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1.
Energy Policy ; 165:112986, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1804052

ABSTRACT

Energy transition toward renewables, mainly wind and solar, has gained momentum in the past decade. Although the COVID-19 pandemic brought unprecedented, multi-faceted challenges and uncertainties, India witnessed an expedited energy transition in 2020. With our newly constructed Electric System Dispatch Model for India (ESDMI), this study aims to provide an explanation of the underlining mechanisms. The Janta Curfew (7am-9pm) in India was observed on March 22, 2020 followed by a 21-day complete lockdown starting March 25, 2020 to control the spread of the virus. Electricity demand in India dropped by nearly a quarter. We model the supply-side dynamics prior to and during the pandemic response as well as in a counterfactual scenario in the pandemic's absence. We find that the expedited energy transition could be explained by (i) the higher priority of a large renewables fleet to access electric grid either through stipulations and the merit order effect, and (ii) coal-fired electricity generation is less flexible than natural gas and hydropower units. A substantial amount of coal-fired power plants in India are still far from reaching their designed lifetimes. Their low resilience in such crises could exacerbate the problem of stranded assets.

2.
Arab J Chem ; 15(7): 103942, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803533

ABSTRACT

In the novel SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) as a global emergency event, the main reason of the cardiac injury from COVID-19 is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) targeting in SARS-CoV-2 infection. The inhibition of ACE2 induces an increase in the angiotensin II (Ang II) and the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) leading to impaired cardiac function or cardiac inflammatory responses. The ethyl acetate fraction of Potentilla reptans L. root can rescue heart dysfunction, oxidative stress, cardiac arrhythmias and apoptosis. Therefore, isolated components of P. reptans evaluated to identify natural anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents via molecular docking. In silico molecular docking study were carried out using the Auto Dock software on the isolated compounds of Potentilla reptans root. The protein targets of selective ACE and others obtained from Protein Data Bank (PDB). The best binding pose between amino acid residues involved in active site of the targets and compounds was discovered via molecular docking. Furthermore, ADMET properties of the compounds were evaluated. The triterpenoids of P. reptans showed more ACE inhibitory potential than catechin in both domains. They were selective on the nACE domain, especially compound 5. Also, the compound 5 & 6 had the highest binding affinity toward active site of nACE, cACE, AT1R, ACE2, and TNF-α receptors. Meanwhile, compound 3 showed more activity to inhibit TXA2. Drug likeness and ADMET analysis showed that the compounds passed the criteria of drug likeness and Lipinski rules. The current study depicted that P. reptans root showed cardioprotective effect in COVID-19 infection and manipulation of angiotensin II-induced side effects.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785670

ABSTRACT

Under the dual impacts of climate change and COVID-19, there are great risks to the world's food security. Rice is one of the three major food crops of the world. Assessing the impact of climate change on future rice production is very important for ensuring global food security. This article divides the world's main rice-producing regions into four regions and uses a multivariate nonlinear model based on historical economic and climatic data to explore the impacts of historical extreme climatic events and economic factors on rice yield. Based on these historical models, future climatic data, and economic data under different shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs), the yields of four major rice-producing regions of the world under different climate change scenarios (SSP126, SSP245, and SSP585) are predicted. The research results reveal that under different climate change scenarios, extreme high-temperature events (Tx90p) and extreme precipitation events (Rx5day, R99pTOT) in the four major rice-producing regions have an upward trend in the future. Extreme low-temperature events (Tn10p) have a downward trend. In the rice-producing regions of Southeast Asia and South America, extreme precipitation events will increase significantly in the future. The prediction results of this model indicate that the rice output of these four major rice-producing regions will show an upward trend in the future. Although extreme precipitation events will have a negative impact on rice production, future increases in rice planting areas, economic development, and population growth will all contribute to an increase in rice production. The increase in food demand caused by population growth also brings uncertainty to global food security. This research is helpful for further understanding climate change trends and risks to global rice-production areas in the future and provides an important reference for global rice-production planning and risk management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oryza , Climate Change , Crops, Agricultural , Forecasting , Humans
4.
Eur J Med Chem ; 234: 114239, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783304

ABSTRACT

Compared with traditional de novo drug discovery, drug repurposing has become an attractive drug discovery strategy due to its low-cost and high efficiency. Through a comprehensive analysis of the candidates that have been identified with drug repositioning potentials, it is found that although some drugs do not show obvious advantages in the original indications, they may exert more obvious effects in other diseases. In addition, some drugs have a synergistic effect to exert better clinical efficacy if used in combination. Particularly, it has been confirmed that drug repositioning has benefits and values on the current public health emergency such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which proved the great potential of drug repositioning. In this review, we systematically reviewed a series of representative drugs that have been repositioned for different diseases and illustrated successful cases in each disease. Especially, the mechanism of action for the representative drugs in new indications were explicitly explored for each disease, we hope this review can provide important insights for follow-up research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Repositioning , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Humans , Pandemics
5.
Small ; 18(14): e2107636, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699477

ABSTRACT

Donning of personal protective equipment (PPE) in the healthcare sector has been intensified by the on-going COVID-19 pandemic around the globe. While extensive PPE provides protection, it typically limits moisture permeability and severely hinders the sweat evaporation process, resulting in greater heat stress on the personnel. Herein, a zinc-poly(vinyl alcohol) (Zn-PVA) composite film is fabricated by embedding a super-hygroscopic zinc-ethanolamine complex (Zn-complex) in the PVA matrix. By attaching the Zn-PVA composite film, the relative humidity (RH) inside the protective suit decreases from 91.0% to 48.2%. The reduced RH level, in turn, enhances evaporative cooling, hence bringing down the heat index from 64.6 to 40.0 °C at an air temperature of 35 °C, remarkably lowering the likelihood of heat stroke. The American Society for Testing and Materials tests conducted on a sweating manikin have also proven that the Zn-PVA composite films can significantly reduce the evaporative resistance of the protective suit by 90%. The low material cost, facile fabrication process, and reusability allow the Zn-PVA composition films to be readily available for healthcare workers worldwide. This application can be further extended to other occupations that are facing severe thermal discomfort and heat stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sweating , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heat-Shock Response , Hot Temperature , Humans , Pandemics , Sweat , Zinc
6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325432

ABSTRACT

Background: Elderly patients with COVID-19 were shown to have a high case-fatality rate. We aimed to explore the risk factors associated with death in patients over 70 years old (yo). Methods: : In this retrospective study, we enrolled patients over 70 yo with COVID-19 between January 20 and February 15, 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical data were collected. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression methods were used to explore the risk factors. Results: : A total of 147 patients were enrolled. The case-fatality rate was 28.6%. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression showed that clinical subtypes including the severe type (HR = 2.983, 95% CI: 1.231–7.226, P = 0.016) and the critical type (HR = 3.267, 95%CI: 1.009–10.576, P = 0.048) were associated with increasing risk of death when compared with the general type. Blood urea nitrogen greater than 9.5 mmol/L (HR = 2.805, 95% CI: 1.141–6.892, P = 0.025) on admission was an independent risk factor for death among laboratory findings. Conclusion: The patients over 70 yo with COVID-19 had a high case-fatality rate. The risk factors including clinical subtypes and blood urea nitrogen greater than 9.5 mmol/L could help physicians to identify elderly patients with poor clinical outcomes at an early stage.

7.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e057838, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of COVID-19 International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes and their combinations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Acute care hospitals and emergency departments (EDs) in Alberta, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Patients who were admitted to hospital or presented to an ED in Alberta, as captured by local administrative databases between 1 March 2020 and 28 February 2021, who had a positive COVID-19 test and/or a COVID-19-related ICD-10 code. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and 95% CIs for ICD-10 codes were computed. Stratified analysis on age group, sex, symptomatic status, mechanical ventilation, hospital type, patient intensive care unit (ICU) admission, discharge status and season of pandemic were conducted. RESULTS: Two overlapping subsets of the study population were considered: those who had a positive COVID-19 test (cohort A, for estimating sensitivity) and those who had a COVID-19-related ICD-10 code (cohort B, for estimating PPV). Cohort A included 17 979 ED patients and 6477 inpatients while cohort B included 33 675 ED patients and 18 746 inpatients. Of inpatients, 9.5% in cohort A and 8.1% in cohort B received mechanical ventilation. Over 13% of inpatients were admitted to ICU. The length of hospital stay was 6 days (IQR: 3-14) for cohort A and 8 days (IQR: 3-19) for cohort B. In-hospital mortality was 15.9% and 38.8% for cohort A and B, respectively. The sensitivity for ICD-10 code U07.1 (COVID-19, virus identified) was 82.5% (81.8%-83.2%) with a PPV of 93.1% (92.6%-93.6%). The combination of U07.1 and U07.3 (multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19) had a sensitivity of 82.5% (81.9%-83.2%) and PPV of 92.9% (92.4%-93.4%). CONCLUSIONS: In Alberta, ICD-10 COVID-19 codes (U07.1 and U07.3) were coded well with high validity. This indicates administrative data can be used for COVID-19 research and pandemic management purposes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , International Classification of Diseases , Alberta/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology ; : 100009, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1509628

ABSTRACT

Backgroud : The outbreak of COVID-19 has brought unprecedented perils to human health and raised public health concerns in more than two hundred countries. Safe and effective treatment scheme is needed urgently. Objective : To evaluate the effects of integrated TCM and western medicine treatment scheme on COVID-19. Methods : A single-armed clinical trial was carried out in Hangzhou Xixi Hospital, an affiliated hospital with Zhejiang Chinese Medical University. 102 confirmed cases were screened out from 725 suspected cases and 93 of them were treated with integrated TCM and western medicine treatment scheme. Results : 83 cases were cured, 5 cases deteriorated, and 5 cases withdrew from the study. No deaths were reported. The mean relief time of fever, cough, diarrhea, and fatigue were (4.78±4.61) days, (7.22±4.99) days, (5.28± 3.39) days, and (5.28± 3.39) days, respectively. It took (14.84±5.50) days for SARS-CoV-2 by nucleic acid amplification-based testing to turn negative. Multivariable cox regression analysis revealed that age, BMI, PISCT, BPC, AST, CK, BS, and UPRO were independent risk factors for COVID-19 treatment. Conclusion : Our study suggested that integrated TCM and western medicine treatment scheme was effective for COVID-19.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748566, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463474

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a major health challenge globally. Previous studies have suggested that changes in the glycosylation of IgG are closely associated with the severity of COVID-19. This study aimed to compare the profiles of IgG N-glycome between COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. A case-control study was conducted, in which 104 COVID-19 patients and 104 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were recruited. Serum IgG N-glycome composition was analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UPLC) approach. COVID-19 patients have a decreased level of IgG fucosylation, which upregulates antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) in acute immune responses. In severe cases, a low level of IgG sialylation contributes to the ADCC-regulated enhancement of inflammatory cytokines. The decreases in sialylation and galactosylation play a role in COVID-19 pathogenesis via the activation of the lectin-initiated alternative complement pathway. IgG N-glycosylation underlines the complex clinical phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Case-Control Studies , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin , Female , Glycosylation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype
10.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 4073-4080, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346355

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) in Chongqing, and identify the potential hematological markers for reference. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 78 COVID-19-infected patients in Chongqing were recruited and divided into the non-severe and the severe group. The clinical characteristics and hematological features of the patients of the two groups were compared. Receiver-operating characteristic curves (ROC) were calculated to evaluate the diagnostic performance of potential markers, and the dynamic changes of blood routine analyzing items were compared between the non-severe and severe groups. RESULTS: 78 patients (median age of 45 years, 41 females and 37 males) were enrolled. The patients in the severe group exhibited significantly lower lymphocyte (P<0.05) but higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (P<0.05) than the patients in the non-severe group. The highest area under the ROC curve (AUC) was lymphocyte (0.74). The patients in the severe group had a lower level of lymphocyte during hospitalization (P<0.01) and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) in the progressive and convalescent phases (P<0.05) than the patients in the non-severe group. However, the level of neutrophil of the patients in the severe group was higher in the progressive phase (P<0.05), and so was NLR in the acute, progressive, and convalescent-phase (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Infected with COVID-19 changed the levels of lymphocyte, neutrophil, LMR, and NLR in the blood, and these analyzing items were significantly different between the non-severe and severe groups. Furthermore, the dynamic changes of lymphocyte and NLR levels may help discriminate the severe group from the non-severe group.

11.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 2785-2797, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infections are still at pandemic levels globally and there are currently no specific drugs to treat these infections. Previous studies have demonstrated that serum albumin levels were abnormally low in COVID-19 patients and might be used as a prognosis biomarker. Supplemental albumin has been used as an experimental therapeutic method. However, dynamic evaluation of albumin in patients with COVID-19 was limited and whether serum albumin could predict the prognosis of these patients is unknown. METHODS: We enrolled 79 COVID-19 patients in the present study and reviewed electronic medical laboratory records. Data was processed using SPSS software (Version 20.0) and correlation analysis was performed between serum albumin and other clinical and laboratory findings. RESULTS: Serum albumin levels were gradually decreased both in severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients. Moreover, 17.7% of the patients presented with hypoalbuminemia at least one time during 3 consecutive weekly time points. The hypoalbuminemia group displayed more severe disease and comorbidity that included fever, fatigue, headache, and dizziness on admission. Moreover, serum albumin levels were positively correlated with lymphocyte and RBC numbers, Hb and prealbumin levels as well as with total T cell numbers and the presence of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In contrast, there was a negative correlation with C-reactive protein levels and this was an indicator of patient recovery. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that hypoalbuminemia was common in COVID-19 patients and its levels were linked to disease severity. Patients with fever, fatigue and headache or dizziness on admission were more likely to experience hypoalbuminemia. Dynamic monitoring of serum albumin is therefore necessary and should be performed during COVID-19 patient treatments as a tool for evaluating the prognosis of COVID-19 infections.

12.
Int J Cardiol ; 336: 123-129, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has recently been identified as the functional receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent response for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to explore the roles of ACE2, apelin and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in SARS-CoV-2-mediated cardiorenal damage. METHODS AND RESULTS: The published RNA-sequencing datasets of cardiomyocytes infected with SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 patients were used. String, UMAP plots and single cell RNA sequencing data were analyzed to show the close relationship and distinct cardiorenal distribution patterns of ACE2, apelin and SGLT2. Intriguingly, there were decreases in ACE2 and apelin expression as well as marked increases in SGLT2 and endothelin-1 levels in SARS-CoV-2-infected cardiomyocytes, animal models with diabetes, acute kidney injury, heart failure and COVID-19 patients. These changes were linked with downregulated levels of interleukin (IL)-10, superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase as well as upregulated expression of profibrotic genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Genetic ACE2 deletion resulted in upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines containing IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor α. More importantly, dapagliflozin strikingly alleviated cardiorenal fibrosis in diabetic db/db mice by suppressing SGLT2 levels and potentiating the apelin-ACE2 signaling. CONCLUSION: Downregulation of apelin and ACE2 and upregulation of SGLT2, endothelin-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to SARS-CoV-2-mediated cardiorenal injury, indicating that the apelin-ACE2 signaling and SGLT2 inhibitors are potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Apelin , Humans , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2
13.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(4): 4174-4183, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sinonasal symptoms were usually reported to appear initially, yielding the symptoms important for the early detection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study was conducted retrospectively to investigate the detailed sinonasal manifestations and dynamic profile of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in COVID-19 patients longitudinally. METHODS: This retrospective study included 11 consecutive patients. The prevalence, timing and severity of sinonasal manifestations were analyzed. Oropharyngeal, nasal, sputum and stool specimens were collected to detect RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 over COVID-19 period. RESULTS: Among the 11 patients, 6 (54.5%) were female, and the median age was 51 (IQR, 36-62) years. Seven patients (63.6%) experienced sinonasal symptoms, with 6 (54.5%) exhibiting sinonasal symptoms on the onset day. Seven patients (63.6%) demonstrated nasal obstruction, 5 (45.5%) had rhinorrhea, and 4 (36.4%) exhibited olfactory dysfunction. All six patients with sinonasal symptoms on the onset day had non-severe infections. Most patients (85.7%) with sinonasal symptoms had non-severe infections. Sinonasal symptoms commonly appeared early. The positive RT-PCR rate for SARS-CoV-2 in various specimens was highest in the first week (73.3%), then gradually decreased over the disease course, but 3 patients (27.3%) had experienced a long-lasting fluctuated positive RT-PCR results since 29 days of illness in both groups, especially for two patients with airway comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Sinonasal symptoms were more prevalent in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 and usually appeared early. In addition, regular nucleic acid testing for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered for COVID-19 patients with certain airway comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 638430, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170136

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapid outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) posed a serious threat to China, followed by compulsive measures taken against the national emergency to control its further spread. This study was designed to describe residents' knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors (KAP) during the outbreak of COVID-19. Methods: An anonymous online questionnaire was randomly administrated to residents in mainland China between Mar 7 and Mar 16, 2020. Residents' responses to KAP were quantified by descriptive and stratified analyses. A Multiple Logistic Regression model was employed to identify risk factors associated with KAP scores. Results: A total of 10,195 participants were enrolled from 32 provinces of China. Participants of the ≥61 years group had higher KAP scores [adjusted Odds Ratio (ORadj) = 4.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.0-7.7, P < 0.0001], and the married participants and those in low-income families had higher scores of KAP (ORadj = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3; ORadj = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.6-2.2, respectively, both P < 0.0001). The participants living with more than two family members had higher scores in an increasing ORs when the family members increased (ORadj = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6, P = 0.013; ORadj = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6, P = 0.003; ORadj = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.6, P = 0.02; for groups of 2, 3-4 and ≥5, respectively). Conclusions: Out of the enrolled participants who completed the survey, 85.5% responded positively toward the mandatory public health interventions implemented nationwide by the Chinese authorities. These effective practices seem to be related to a proper attitude generated by the increased knowledge and better awareness of the risks related to the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent need for safe and responsible behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125255

ABSTRACT

Measuring the U.S.'s COVID-19 response performance is an extremely important challenge for health care policymakers. This study integrates Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with four different machine learning (ML) techniques to assess the efficiency and evaluate the U.S.'s COVID-19 response performance. First, DEA is applied to measure the efficiency of fifty U.S. states considering four inputs: number of tested, public funding, number of health care employees, number of hospital beds. Then, number of recovered from COVID-19 as a desirable output and number of confirmed COVID-19 cases as a undesirable output are considered. In the second stage, Classification and Regression Tree (CART), Boosted Tree (BT), Random Forest (RF), and Logistic Regression (LR) were applied to predict the COVID-19 response performance based on fifteen environmental factors, which were classified into social distancing, health policy, and socioeconomic measures. The results showed that 23 states were efficient with an average efficiency score of 0.97. Furthermore, BT and RF models produced the best prediction results and CART performed better than LR. Lastly, urban, physical inactivity, number of tested per population, population density, and total hospital beds per population were the most influential factors on efficiency.

16.
Anal Chem ; 93(11): 4782-4787, 2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114675

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS CoV-2 is ongoing and a serious threat to global public health. It is essential to detect the disease quickly and immediately to isolate the infected individuals. Nevertheless, the current widely used PCR and immunoassay-based methods suffer from false negative results and delays in diagnosis. Herein, a high-throughput serum peptidome profiling method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is developed for efficient detection of COVID-19. We analyzed the serum samples from 146 COVID-19 patients and 152 control cases (including 73 non-COVID-19 patients with similar clinical symptoms, 33 tuberculosis patients, and 46 healthy individuals). After MS data processing and feature selection, eight machine learning methods were used to build classification models. A logistic regression machine learning model with 25 feature peaks achieved the highest accuracy (99%), with sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 100%, for the detection of COVID-19. This result demonstrated a great potential of the method for screening, routine surveillance, and diagnosis of COVID-19 in large populations, which is an important part of the pandemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Peptides/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/methods , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Discriminant Analysis , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Least-Squares Analysis , Machine Learning , Principal Component Analysis , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis/metabolism , Tuberculosis/pathology
17.
Heart Lung ; 50(2): 213-219, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For patients with COVID-19, pneumothorax and hydrothorax are suggested to be negative prognostic indicators. However, the management of these two conditions has rarely been discussed. We aimed to describe the clinical outcomes of pleural drainage in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 17 pleural drainages were performed in 11 critically ill patients with pneumothorax or hydrothorax. Either chest tubes or central venous catheters (CVCs) were used. The clinical outcomes, including respiratory and circulation indicators at 24 h and 1 h before the procedure and 24 h and 48 h after the procedure, were retrospectively recorded. RESULTS: (1) Following pleural drainage, there was a 19.1% improvement in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio from 147.4 mmHg (-1 h) to 175.5 mmHg (24 h), while the mean positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) decreased from 10.7 cmH2O (-1 h) to 8.9 cmH2O (24 h) and 8.1 cmH2O (48 h). The A-a gradients decreased from 313.3 mmHg (-1 h) to 261.3 mmHg (24 h). (2) The dosage of norepinephrine increased from 0.15 µg/kg/min (-1 h) to 0.40 µg/kg/min (24 h). (3) No haemorrhagic or infectious complications were observed. (4) A total of 41.6% of CVCs were partially or fully obstructed, while no chest tubes were obstructed. CONCLUSION: For critically ill patients with COVID-19, pleural drainage leads to a significant improvement in oxygenation and gas exchange, but the deterioration of circulation is not reversed. It is safe to perform pleural drainage even though anticoagulation therapy and glucocorticoids are widely used. Chest tubes rather than CVCs are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrothorax , Pneumothorax , Critical Illness , Drainage , Humans , Hydrothorax/etiology , Hydrothorax/therapy , Pneumothorax/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
World J Virol ; 9(3): 38-46, 2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) happened in early December and it has affected China in more ways than one. The societal response to the pandemic restricted medical students to their homes. Although students cannot learn about COVID-19 through clinical practice, they can still pay attention to news of COVID-19 through various channels. Although, as suggested by previous studies, some medical students have already volunteered to serve during the COVID-19 pandemic, the overall willingness of Chinese medical students to volunteer for such has not been systematically examined. AIM: To study Chinese medical students' interest in the relevant knowledge on COVID-19 and what roles they want to play in the pandemic. METHODS: Medical students at Peking Union Medical College were surveyed via a web-based questionnaire to obtain data on the extent of interest in the relevant knowledge on COVID-19, attitude towards volunteerism in the pandemic, and career preference. Logistic regression modeling was used to investigate possible factors that could encourage volunteerism among this group in a pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 552 medical students responded. Most medical students showed a huge interest in COVID-19. The extent of students' interest in COVID-19 varied among different student-classes (P < 0.05). Senior students had higher scores than the other two classes. The number of people who were 'glad to volunteer' in COVID-19 represented 85.6% of the respondents. What these students expressed willingness to undertake involved direct, indirect, and administrative job activities. Logistic regression analysis identified two factors that negatively influenced volunteering in the pandemic: Student-class and hazards of the voluntary job. Factors that positively influenced volunteering were time to watch COVID-19 news, predictable impact on China, and moral responsibility. CONCLUSION: More innovative methods can be explored to increase Chinese medical students' interest in reading about the relevant knowledge on COVID-19 and doing voluntary jobs during the pandemic.

19.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-583

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease that first reported in China and has spread worldwide. We aimed to explore the clinical variables associa

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21874, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused serious damage to public health. COVID-19 has no vaccine or specific therapy; its mortality rate increases significantly once patients deteriorate. Furthermore, intensive monitoring of COVID-19 is limited by insufficient medical resources and increased risks of exposure to medical staff. We therefore aim to build an early warning and rapid response system (EWRRS) to address these problems. METHOD: The research is designed as a prospective cohort study, to verify a dynamic and interactive evaluation system; it includes patient self-reporting, active monitoring, early alarming and treatment recommendations. Adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 will be recruited from Sept 2020 to Aug 2021 at a tertiary contagious hospital. Patients with life expectancy <48 hours, pregnant or lactating, in immunosuppression states or end-stage diseases will be excluded. The intervention is implementation of EWRRS to detect early signs of clinical deterioration of COVID-19 patients, to provide timely and efficient treatment suggestions by the system. EWRRS can determine the classification and interactive evaluation of patient information; the determination is based on the application of 3 different scenario modules, separately driven by patients, nurses, and physicians. The primary outcome is change in disease severity category after treatment. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with different disease severity types; critical deterioration events; patients who had unplanned transfers to an intensive care unit (ICU) and required critical care interventions; intervals from warning to implementation of clinical interventions; hospital mortality; length of ICU and hospital stay; workload of medical staff and risks of exposure to COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Our hypothesis is that EWRRS provides an example of an early identification, warning, and response system for COVID-19. In addition, EWRRS can potentially be extended to use as a grading metric for general critically ill patients in an ICU setting.


Subject(s)
Clinical Deterioration , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Monitoring, Physiologic , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Research Design , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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