and distinct cardiorenal distribution patterns of ACE2, apelin and SGLT2. Intriguingly, there were decreases in ACE2 and apelin expression as well as marked increases in SGLT2 and endothelin-1 levels in SARS-CoV-2-infected cardiomyocytes, animal models with diabetes, acute kidney injury, heart failure and COVID-19 patients. These changes were linked with downregulated levels of interleukin (IL)-10, superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase as well as upregulated expression of profibrotic genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Genetic ACE2 deletion resulted in upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines containing IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor α. More importantly, dapagliflozin strikingly alleviated cardiorenal fibrosis in diabetic db/db mice by suppressing SGLT2 levels and potentiating the apelin-ACE2 signaling. CONCLUSION: Downregulation of apelin and ACE2 and upregulation of SGLT2, endothelin-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to SARS-CoV-2-mediated cardiorenal injury, indicating that the apelin-ACE2 signaling and SGLT2 inhibitors are potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Apelin , Humans , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 778-785, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major healthcare threat. The current method of detection involves a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based technique, which identifies the viral nucleic acids when present in sufficient quantity. False-negative results can be achieved and failure to quarantine the infected patient would be a major setback in containing the viral transmission. We aim to describe the time kinetics of various antibodies produced against the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and evaluate the potential of antibody testing to diagnose COVID-19. METHODS: The host humoral response against SARS-CoV-2, including IgA, IgM, and IgG response, was examined by using an ELISA-based assay on the recombinant viral nucleocapsid protein. 208 plasma samples were collected from 82 confirmed and 58 probable cases (qPCR negative but with typical manifestation). The diagnostic value of IgM was evaluated in this cohort. RESULTS: The median duration of IgM and IgA antibody detection was 5 (IQR, 3-6) days, while IgG was detected 14 (IQR, 10-18) days after symptom onset, with a positive rate of 85.4%, 92.7%, and 77.9%, respectively. In confirmed and probable cases, the positive rates of IgM antibodies were 75.6% and 93.1%, respectively. The detection efficiency by IgM ELISA is higher than that of qPCR after 5.5 days of symptom onset. The positive detection rate is significantly increased (98.6%) when combining IgM ELISA assay with PCR for each patient compared with a single qPCR test (51.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 can aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19, including subclinical cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Virulence ; 12(1): 1199-1208, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192789

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has rapidly become a major health emergency worldwide. The characteristic, outcome, and risk factor of COVID-19 in patients with decompensated cirrhosis remain unclear.Methods: Medical records were collected from 23 Chinese hospitals. Patients with decompensated cirrhosis and age- and sex-matched non-liver disease patients were enrolled with 1:4 ratio using stratified sampling.Results: There were more comorbidities with higher Chalson Complication Index (p < 0.001), higher proportion of patients having gastrointestinal bleeding, jaundice, ascites, and diarrhea among those patients (p < 0.05) and in decompensated cirrhosis patients. Mortality (p < 0.05) and the proportion of severe ill (p < 0.001) were significantly high among those patients. Patients in severe ill subgroup had higher mortality (p < 0.001), MELD, and CRUB65 score but lower lymphocytes count. Besides, this subgroup had larger proportion of patients with abnormal (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), D-Dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBL) and Creatinine (Cr) (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression for severity shown that MELD and CRUB65 score reached significance. Higher Child-Pugh and CRUB65 scores were found among non-survival cases and multivariate logistic regression further inferred risk factors for adverse outcome. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves also provided remarkable demonstrations for the predictive ability of Child-Pugh and CRUB65 scores.Conclusions: COVID-19 patients with cirrhosis had larger proportion of more severely disease and higher mortality. MELD and CRUB65 score at hospital admission may predict COVID-19 severity while Child-Pugh and CRUB65 score were highly associated with non-survival among those patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Cardiol Res Pract ; 2021: 8874450, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140380

ABSTRACT

The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has increased drastically; however, information regarding the impact of this disease on the occurrence of arrhythmias is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of COVID-19 on arrhythmia occurrence. This prospective study included patients with COVID-19 treated at the Leishenshan Temporary Hospital of Wuhan City, China, from February 24 to April 5, 2020. Demographic, comorbidity, and arrhythmias data were collected from patients with COVID-19 (n = 84) and compared with control data from patients with bacterial pneumonia (n = 84) infection. Furthermore, comparisons were made between patients with severe and nonsevere COVID-19 and between older and younger patients. Compared with patients with bacterial pneumonia, those with COVID-19 had higher total, mean, and minimum heart rates (all P < 0.01). Patients with severe COVID-19 (severe and critical type diseases) developed more atrial arrhythmias compared with those with nonsevere symptoms. Plasma creatine kinase isoenzyme (CKMB) levels (P=0.01) were higher in the severe group than in the nonsevere group, and there were more deaths in the severe group than in the nonsevere group (6 (15%) vs. 3 (2.30%); P=0.05). Premature atrial contractions (PAC) and nonsustained atrial tachycardia (NSAT) were significantly positively correlated with plasma CKMB levels but not with high-sensitive cardiac troponin I or myoglobin levels. Our data demonstrate that COVID-19 patients have higher total, mean, and minimum heart rates compared with those with bacterial pneumonia. Patients with severe or critical disease had more frequent atrial arrhythmias (including PAC and AF) and higher CKMB levels and mortality than those with nonsevere symptoms.

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