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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 1018391, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240653

ABSTRACT

Objective: The ongoing spread of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant and hypoxia exposure to high altitude are the susceptible factors of people's psychological abnormalities, especially the health care workers (HCWs) in the front line of the epidemic. There is no dynamic observation data on the prevalence of mental health disorders among HCWs at high altitude. The study is to assess the prevalence of mental health outcomes and its influencing factors among HCWs at high altitude exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Methods: This prospective cohort study collected sociodemographic data and mental health measurements from 647 HCWs in 3 hospitals in Xining, Qinghai province from 13 April to 4 May 2022. After the mental health intervention for the above-mentioned people in the Chengdong district, we collected mental health indicators on days 7 and 14, respectively. We used the generalized linear model and the generalized estimation equation and for further analysis. Results: The baseline cross-sectional survey of 647 HCWs in the Chengdong and Chengbei districts of Xining, Qinghai province shows that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatic disorders were 45.75, 46.52, and 52.55%, respectively. The multivariable model showed that chronic diseases and nucleic acid collection were associated with increased scores of GAD-7, PHQ-9, and PHQ-15. And the GAD-7 score of HCWs with elderly people at home increased by 0.92 points. Subsequent repeated measurements of the mental health of HCWs in Chengdong district in Xining, Qinghai province, showed that anxiety, depression, and somatic disorders were significantly relieved, and physical exercise showed a significant protective effect, while loans and nucleic acid collection showed an adverse effect after 2 weeks of intervention. Additionally, engaged in nucleic acid collection was the risk factor of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: In this survey of HCWs on frontline at high altitude during the rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, participants reported experiencing mental health disorders, especially in those with chronic disease, loans, and those who worked with longer hours and engaged in nucleic acid collection in Xining, Qinghai province, China. Exercise may help to improve anxiety and physical disorders.

2.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 12(1)2023 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215511

ABSTRACT

The term "cytokine storm" describes an acute pathophysiologic state of the immune system characterized by a burst of cytokine release, systemic inflammatory response, and multiple organ failure, which are crucial determinants of many disease outcomes. In light of the complexity of cytokine storms, specific strategies are needed to prevent and alleviate their occurrence and deterioration. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a CNC-basic region-leucine zipper protein that serves as a master transcription factor in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis by orchestrating the expression of many antioxidant and phase II detoxification enzymes. Given that inflammatory response is intertwined with oxidative stress, it is reasonable to assume that NRF2 activation limits inflammation and thus cytokine storms. As NRF2 can mitigate inflammation at many levels, it has emerged as a potential target to prevent and treat cytokine storms. In this review, we summarized the cytokine storms caused by different etiologies and the rationale of interventions, focusing mainly on NRF2 as a potential therapeutic target.

3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 933075, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215404

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineage B.1.617.2 (also named the Delta variant) was declared as a variant of concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study aimed to describe the outbreak that occurred in Nanjing city triggered by the Delta variant through the epidemiological parameters and to understand the evolving epidemiology of the Delta variant. Methods: We collected the data of all COVID-19 cases during the outbreak from 20 July 2021 to 24 August 2021 and estimated the distribution of serial interval, basic and time-dependent reproduction numbers (R0 and Rt), and household secondary attack rate (SAR). We also analyzed the cycle threshold (Ct) values of infections. Results: A total of 235 cases have been confirmed. The mean value of serial interval was estimated to be 4.79 days with the Weibull distribution. The R0 was 3.73 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.66-5.15] as estimated by the exponential growth (EG) method. The Rt decreased from 4.36 on 20 July 2021 to below 1 on 1 August 2021 as estimated by the Bayesian approach. We estimated the household SAR as 27.35% (95% CI, 22.04-33.39%), and the median Ct value of open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) genes and nucleocapsid protein (N) genes as 25.25 [interquartile range (IQR), 20.53-29.50] and 23.85 (IQR, 18.70-28.70), respectively. Conclusions: The Delta variant is more aggressive and transmissible than the original virus types, so continuous non-pharmaceutical interventions are still needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology
4.
Front Psychol ; 13: 970961, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199177

ABSTRACT

Remote work has become increasingly popular and important after the spread of COVID-19, but its impact on the financial market is in dispute. Using a unique dataset of analyst visits in China and multiple regression, we examine the impact of remote work on the financial market by comparing the market reaction to analysts' online and offline visits. Results show that online visits have a significantly greater impact on stock prices than offline visits, as discussion depth, information sharing, and information dissemination are enhanced. Additionally, online visits can predict the changes in funds' holdings and firms' future performance. Overall, our findings suggest that remote work improves the information environment of the financial market during COVID-19.

5.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147764

ABSTRACT

Objectives Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineage B.1.617.2 (also named the Delta variant) was declared as a variant of concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study aimed to describe the outbreak that occurred in Nanjing city triggered by the Delta variant through the epidemiological parameters and to understand the evolving epidemiology of the Delta variant. Methods We collected the data of all COVID-19 cases during the outbreak from 20 July 2021 to 24 August 2021 and estimated the distribution of serial interval, basic and time-dependent reproduction numbers (R0 and Rt), and household secondary attack rate (SAR). We also analyzed the cycle threshold (Ct) values of infections. Results A total of 235 cases have been confirmed. The mean value of serial interval was estimated to be 4.79 days with the Weibull distribution. The R0 was 3.73 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.66–5.15] as estimated by the exponential growth (EG) method. The Rt decreased from 4.36 on 20 July 2021 to below 1 on 1 August 2021 as estimated by the Bayesian approach. We estimated the household SAR as 27.35% (95% CI, 22.04–33.39%), and the median Ct value of open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) genes and nucleocapsid protein (N) genes as 25.25 [interquartile range (IQR), 20.53–29.50] and 23.85 (IQR, 18.70–28.70), respectively. Conclusions The Delta variant is more aggressive and transmissible than the original virus types, so continuous non-pharmaceutical interventions are still needed.

6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 738634, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142305

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic may result in detrimental consequences for stroke patient's wellbeing. Family functioning and optimism could help stroke patients cope with crises leading to possible improvements in life satisfaction. This study aims to explore the protective effects of family functioning and optimism on life satisfaction among stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. A total of 207 stroke inpatients who were receiving pharmacotherapy and rehabilitation in general public hospital of Liaoning province during the COVID-19 pandemic in China were consecutive selected and interviewed by online questionnaires via the WeChat platform effectively from April 8 to 30, 2020. The scales included: Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve (APGAR) Scale and Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). Hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) analysis was conducted to test the associated factors of life satisfaction. Stroke patient's life satisfaction was at a high level (Mean = 26.46, SD = 6.23) during the pandemic. Stroke patient's residence, duration of stroke, stroke type, and community shut down measures were the strong predictors of life satisfaction. Family functioning and optimism increased life satisfaction among stroke patients. This study contributes to the research on the association between family functioning and optimism on life satisfaction among stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interventions that improve family functioning and enhance optimism should be provided in order to elevate life satisfaction for stroke patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction , Personal Satisfaction , Protective Factors , Stroke/epidemiology
7.
Vet Res ; 53(1): 90, 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139401

ABSTRACT

Foamy macrophages containing prominent cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) are found in a variety of infectious diseases. However, their role in Streptococcus uberis-induced mastitis is unknown. Herein, we report that S. uberis infection enhances the fatty acid synthesis pathway in macrophages, resulting in a sharp increase in LD levels, accompanied by a significantly enhanced inflammatory response. This process is mediated by the involvement of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), a subtype of the fatty acid-binding protein family that plays critical roles in metabolism and inflammation. In addition, FABP4 siRNA inhibitor cell models showed that the deposition of LDs decreased, and the mRNA expression of Tnf, Il1b and Il6 was significantly downregulated after gene silencing. As a result, the bacterial load in macrophages increased. Taken together, these data demonstrate that macrophage LD formation is a host-driven component of the immune response to S. uberis. FABP4 contributes to promoting inflammation via LDs, which should be considered a new target for drug development to treat infections.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Mastitis, Bovine , Streptococcal Infections , Female , Animals , Cattle , Lipid Droplets/metabolism , Macrophages/microbiology , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/genetics , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/veterinary , Streptococcal Infections/veterinary , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/metabolism
8.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 114, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087192

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccine booster dose can induce a robust humoral immune response, however, its cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated the durability of antibody responses and single-cell immune profiles following booster dose immunization, longitudinally over 6 months, in recipients of a homologous BBIBP-CorV/BBIBP-CorV or a heterologous BBIBP-CorV/ZF2001 regimen. The production of neutralizing antibodies was dramatically enhanced by both booster regimens, and the antibodies could last at least six months. The heterologous booster induced a faster and more robust plasmablast response, characterized by activation of plasma cells than the homologous booster. The response was attributed to recall of memory B cells and the de novo activation of B cells. Expanded B cell clones upon booster dose vaccination could persist for months, and their B cell receptors displayed accumulated mutations. The production of antibody was positively correlated with antigen presentation by conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), which provides support for B cell maturation through activation and development of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. The proper activation of cDC/Tfh/B cells was likely fueled by active energy metabolism, and glutaminolysis might also play a general role in promoting humoral immunity. Our study unveils the cellular mechanisms of booster-induced memory/adaptive humoral immunity and suggests potential strategies to optimize vaccine efficacy and durability in future iterations.

9.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(10): 545, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887397

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has forced accelerated optimization of Emergency Department (ED) process, and simulation tools offer an alternative approach to strategic assessment and selection. Methods: Field research and case analysis methods were used to obtain the treatment process and medical records information from the ED of a general hospital. Minitab was used for analysis of the measurement system, and Arena was applied for simulation modelling. We established a framework for the triage protocol of ordinary and quarantined patients, analysed bottlenecks in the treatment time of the hospital's ED, and proposed an optimised management strategy. Results: The computed tomography (CT) pre-scheduling strategy simulation results demonstrated that longer CT room preparation times for quarantined people before their arrival (Tp) resulted in reduced CT scan and waiting times for quarantined patients, but these times were longer for ordinary patients. The nucleic acid priority strategy simulation results demonstrated that when the average daily number of ordinary patients (λc) was relatively stable, the hospital could guide ordinary patients to perform nucleic acid testing first followed by CT testing. However, when λc fluctuated greatly, the hospital could appropriately reduce the proportion of preferential nucleic acid testing. Furthermore, when λc was overloaded, the nucleic acid priority strategy showed no advantages. The joint analysis results demonstrated that the optimal strategy selection was significantly affected by the severity of the epidemic. The nucleic acid detection sample size optimisation strategy demonstrated that optimizing the sample size of each batch according to the number of patients could effectively reduce the waiting times for nucleic acid testing (Tn). Conclusions: Simulation tools are an alternative method for strategic evaluation and selection that do not require external factors.

10.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837825

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic may result in detrimental consequences for stroke patient's wellbeing. Family functioning and optimism could help stroke patients cope with crises leading to possible improvements in life satisfaction. This study aims to explore the protective effects of family functioning and optimism on life satisfaction among stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. A total of 207 stroke inpatients who were receiving pharmacotherapy and rehabilitation in general public hospital of Liaoning province during the COVID-19 pandemic in China were consecutive selected and interviewed by online questionnaires via the WeChat platform effectively from April 8 to 30, 2020. The scales included: Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve (APGAR) Scale and Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). Hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) analysis was conducted to test the associated factors of life satisfaction. Stroke patient's life satisfaction was at a high level (Mean = 26.46, SD = 6.23) during the pandemic. Stroke patient's residence, duration of stroke, stroke type, and community shut down measures were the strong predictors of life satisfaction. Family functioning and optimism increased life satisfaction among stroke patients. This study contributes to the research on the association between family functioning and optimism on life satisfaction among stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interventions that improve family functioning and enhance optimism should be provided in order to elevate life satisfaction for stroke patients.

11.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(12): 1314-1328, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559292

ABSTRACT

The lung is the primary organ targeted by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), making respiratory failure a leading coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality. However, our cellular and molecular understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 infection drives lung pathology is limited. Here we constructed multi-omics and single-nucleus transcriptomic atlases of the lungs of patients with COVID-19, which integrate histological, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. Our work reveals the molecular basis of pathological hallmarks associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in different lung and infiltrating immune cell populations. We report molecular fingerprints of hyperinflammation, alveolar epithelial cell exhaustion, vascular changes and fibrosis, and identify parenchymal lung senescence as a molecular state of COVID-19 pathology. Moreover, our data suggest that FOXO3A suppression is a potential mechanism underlying the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition associated with COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis. Our work depicts a comprehensive cellular and molecular atlas of the lungs of patients with COVID-19 and provides insights into SARS-CoV-2-related pulmonary injury, facilitating the identification of biomarkers and development of symptomatic treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , Fibrosis/metabolism , Fibrosis/pathology , Fibrosis/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
Open Learning ; : 1-17, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1360235

ABSTRACT

This study examines the adaptation of an ESOL course for older Chinese migrant learners to Emergency Response Teaching mode as a result of the government-imposed restrictions to contain the spread of Covid-19. Through interviews and the analysis of learner diaries, we consider the experience of the school manager and teachers, and the strategies used by the learners, in relation to online delivery, with a particular focus on the measures taken to cater for a group of third-age learners with minimal previous language learning experience. Our analysis highlights the importance of collaborative decision making, team teaching, and a didactic approach that is sensitive to learners’ cultural backgrounds and that provides adequate L1 (i.e. first language) support. From a curriculum perspective, we discuss the importance of including content that is responsive to the evolving emergency context, and which strengthens learners’ ability (and inclination) to use the language-rich context of the public sphere for learning purposes. We also discuss the relative challenge of shifting grammar and vocabulary focused lessons to online delivery. Learners appeared to employ more frequently memory, cognitive and metacognitive strategies and we discuss this in relation to their current emergency learning context and previous educational background. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Open Learning is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 269: 118345, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271581

ABSTRACT

This work reports novel chitosan functionalized graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites combined fluorescence imaging and therapeutic functions in one agent, which can serve as a promising alternative to alleviate related diseases caused hyperinflammation. Briefly, GO was designed to be conjugated with chitosan, fluorescein-labeled peptide, toll-like receptor 4 antibody and hydroxycamptothecin/aloe emodin. We have demonstrated that such nanocomposites could effectively achieve active targeted delivery of pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory drugs into inflammatory cells and cause cells apoptosis by acid-responsive drug release. Moreover, confocal fluorescence imaging confirms that the drug-induced inflammatory cells apoptosis could be visualized the light-up fluorescence of fluorescein activated by caspase-3. Meanwhile, inflammatory-related biomarkers have down-regulated after the nanocomposites' treatment in both vitro and vivo experiments consistent with the results in histological sections. In summary, the bifunctional nanocomposites that possess anti-inflammation and fluorescence imaging could serve as a promising therapeutic agent for reducing hyperinflammation caused by numerous diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/physiology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antibodies/immunology , Camptothecin/analogs & derivatives , Camptothecin/chemistry , Camptothecin/therapeutic use , Cattle , Cell Line , Chitosan/chemistry , Drug Liberation , Emodin/chemistry , Emodin/therapeutic use , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Mammary Glands, Human/drug effects , Mammary Glands, Human/pathology , Mastitis/chemically induced , Mastitis/drug therapy , Mastitis/pathology , Mice , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology
14.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 580827, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076490

ABSTRACT

Background: As a public health emergency of international concern, the COVID-19 outbreak has had a tremendous impact on patients' psychological health. However, studies on psychological interventions in patients with COVID-19 are relatively rare. Objectives: This study examined the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in relieving patients' psychological distress during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: Ninety-three eligible participants selected by cluster sampling were randomized to an intervention group (N = 47) and a control group (N = 46). Participants in the control group received routine treatment according to the Chinese Management Guidelines for COVID-19, while participants in the intervention group received routine treatment with additional CBT. The Chinese Version of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) was used to evaluate depression, anxiety, and stress for all participants at baseline and post-intervention. Two-sided t-test, and proportion tests were used to examine the differences between the intervention and control group for each DASS-21 indicator. Univariate linear regression was used to examine the association between chronic disease status and change in each DASS-21 indicator after intervention. Two-way scatter plots were generated to show the association of the length of hospital stay and the changes of each DASS-21 indicator by intervention and control groups. Results: Significant decreases in means were found for scales of depression, anxiety, stress and total DASS-21 in both intervention (p < 0.001) and control group (p = 0.001), with participants in the intervention group having a bigger reduction in means. After the intervention, more participants in the intervention group had no depression or anxiety symptoms than in the control group, but no statistical differences were found (p > 0.05). Compared with participants with chronic disease, participants with no chronic disease had a significantly larger reduction of total DASS-21 scale (coefficient = -4.74, 95% CI: -9.31; -0.17).The length of hospital stay was significantly associated with a greater increase in anxiety scale in the intervention group (p = 0.005), whilst no significant association was found in the control group (p = 0.29). Conclusions: The patients with COVID-19 experienced high levels of anxiety, depression and stress. Our study result highlights the effectiveness of CBT in improving the psychological health among patients with COVID-19, also suggests that CBT should be focused on patients with chronic disease and those who have longer hospital stays. These results have important implications in clinical practice in improving psychological health in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Trial Registration: ISRCTN68675756. Available at: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN68675756.

15.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(11): 624, 2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888208

ABSTRACT

A label-free electrochemical strategy is proposed combining equivalent substitution effect with AuNPs-assisted signal amplification. According to the differences of S1 protein in various infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains, a target DNA sequence that can specifically recognize H120 RNA forming a DNA-RNA hybridized double-strand structure has been designed. Then, the residual single-stranded target DNA is hydrolyzed by S1 nuclease. Therefore, the content of target DNA becomes equal to the content of virus RNA. After equivalent coronavirus, the target DNA is separated from DNA-RNA hybridized double strand by heating, which can partly hybridize with probe 2 modified on the electrode surface and probe 1 on AuNPs' surface. Thus, AuNPs are pulled to the surface of the electrode and the abundant DNA on AuNPs' surface could adsorb a large amount of hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride (RuHex) molecules, which produce a remarkably amplified electrochemical response. The voltammetric signal of RuHex with a peak near - 0.28 V vs. Ag/AgCl is used as the signal output. The proposed method shows a detection range of 1.56e-9 to 1.56e-6 µM with the detection limit of 2.96e-10 µM for IBV H120 strain selective quantification detection, exhibiting good accuracy, stability, and simplicity, which shows a great potential for IBV detection in vaccine research and avian infectious bronchitis diagnosis. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Infectious bronchitis virus/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Animals , Biosensing Techniques/standards , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Chickens , Coronavirus/genetics , DNA Probes , Gold , In Situ Hybridization , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Species Specificity
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